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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




JOHN M. ECHOLS 
Collection on Southeast Asia 



fORNELL UN IVERSITY LIBRARY 





3 1924 077 742 959 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924077742959 



In compliance with current 

copyright law, Cornell University 

Library produced this 

replacement volume on paper 

that meets the ANSI Standard 

Z39.48-1992 to replace the 

irreparably deteriorated original. 

1996 



CENSUS OF INDIA, 1901 
VOLUME X//.) 



BURMA. 



Part I. 

REPORT. 



BY 

C. C. LOWIS, 

OF THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE, 

SUPERINTENDENT, CENSUS OPERATIONS. 




X ' RANGOON: 

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, BURMA, 

., 1902. 

foice, 8#. 2-6-0 = Si. 



PREFACE. 



I find it impossible to place adequately on record my acknow- 
ledgments to those who have laboured with me in the preparation of 
this Report. To review the proofs as a connected whole is to realize, to 
an overwhelming degree, how much I am beholden to others and to take 
the measure of my indebtedness is to be seized with an uneasy sense 
of the hopelessness of attempting to compound, even to the scan- 
tiest extent, with all of my many creditors. I must leave it to the 
pages of the Report itself to bear 'grateful testimony to my obli- 
gations. A glance at the language chapter will tell how shadowy a 
production it would have been without the benefit of Dr. Grierson's 
erudition. Every paragraph of the caste, tribe and race chapter will 
show with how lavish a hand I have drawn upon Sir George Scott 
for my material. I would, however, take this opportunity of specially 
thanking Dr. Cushing and Mr. Taw Sein Kho, who have responded 
more than generously to my appeals for assistance and advice. The 
greater part of the Report has been shown to Mr. Eales, and it is to his 
ripe experience that I am indebted for hints which have led me to alter 
portions. To Mr. Regan, Superintendent of Government Printing, 
my thanks are due for having, in the face of sudden and quite excep- 
tional difficulties, succeeded in passing this volume through the Press 
without undue delay. 

In my own office the services of Mr. J. F. Stevens and of Babu 
K. M. Basu call for special mention. Mr. Stevens has been my right- 
hand man almost from the very commencement of the operations, and 
his industry and intelligence have throughout merited the very highest 
praise. Babu Basu has worked well and steadily as head compiler, 
and I am glad to see that his services have already received in another 
department the_ recognition they deserve. 

In view of the emphasis that has been laid of late on the impor- 
tance of curtailing official reports, I have endeavoured to make this 
volume as brief as circumstances permitted. My one regret is that 
time did not allow of an even more rigorous compression. 

Rangoon : ") 
The 2gth July igo2.$ C. C. LOWIS. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The initial stages 

Preliminary discussion with the Local Government 

The General Village Register 

Areas not dealt with synchronously ... ... ... 

A three-fold classification ... ... ... ... 

Treatment of the Shan States and the Chin Hills ... 

Non-synchronous arrangements for the districts of Burma 

Preparatory measures ... 

Code of Census Procedure ... 

Definitions 

Circle Lists, &c. ... ... ... ... ... 

Training of Census Officers, Experimental Enumeration, &c. ... 

Forms and Stationery ... ... ... ... 

The Preliminary Enumeration 

Testing the Preliminary Record, Census Holidays ... 

The final Enumeration 

Preparation of the Provisional Totals 

The work of abstraction 

Cost of the operations ... ... ..; 



Para. Page. 



I 


1 


2 


ib. 


3 


ib. 


4 


2 


5 


3 


6 


ib. 


7 


4 


8 


5 


9 


ib. 


10 


ib. 


II 


6 


12 


7 


13 


ib. 


14 


ib. 


15 


8 


16 


ib. 


«7 


ib. 


18 


9 


19 


10 



CHAPTER I. 

The Distribution of the Population. 

Selection of Natural Divisions 

District densities ... ... ... ... 

Provincial Density 
Urban and rural population ... 

Imperial Table No. I, of little value for purposes of comparison of urban popula- 
tion 
Numerical distinction between towns and villages ... ... ... 

Average number of inhabitants per village and of residents per house 

Overcrowding in Rangoon ... 

Average number of residents per house in the scheduled area ... 

Registered buildings 

No return of boat population 

Subsidiary Table No. IA. ... ... ... ... ... 



20 


II 


21 


12 


22 


13 


23 


ib. 


24 


14 


25 


ib. 


26 


ib. 


27 


15 


2S 


16 


29 


ib. 


30 


17 


... 


18 



CHAPTER II. 
The Movement op the Population. 



Factors regulating the movement of the population 
The natural factors ... ••• 

Unreliability of birth and death statistics 
The social factors ... 

Increases and decreases by Districts 
Variations in urban population, Lower Burma 
Variations in urban population, Upper Burma_ 
Extent of foreign immigration in the various districts 
Movement from rural to urban areas ... 
Persons born in Burma but Censused in India 
Subsidiary Tables Nos. IIA., IIB. and IIC. 



31 


19 


32 


ib. 


33 & 34 


20 


35 & 3°" 


21 


37 


22 


38 


24 


39 


25 


40 


26 


41 


ib. 


42 


27 



28—30 



CHAPTER III. 
The Religions of the People. 



Buddhism 

Burmese Buddhism 

Burmese Buddhist Sects 

Power of the priesthood in Burma 

Latent Animism ... 

Animism 

Animism and Ancestor Worship 

Nat Worship in Burma 

Animism and head hunting ... 

Spirit worship of the Karens ... 

Muhammadanism ... 

Hinduism ••• ••• 

Christianity 



43 


?/ 


44 


ib. 


45 


3* 


46 


33 


47 


ib. 


48 


35 


49 


ib. 


5o 


36 


Si 


37 


52 


ib. 


S3 


38 


54 


39 


55 


40 



11. CONTENTS. 



Christian denominations ... ••• 

Anglicans ... 

Roman Catholics ... 
Baptists ... ., 

Other denominations ... ... ••• 

Sikhism 

Judaism ... ... ... ... 

Zoroastrianism ... 

Jainism 

Subsidiary Tables Nos. IIIA., IIIB., IIIC. and HID 



CHAPTER IV. 

Age, Sex and Civil Condition. 

Age returns to be first considered ... ... ••• 

The Ages returned, &c. 

Want of accuracy in age returns 

Unadjusted age return 

Adjustment of incorrect figures returned 

The mean age of the population ... ... 

Proportionate increase or decrease in age periods since 1891 

Proportion of the two sexes ... 

District proportions, Lower Burma 

District proportions, Upper Burma 

Relative strength of the Sexes among the Country-born 

Present relative strength of Sexes * ••■ 

Births and deaths by sexes in Lower Burma 

Civil condition 

Marriage in Burma 

Percentage of married, &c, to total population 

Civil Condition by Sex and Age periods 

Distribution by Civil condition 

Civil condition by age for indigenous races 

Subsidiary Tables Nos. IVA., IVB., IVC. and IVD. 



CHAPTER V. 

Education. 

Improved system of educational classification 

Contrast of figures with figures of previous Censuses 

Alteration of Age periods 

Treatment of those only able to sign their names 

Actual increase in literacy obscured by increase of Census area 

Education by Age periods ... ... ... 

District proportions of literacy 

Female Education 

Education by Religion 

Literacy by Race ... 

Literacy by languages known 

No comparison of Census with departmental figures 

Subsidiary Tables Nos. VA., VB., VC. and VD. ... 



CHAPTER VI. 
The Languages of the Province. 



Tones in the languages of the Province ... 

" Pitch " and " Stress " tones 

Origin of tones 

The morphological order 

Grouping of provincial languages 

The Burmese language 

Arakanese 

Tavoyan 

Yaw ... 

Chaungtha 

Yabein 

Intha ... 

Taungyo 

Kadu ... 

Mro ... 

Szi, Lashi and Maru 

Hpon ... 

Maingtha 

The Lisaw sub-group 

The Chingpaw language group 



Para. 


Pagt 


56 


40 


57 


41 


58 


ib. 


59 


ib. 


60 


ib. 


61 


42 


62 


ib. 


63 


ib. 


64 


ib. 


... 


43—45 



65 


47 


66 


ib. 


67 


ib. 


68 


ib. 


69 


48 


70 


ib. 


7i 


49 


72 


ib. 


73 


5° 


74 


5i 


75 


52 


76 


ib. 


77 


53 


78 


ib. 


79 


54 


80 


ib. 


81 


ib. 


82 


55 


83 


ib. 




57—59 



84 


61 


85 


ib. 


86 


ib. 


87 


62 


88 


63 


89 


64 


go 


ib. 


9i 


65 


92 


ib. 


93 


66 


94 


ib. 


95 


67 


... 


68—70 



96 


7i 


97 


ib. 


99 


72 


100 


73 


IOI 


74 


102 


ib. 


103 & 104 


75 


J 05 


70 


106 


ib. 


107 


ib. 


108 


ib. 


109 


77 


110 


ib. 


in 


ib. 


112 


ib. 


i«3 


ib. 


114 


73 


115 


ib. 


116 


79 


117 


ib. 



CONTENTS. HI- 



The Chin language group ... 

Kuki Chin sub-groups ... ... ... 

Northern Chin languages ... ... ... 

Central Chin languages .„ . ,„ .„ 

Old Kuki languages ... ... 

Southern Chin languages ... 

Southern Chin fornu in Lower Burma ... 

The Siamese Chinese sub-family 

The Tai language group. Southern Tai sub-group 

Northern Tai sub-group ... ... ... 

Northern Burmese Shan 
Southern Burmese Shan 
Chinese Shan ... ... ... .. 

Connection of Shan with Chinese 

The Karen languages. Southern Karen sub-group 

Northern Karen sub-group ... ... 

The Mon Annam sub-family ... 

Groups of the Mon Annam sub-family ... 
North Cambodian group ... ... .. 

Upper Middle Mekong group ... ... 

Danu or Danaw ... ... ... 

Synopsis of Indo-Chinese languages 
Selon ... ... ... ... 

Other vernaculars of India ... 
Other vernaculars * 

Vernacular'publications ... 
Subsidiary Tables Nos. VIA. and VIB. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Infirmities. 



Definition of Infirmities 
High Upper Burma figures in 1891 ... 
General decrease in infirmities in 1901 ... 
Insanity ... ... ... 

Insanity by Age periods ... 

Deaf mutism 

Deaf mutism by Age periods 

Blindness 

Blindness by Age periods 

Leprosy ... ... ... 

Leprosy by Age periods 

Subsidiary Tables Nos. VIIA., VIIB. and VUG 



CHAPTER VIII. 

.Caste, Tribe and Race. 

Caste in Burma ... ... ... ... ... 

Difficulty of recording caste in the Province _ 

Misleading answers and errors in transliteration ... 

No real Castes in Burma 

Indian Castes 

Paraiyan ... ••• ■•• - ... 

Mala ... ... ... •■• 

Kapu or Reddi ... ... ... ... ... 

Palli ... 

Other castes 

Musalman Tribes ... ... ••• ... 

Methods of studying the people 

Application of the scientific methods 

The Burmans ... ... ••• ... ... 

Dr. Macnamara's theory 

Burmese characteristics 

The Arakanese, Tavoyans, &c. 

TheTalaings 

The Chingpaw or Kachins ... . 

Connected tribes. The Maingthas 

TheShans 

The Karens 

Bghai and cognate tribes 

The Chins 

The Northern Chins 

The Central and Southern Chins 

The Taungthus, Taungyos and Danaws 

The Palaungs ... ••• 

The Was 

TheKadus 

The Taws ... ••• ••• ••• ••• 



Para. 


Page. 


118 


80 


119 


81 


120 


■ ib. 


121 


ib. 


122 


82 


123 


ib. 


124 


ib. 


125 


83 


126 


84 


127 


ib. 


128 


ib. 


129 


85 


130 


ib. 


131 


ib. 


132 


86 


133 


ib. 


134 


87 


135 


88 


136 


89 


137 


ib. 


138 


9o. 


139 


91 


140 


ib. 


141 


ib. 


142 


92 


143 


ib. 


... 


94&9S 



144 


97 


145 


ib. 


146 


98 


'-47 


99 


148 


100 


149 


ib. 


l 5° 


1 01 


>5i 


102 


152 


103 


153 


ib. 


iS4 


ib. 


... 105 


& 106 



155 


107 


156 


ib. 


'57 


108 


158 


109 


«59 


ib. 


160 


ib: 


161 


no 


162 


ib. 


163 


ib. 


164 


ib. 


1 65 


ib. 


166 


112 


167 


ib. 


168 


"3 


169 


ib. 


170 


114 


171 


»5 


172 


ib. 


173 


116 


174 


118 


175 & 176 


119 


177 


120 


178 


121 


179 


122 


-180 


ib. 


181 


124 


182 


125 


183 


126 


184 


ib. 


185 


127 


186 


128 



IV. 



CONTENTS. 



The Tamans 

The Lisaws 

The Lahus 

The Akhas 

The Hka Muks ... 

The Yin 

The Hpons 

The Panthays 

The Chinese 

The Sellings 

The Manipuris 

Europeans, &c. ... 

Exogamy and Endogamy 

Tctemism 



Para 

187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 

193 

194 

195 

961 

197 
198 
199 
200 



Page. 

128 
ib. 
129 

ib. 

ib. 

130 

ib. 

131 

ib. 

13 
ib. 

132 

ib. 

133 



CHAPTER IX. 

Occupations. 

Subsidiary occupations 

Subsidiary Occupations of those whose main occupation was agricultural. 

Difficulties experienced in compilations ... 

Classification of Occupations... 

Contents of Imperial Table XV 

Comparison with 1891 totals ... 

Class A. — Government ... 

Class B. — Pasture and Agriculture 

Landholders, Tenants, &c. ... 

Growers of special products ... 

Partially Agriculturists 

Class C. — Personal Services ... 

Class D. — Preparation and Supply of Material substances 

Order VIII.— Lighting, Firing and Forage 

Order IX.— Buildings 

Order X. — Vehicles and Vessels 

Order XI. — Supplementary Requirements 

Order XII. — Textile Fabrics and Dress... 

Order XIII. — Metals and Precious Stones 

Order XIV. — Glass, Earthen and Stoneware 

Order XV. — Wood, canes and leaves ... 

Order XVI. — Drugs, gums and dyes 

Order XVII.— Leather 

Class E. — Commerce, Transport and Storage 

Order XVIII.— Commerce ... 

Order XIX. — Transport and Storage ... ... ... ,, 

Class F. — Professions ... ... „. 

Learned professions 

Midwives ... ... ... ... ,„ 

Artistic professions ... ... ... .,, , 

Tattooers 

Class G. — Unskilled Labour not Agricultural ... ... - 

Class H. — Means of subsistence independent of occupation 
Subsidiary Tables Nos. IXA. and IXB. ... 



201 
202 
203 
204 
205 

2C6 

207 
208 
209 
210 

211 
212 
213 
214 

215 
2l6 
217 
2l8 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 



I48— 



135 

ib. 
136' 

137 
ib. 
ib. 

138 

ib. 

ib. 

139 

ib. 
140 

ib. 

ib. 
141 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
142 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

U3 

ib. 
ib. 

ib. 

144 
ib. 
ib. 

146 
ib. 

147 
ib. 

I5 1 



APPENDIX. 
Extracts from the Reports of Deputy Commissioners and Presidents of Municipalities. 



REPORT 

ON THE 

CENSUS OF BURMA. 



Taken on the ist March 1901. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The Census of 1901 was taken on the night of the ist March (in Burmese 
Th " Y 1st o- chronology, the 13th waxing of the month of Ta- 

baung in the year 1 262), but preliminary arrangements 
occupied the whole of the twelve months preceding that date. In fact the ground 
was broken towards the end of 1899, and by the ist March 1900 matters had 
begun to be put in train. It is this latter date, exactly a year before the night of 
the final enumeration, that I would select as a starting point for my review. 
During the preceding few months the Local Government had been in communi- 
cation, on the one hand, with the Government of India and, on the other, with the 
Superintendents of the Northern and Southern Shan States and the Chin Hills, 
regarding various points connected with the Census, with special reference to 
the inclusion within the scope of the operations of the political charges that had 
not been directly dealt with in 1891. Matters cannot, however, be said to have by 
the ist March progressed much beyond the deliberative stage. Though for a 
brief period I had heen on special duty in connection with the Census, my appoint- 
ment as Superintendent had not been formally notified and no definite orders on 
any of the points under discussion had as yet been issued from the Secretariat. 
The beginning of March coincided with the close of the Census Commissioner's 
first visit to the province. Mr. Risley had just returned from Upper Burma, where 
he had had the opportunity of conferring with Mr. Eales, the Superintendent of the 
last Provincial Census, and of ascertaining his matured views on all debatable 
matters. The Superintendent of the Government Press had been consulted in 
regard to the important question of the printing of forms ; the Secretary of the 
Municipality had at an interview described the special difficulties that experience 
showed would have to be encountered in Rangoon. By the end of February 
everything was ready for a pronouncement by the Local Government on the policy 
to be adopted. 

2. It was on the ist March 1900 that what may be looked upon as the first 

of the formal documents connected with the 1901 

1x5? GJve a m m d eS USSi ° n W ' th Census in Burma issue 4 from the Government Press. 

It was a note prepared by Mr. Risley on a number of 
points which he proposed to discuss with the provincial authorities before leaving 
for Madras, and it formed the basis of a discussion which took place on the follow- 
ing day at Government House, Rangoon. There were present on this occa- 
sion His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, the Census Commissioner, the Reve- 
nue Secretary to the Government of Burma, and myself. The various points 
raised in the note were gone into seriatim, doubtful questions were discussed and 
settled and a rough provisional division of the area of the province into synchron- 
ous, non-synchronous, and " estimated " tracts was decided upon. The shape in 
which the arrangements for the two latter classes eventually emerged is detailed in 
the following paragraphs. 

3. As regards synchronous areas, the outcome of the deliberations then under- 

taken took the form of a letter (No. 112-3C. — 1, 

The General village reg.ster. ^^ ^ ^ A rfl j^ {rom tfae Revenue Secretary 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



to Government to all Deputy Commissioners, which is printed among the ap- 
pendices to this report. This letter dealt with the initiation of preliminary opera- 
tions, gave general instructions as to the division of the area of the province 
into well-ascertained Census units, defined the expressions " Charge," " Circle," 
" Block," " Charge Superintendent," " Supervisor," " Enumerator," and the like, 
laid down what classes of the community were ordinarily to be selected as Census 
officers, communicated orders regarding non-synchronous areas, and finally pre- 
scribed, as a first step towards the end to be attained, the preparation of a District 
Census register, which came to be known later as the " General village " (or Town) 
register." The form of this register was new to Burma. It corresponded more or 
less with the " Subdivisional register " prescribed at the 1891 Census ; but, whereas 
the Subdivisional register showed at a comparatively late stage of the operations 
the steps that had actually been taken to divide the different districts up into 
Census divisions and to select from their inhabitants individuals^ for appointment 
as Census officers, the General village register (or, as for some time it was called, 
Appendix A) was intended to exhibit, at the very outset, and in a purely provisional 
form (to be subsequently revised and brought up to date), the Deputy Commis- 
sioner's proposals for these arrangements. The details of the information given 
were, however, practically identical in both cases. The main feature of both was an 
exhaustive list" of Census blocks and circles, either created or proposed, for each 
township and subdivision, with a rough estimate of the number of houses in each 
Census division and from both it was possible to obtain, so to speak, a bird's eye 
view of the Census arrangements completed or contemplated, as the case might 
be, for each district. The following extract from Chapter II of the Provincial 
Census Code, referred to in a later paragraph, shows generally the purposes the 
register was intended to serve : — 

" The basis of all Census operations in rural areas is the statement or register showing 
the villages actually in existence in each district. Without such a register, carefully cor- 
rected up to date, entire villages may be omitted from the Census operations; the same 
village or parts of it may be included in two circles or charges, and great confusion may 
arise on the borders of districts and minor administrative divisions. In order to make a 
good scheme of Census divisions for a district, it is essential to know (a) the number and 
names of the villages in the district, (b) the number and names of the hamlets, (c) the num- 
ber of houses in each village or hamlet, and (rf) the number of persons in each village or 
hamlet who are fit to be appointed as Supervisors or Enumerators, as the case may be. 
Given these particulars, it is easy, with the aid of a map, to group villages in Supervisors' 
circles and to determine provisionally the number of blocks in each village. The arrange- 
ment thus made may require to be modified later on when the houses are numbered and the 
house lists written up, but meanwhile it will show how many schedules will be required for 
each village and how many notices of appointment will have to be issued to Supervisors and 
Enumerators. It will also indicate in what areas there is likely to be difficulty in procuring 
a competent agency locally." 

The preparation of a record of this nature was naturally expected to be a 
task of some magnitude, and, as there was no prospect of any of the registers being 
ready much before the beginning of June, I was allowed by the Local Government 
to proceed on three months' leave immediately after the conference referred to in 
the preceding paragraph. 

4. Before passing on to the later stages of the work, namely, those entered 
. , , upon after the 1st June, it may be as well for me to 

^Areas not dealt w,th synchron- a(W ^ tQ thfi arrangements made f<jr deaUng w ; th 

those portions of the Province which lay outside 
the sphere of the regular synchronous operations. Their treatment, the out- 
lines of which were settled at the conference referred to above, was more a matter 
of general policy than of detail and can therefore be more suitably dealt with in 
this volume than in the Administrative Volume, which is primarily devoted to the re- 
cord of formal routine. The tracts where the backwardness of the indigenous tribes 
called for special treatment at the Census are probably more extensive in Burma 
than in any other province of the Empire. The popular idea that Burma is a 
succession of pestilential paddy swamps inhabited by amphibious husbandmen 
is almost a thing of the past, and even outside the province it is now generally 
known that, save in the delta, which for the last century has coloured all the popu- 
lar conceptions of the country, hill and valley in Burma alternate like ridge and 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



furrow on a newly-tilled field. All the highland through which the great rivers of 
the country, the lrrawaddy, the Chindwin, and the Salween, have forced their way 
south is the home of separate congeries of timorous, irrational hill-folk, dotted 
sparsely along the crests, or precariously cultivating the jungle-clad slopes, intoler- 
ant of interference, unlettered, undisciplined, bound together by no ties of tradition, 
or community of speech — Chin, Kachin, Karen, Palaung; their name is legion. 
One and all they needed careful handling in a matter which, do what one would, 
was almost always connected in their minds with dark fiscal designs. 

5. There were, however, degrees of backwardness among these hill dwellers, 
. lU ,,, , ... and an attempt was made to vary the methods of 

A threefold classification. r ,. . . J , , r 

enumeration, according as this or the other stage of 
civilization had been attained. In Burma, as elsewhere, a threefold classification of 
special tracts was adopted. First in order came the ordinary non-synchronous 
areas, where the inhabitants were wild, widely scattered and illiterate, but where the 
conditions were such that, by extending the operations 'over a longer period than 
usual, by dispensing with a final check, and by importing a specially trained 
agency for enumeration, it was believed that results could be obtained as full and 
very nearly as reliable as those secured in the synchronous areas. Next came the 
"estimated" tracts, those so backward that even the modified procedure just 
described seemed likely to fail of its object. In these it was decided to make no 
regular enumeration, but merely, in the first place, to count the number of inhabited 
houses, next to ascertain the average number of persons per inhabited house by 
carefully enumerating a certain number of typical villages, and then, by applying 
this average to the total obtained by the first process, to calculate the population 
of the entire area. Lastly, there were the still more savage regions, in which 
political or other considerations urged the expediency of a total abstention from 
interference even as slight as would be involved in a rough calculation of the kind 
described. Such were the localities inhabited by the wild Was, the head-hunters, 
w-hose awkward failings have been so graphically described by Sir George Scott in 
his Gazetteer of Upper Burma, and whose susceptibilities have still to be considered. 
They were known as the " omitted " tracts and were left altogether outside the 
scope of the operations. In which of these categories each portion of the non- 
synchronous area of the province was included can best be gathered from the maps 
showing synchronous and non-synchronous areas which are annexed to this chapter 
of the Report. 

6. In these maps the " special " areas that bulk largest are naturally those lying 

outside the limits of Burma proper, such as the Shan 

•ndtta Chin Hilb * Sha " ^^ StateS and the Cllln Hills * For SOme time P"° r to 

my taking up the duties of Superintendent, the Local 

Government had been in correspondence with the Superintendents of the North- 
ern and Southern Shan States and of the Chin Hills with regard to the procedure 
to be adopted in the enumeration of their charges, and by the date of the informal 
conference held on the 2nd March all three of these officers had had time to come 
to the conclusion that a synchronous Census would be out of the question, and to 
inform the Lieutenant-Governor accordingly. In the Shan States the authorities 
deemed a non-synchronous Census possible in portions of the whole area, the 
Superintendent of the Southern Shan States being desirous that it should be com- 
bined with the annual collection of revenue statistics required for the prepar- 
ation of the Sawbwa's budgets. In the Chin Hills the Superintendent advised on 
various grounds against operations of any kind. The discussion of the 2nd March 
afforded the Local Government an opportunity of considering these replies in 
consultation with the Census Commissioner and of passing orders on them. The; 
matter was not finally disposed of until several further communications had passed; 
but by August a Census scheme for all three charges had been sketched out. The 
objections of the Chin Hills Superintendent were overruled, a hon^synchronous 
Census of the tract was decided upon, and immediately it was definitely settled 
that operations were to be undertaken, the local authorities threw themselves heart 
and soul into the preliminary work. The proposed combination of the Census 
with the collection of revenue data in the Southern Shan States was considered 
and objected to on the ground that the latter operations had to be conducted during 



4 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

the rainy season at a period of the year far too early for the requirements of the 
Census- There are obvious advantages in being able to kill two birds with one 
stone, but this economy in missiles is profitless if (to pursue the. metaphor) one of 
the birds goes bad before it can be brought to table. On this and on other grounds 
(one of which was the expediency of dissociating the Census as far as possible 
in the minds of the people from revenue collection) the Local Government resolved 
to keep the two operations separate. Mr. Hildebrand, the Superintendent, 
abandoned his idea with reluctance, but when once it was clear that the orders 
on this point could not be reconsidered, he prepared and submitted a carefully- 
thought out scheme for carrying the work on the lines suggested by the Local Gov- 
ernment, showing, as Messrs. Drury and Fowler had shown at Falam, that he was 
determined, whatever his personal views were, to carry the policy adopted by the 
Local Government loyally through. In the end it was decided that the greater 
portion of the Northern and Southern Shan States and the whole of the Chin Hills, 
except the portion adjoining the Pakokku district which is administered by a separ- 
ate Assistant Superintendent, should be treated as non-synchronous tracts and 
be enumerated on the standard form of schedule during the cold weather of 
icjbo-oi. The areas to be "estimated" were Karenni in the Southern Shan 
States, the Pakokku Chin Hills, and what are known as the Kachin districts of the 
Northern Shan States. Only a portion of the above areas had come within the 
scope of the previous Census. The Chin Hills had on the last occasion been 
wholly untouched, and in the Shan States all that had been attempted was a rough 
count which, though fuller than that obtained by the 190 1 " estimating " system, 
was not by many degrees as ample as the non-synchronous Census on the standard 
schedule. This very substantial extension of the area in which it was deemed pos- 
sible to carry out a detailed enumeration is in itself significant proof of the pro- 
gress made during the past decade in re-assuring and elevating the more timid and 
ignorant of His Majesty's subjects in the Province. The only wholly " omitted " 
areas were the trans-Salween States of the Northern Shan States and West Mang 
Lon, which is a cis-Salween State, but more than ordinarily backward and rugged.* 
7. The matter of the non-synchronous enumeration of the less civilized por- 
tions of Burma proper was not finally settled till some 
Non-synchronous arrangements tim after the arran gements for the Shan States and 

for the districts of Burma proper. o , , 

the Chin Hills had been finally completed, the only 
district the whole of which was thus specially dealt with was Northern Arakan. 
In 1891 this charge was non-synchronously censused, and, on discussing the mat- 
ter with the Deputy Commissioner, Paletwa, in October 1900, I found that, though 
it might be possible to apply the final check throughout the district rapidly, the 
operation would not be sufficiently rapid to allow its being compressed into the few 
hours required by the Code. I accordingly recommended that it should again be 
treated as a non-synchronous area. Of the following districts, portions only came 
within the non-synchronous category : — 



Katha. 
Ruby Mines. 
Upper Chindwin. 



Akyab. Amherst. Mergui. 

Kyaukpyu. Thaton. Bhamo. 

Pegu. Tavoy. Myitkyina. 

In Akyab, Kyaukpyu, Pegu and Thaton the non-synchronous areas were 
insignificant in extent. In Tavoy and Amherst, too, the non-synchronous area was 
a small proportion only of the total area of the district. In Mergui it was propor- 
tionately rather larger. On the occasion of the 1891 Census the whole of what 
is now the Amherst district was dealt with synchronously and in Mergui the 
non-synchronous area was shown as smaller than at the recent Census. It appears, 
however, that, as a matter of fact, the enumeration in parts of the so-called syn- 
chronous areas of these two districts was synchronous in name only, and it was 
accordingly decided, rather than run the risk of having unreliable figures through 
trying to do too much, to take what would at first sight appear to be a retrograde 
step and classify as non-synchronous portions of the wilder tracts of Amherst and 
Mergui inhabited by Karens and Siamese which in 1 891 had figured as synchronous. 

* At page 308 of Volume I of the first part of the Upper Burma Gazetteer, West Mang Lon is described 
as being, in 1891, the only State west of the Salween which had not accepted British authority. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 5 

In Pegu a small forest reserve area that had in 1891 been included in the regular 
operations was dealt with non-synchronously, but these were the only exceptions 
to the rule that every portion of the province was to be enumerated either as much 
in detail as at the 1891 Census or on a fuller and more thorough system. In 
Akyab and Kyaukpyu the non-synchronous areas were some remote stretches of 
highland inhabited by semi-savage Chin communities. In the Tenasserim division 
the tribes dealt with non-synchronously were Karens, Taungthus, Siamese and 
Selungs. These had, with the exceptions mentioned above, all been treated at the 
last Census on a non-synchronous footing. The whole of the non-synchronous 
area in Lower Burma was much the same as it had been ten years before. In 
Upper Burma the changes were more marked. In 1891 the greater part of the 
present districts of Myitkyina and Bhamo were still far too unsettled to allow of 
anything save the most rough and ready numbering of the people. At the recent 
Census, on the other hand, the District Officers were able to enumerate portions of 
their charges synchronously and tc deal non-synchronously with a good deal of 
the balance, leaving only the remotest of the Kachin hill ranges- to be " estimated." 
The greater part of Katha and the Upper Chindwin, where a large section of the 
population was in 1891 excluded from the operations, was numbered synchronously 
and nearly the whole of the rest non-synchronously, and the State of Mong Mit, 
which a decade ago was an excluded tract, has now, apart from the final five-hour 
check, been almost as exhaustively enumerated as Rangoon city.' The only 
estimated area in Upper Burma proper was the wilder portion of the Kachin region 
in the Upper Chindwin, Bhamo and Myitkyina districts. No part of the regularly, 
administered province was wholly omitted from the operations. 

8. I returned from leave at the end of May and on the 1st June assumed 

charge of my duties in Rangoon. The whole of 

Preparatory measures. , i ° j • • ,i <• 11 - j • 

the succeeding nine months was tully occupied in 
settling the further preliminaries for the Census. During this period I visited each 
of the districts in Burma save one (Salween), and discussed with each District 
Officer the arrangements to be made for his charge, and, as each fresh stage of the 
operations approached, drew attention to it by circular or otherwise and issued the 
instructions required for the guidance of the Census officers who were to carry it 
through. These various stages and the procedure they involved are described in 
some detail in the Administrative Volume of the Census Report, of which a limited 
number of copies is being circulated to selected Government officers for reference. 
It has not been thought necessary to offer, in this volume of the report, so minute 
a presentment of routine and procedure as is required in the Administrative Volume, 
but all the main features of that Volume are sketched in the following paragraphs. 

9. One of the Superintendent's earliest tasks was the compilation of a manual 

for the guidance of officers concerned with the Census, 
ensus pr e<. 1 With a view to uniformity in general treatment, the 

main lines of the procedure to be followed before, at, and after the final enumer- 
ation of the 1st March were embodied by the Census Commissioner in a publica- 
tion known as the Imperial Code of Census Procedure. Each Provincial Super- 
intendent took the Imperial Code as his model, reproduced literally so much of it as 
applied, unaltered, to his Province, introduced into the rest such modifications as 
local conditions demanded, and published the result as his Provincial Code of Cen- 
sus Procedure. The Code was issued in instalments, each chapter being distri- 
buted with a covering circular to the officers concerned shortly before the stage w T ith 
which it dealt had been reached. Chapters I and II contained definitions and 
practically repeated the instructions regarding the preparation of the Village Regis- 
ter that had been contained in the Revenue Secretary's letter of the 6th April. For 
the first month or two after my return from leave my principal duty when on tour 
was to examine the District Village Registers and ascertain and criticize the 
arrangements they embodied. 

10. It. may be as well here to refer to a few of the principal definitions in the 

Code. The expressions " Charge Superintendent," 
Definitions. „ Superv ; sor » and « Enumerator," " Charge," " Cir- 

cle" and " Block " had almost precisely the meaning attached to them at the 189I 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



Census. The charge was ordinarily a township and was controlled by the Charge 
Superintendent, the highest grade of Census Officer formally appointed under the 
Act (X of 1900), who was as a rule either a Township Officer or an Inspector 
of Land Records. Each charge consisted of a number of circles, for each of which 
a Supervisor was responsible. Clerks, revenue surveyors, thugyis and the 
more intelligent of the rural officials were usually selected for the control of circles. 
The size of circles varied considerably, but their area was never greater than what 
an active Supervisor could cover easily, with stoppages for inspection, within a 
week or ten days. Each circle was composed of so many blocks (from 10 to 15 
ordinarily) in charge of an Enumerator, with whom the actual duty of recording 
the population in the schedules rested. The Enumerator was ordinarily a thugyi, 
a village headman, a ten-house gaung, or some other rural official. Where suitable 
officials were not available for the work non-officials were selected. With a few 
rare exceptions, there were never more than 50 houses in a block ; there was 
practically no minimum. Each block was enumerated in a separate enumeration 
book. For the purposes of the Census a house was defined as a building to 
which a separate number had been affixed for Census purposes. This left a wide 
discretion to local Census Officers. A village was in the Code a village as 
defined in the Village Act and Regulation. Certain difficulties which arose in 
connection with the use of this term are described in the Administrative Volume. 
At the next Census I would advise that the artificial village area be ignored and 
the hamlet taken as the initial unit. A Census town was either a municipality, a 
cantonment, a town as denned in the Towns Act or Regulation, or any other col- 
lection of houses with 5,000 or more permanent inhabitants that it was decided 
to look upon as possessing real urban characteristics. A total of fifty such urban 
areas were treated as towns for the purposes of the Census. There were two 
cities (i.e., towns of not less than 100,000 inhabitants) — Rangoon and Mandalay. 
A special register for towns was prescribed in Chapter III of the Code. By the 
end of the rains the Village and Town registers had been practically completed 
and abstracts had been sent me, with maps of the areas concerned. 

11. Towards the end of August orders were issued, in the shape of an 

addendum to Chapter II of the Census Code, direct- 
house-iistSc. house - numberin °' ing the preparation of circle lists and circle maps for 

the use of Supervisors at the Census. The circle list 
was a synopsis of the Census arrangements made for the circle, serving for the 
smaller area much the same purpose as the General Village Register served for 
the district. The map supplemented the knowledge conveyed to the Supervisor by 
the circle list. Lists and maps were prepared in the district office and distributed 
thence to Supervisors. Their preparation was a long and troublesome task, but 
they had for the most part been issued to Supervisors soon after the business of 
house-numbering had been taken in hand. . This latter stage of the operations was 
reached about October or November and occupied Supervisors and Enumerators for 
the better part of the rest of the year. It was dealt with in Chapter VII of the 
Code of Census Procedure. In the matter of house-numbering, Enumerators were 
guided by Supervisors and Supervisors by instructions contained in Chapter I of a 
small pamphlet issued in English and Burmese towards the close of September, 
known as the " Charge Superintendents' and Supervisors' Manual." This was the 
Supervisor's vade mecum. It was made as simple and at the same time as ex- 
haustive as possible. The first chapter dealt with the circle list, house-numbering, 
the house list, and the distribution of enumeration books as looked at from the Super- 
visor's point of view and carried matters up to the date for the commencement of 
the preliminary enumeration. The house list was prepared by the Enumerator after 
house-numbering was finished. It was virtually a rough index to his enumeration 
book and, when completed, gave a list of all the households for which he was res- 
ponsible. It was eventually copied by him into his enumeration book and called the 
block list. The preparation of the house list was dealt with in a second addendum 
to Chapter II of the Code of Census Procedure. Chapters IV and V of the Code 
contained a few points of importance relating to the translation and supply of forms. 
The schedules, with the covers of the enumeration books, were printed in Burmese 
and Shan. All other forms were, when this was necessary, translated into Burmese. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURJlA. f 

The enumeration in Cantonments, on Railways and in ports formed the subject of 
Chapters VIII, IX and X of the Code. The arrangements for these areas differed 
in no material particular from those made at the 1891 Census. 

12. Chapter VI of the Code referred to the selection and training of the 

Census Agency. By the end of 1900 all Census 
ExT r er;men g ta. enuS: r n ation. 0fficerS - Officers had been duly appointed under the Act (X 

of 1900) and had received their declarations of appoint- 
ment. ^ During the closing months of the year a large number of them were 
receiving a practical lesson in Census work by means of an experimental enumer- 
ation, which was held partly for the purposes of training, but mainly in order to 
supply a number of entries sufficient to enable my office to test thoroughly a 
system of abstraction by slips which it had been decided to introduce at the March 
enumeration. To this end 40 bound books of schedules capable of containing 
100 entries each were distributed to each district to, be filled up with actual 
entries by selected Enumerators under the eye of their Supervisors exactly as 
they would have been filled at the regular enumeration. By this means it was 
provided that a certain proportion, at any rate, of the lower grades of Census Officers 
in each district should have the elements of their business drilled into them. The 
books after being filled up were returned to this office, where they were made use 
of for purposes of abstraction, and later on the errors detected during abstraction, 
together with the names of the Enumerators responsible, were communicated to 
District Officers, who, in their turn, informed the Census officers concerned and took 
steps to see that the mistakes were not repeated at the real enumeration. 

13. The distribution of the schedules and other forms required for the Census 
- , t . itself began in September. The whole of the first 

Forms and stationery. , & , r , . . ,. , , 

supply was exhausted in providing for ihe non- 
synchronous enumeration of the Shan States and the Chin Hills. The paper for 
the second supply did not arrive from Calcutta till a good deal later than was antici- 
pated, and consequently it was not till November that the distribution of the 
schedules for the synchronous areas was begun. The business of issuing the forms 
continued on into January and, thanks to the energy of the Press, practically all 
the rural areas had been furnished with their schedules by the time the preliminary 
enumeration was due. There was a long delay in complying with my indent for 
stationery, which had been despatched in September ; but the Provincial supplies 
were eventually received in time to allow of my issuing the district supplies before 
the middle of January. Each Enumerator who required them received pen, ink and 
blotting paper, together with an enumeration book consisting of as many pages of the 
general schedule as he needed and a block list into which he copied the house list 
referred to above. The schedules and block list were stitched into a brown-paper 
cover, on the inside of which were printed, among other things, the Enumerator's 
instructions and a specimen schedule for his guidance. The duty of binding the 
schedules into books of the required size rested with the Supervisors. In some 
cases, however, this work was done in the district office. For Europeans and 
others desirous and capable of filling in their schedules themselves, forms known 
as the " Household" and the " Private " schedule were provided. 

14. The preliminary enumeration was started in January in rural tracts and 
. . . early in February in towns. The i^th January was 

The pre hminary enumeration. ., J , , ,. -i ., j ^ i_ - •. *i 

v the date on which it was supposed to begin outside 

urban areas. In a few cases it was taken in hand before that date, in a good 
many instances a little after it, but in the majority of districts the 15th was 
adhered to. The duties of Enumerators at the preliminary count consisted in going 
round their blocks daily and recording in the columns of the schedules in their 
enumeration books particulars regarding the inhabitants of each of the houses in 
their blocks, till all the houses had been thus dealt with. In doing this they 
were required to follow step by step the instructions printed inside the cover of 
the enumeration book. For their part the duties of Supervisors at this stage were 
indicated in the second chapter of the Supervisor's Manual, which was distributed 
early in November. Briefly these duties were to watch over and control the Enu- 
merators' work and to give Enumerators additional guidance in regard to certain 
.specified points not dealt with in detail in the instructions printed inside the cover. 



8 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

In town areas Supervisors were supplied with a few additional rules regarding the 
record of castes, urban occupations, and the like. All writing at the preliminary 
enumeration was done in black ink. Very frequently a first rough copy ot the 
entries was made out on plain paper or on parabaiks and copied on to the printed 
form after it had been checked by the Supervisor. No real difficulty was experi- 
enced in ascertaining from the people the particulars required for entry m the 
schedules. With a few exceptions, the attitude of the enumerated was one ot 
indulgent acquiescence. . 

i c In the interval between the completion of the preliminary enumeration 

and the night of the i st March the preliminary record, 
Testing the preliminary record, obtained in the manner described above, was checked 
Census holidays. ^ Superv - lsorSj Charge Superintendents, and such 

other responsible officers of Government as could be spared for this duty 
Roughly this period covered the last twenty days of February. The 12th and 
the 13th February were gazetted as Census holidays in rural areas in order to 
afford Government officers an opportunity of giving two whole days' undivided 
attention to this business of checking. Similarly, in Rangoon, on the 1 8th, 19th, 
20th, and 2 1 st February all Government offices were closed and the exertions of 
all available officers were concentrated on the work of testing. This portion of the 
work was done with exceptional thoroughness in Rangoon. In October 1900 a 
fortnightly report showing the progress made in Census work in each district was 
prescribed. From this I was able to obtain a general idea of the amount of testing 
work done by superior officers, not only in February, but also during January 1901 
and the closing months of 1900. 

1 6. On the night of the 1 st March the final stage of the operations was reach- 

ed. Between dusk and midnight the Enumerator went 

The final enumeration. ^ rQund of ^ b j ock and wkh pgn and fed j nk brought 

his enumeration book up to date, striking out those persons already shown in 
his book who were not present on the occasion of his nocturnal visit and adding 
those who were then present but had not been shown in the preliminary record. 
Here, again, practically all that he required to know was printed in the shape of a 
few plainly worded rules inside the cover of his enumeration book. During the 
hours that the enumeration was going on, Charge Superintendents and Supervisors 
were expected to exercise as much supervision as was possible over the work of the 
officers under them. It is satisfactory to learn that the people were as amen- 
able at this as at the earlier stages of the operations and put no hindrances what- 
ever in the wav of the Census officials. A good deal of extra work was thrown 
at the last moment on the authorities in those districts where there were pagoda 
festivals on the night of the Census. Here a certain amount of additional trouble 
was, in the nature of things, inevitable, but there is nothing to show that it was in 
any way added to by the deliberate action of the holiday-makers.- There was no 
final enumeration in the non-synchronous tracts. 

1 7. Inside the end cover of each enumeration book was printed a form design- 

ed to show in a few parallel columns the number of 
totals 3533 ' 3110 " ° f the provisional houses contained in the block— and book— and the 

total number of males and females returned as present 
at the final enumeration. This form, which was known as the Enumerator's ab- 
stract, it was the Enumerator's duty to fill up on the morning of the 2nd March. 
The entry of the totals was accomplished in the presence of the Supervisor, whose 
business it was to have arranged beforehand for all his Enumerators to meet him at 
some convenient place in his circle, for this express purpose, as soon after the final 
enumeration as was practicable. After all the abstracts for the circle had been 
thus prepared and duly checked, the Supervisor calculated from them the total 
number of houses, of males and of females in his circle, and entered the result in a 
circle summary, which he transmitted with due expedition to his Charge Superin- 
tendent. The Charge Superintendent in his turn condensed • all the circle sum- 
maries for his charge into a charge summary and despatched this as soon as 
possible to the district headquarters. Here the district summary was compiled 
from the various charge summaries and telegrams embodying its contents, that 
is to say, giving for the whole district (a) the total number of houses, (b) the total 



REPORT ON THECENSUS OF BURMA. 



number of males, (c) the total number of females, (d) the total number of persons 
,of both sexes, were despatched forthwith to the Census Commissioner, Calcutta, 
and to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Rangoon. Steps had been taken 
several months before the final enumeration to see that no time was wasted in 
carrying out the procedure described, and, where delay in the compiling of the 
circle summaries seemed inevitable, arrangements had been made for utilizing 
advance copies of the summaries, based on the unrevised figures of the prelimi- 
nary enumeration, and sent by Supervisors, immediately that enumeration was 
finished, to Charge Superintendents. These measures enabled the Deputy Com- 
missioners of all the districts in the province except Salween to despatch their 
telegrams giving provisional totals to the Census Commissioner and to this office 
by the nth March. The first district telegram was received from Magwe on 
the 4th March. The Rangoon figures were calculated soon after 8 p.m. on the 
2nd. The provisional totals for the province were as follows: — 



Males 
Females 



Total 



5,323,910 
5,144,280 

10,468,190 



18. 



The work of abstraction. 



As soon as the final enumeration was completed the enumeration books for 
each district were sent, with district, charge and circle 
summaries and circle lists, to the Abstraction office 
in Rangoon. The first instalment was received on the 4th March, and by the 
end of April the books for the whole of Burma, excluding the Shan States, had 
been deposited in the office record-room. ' The Shan States schedules, which 
in some cases had to be copied on to the printed forms from Shan paper forms 
after the final enumeration, were not sent till later. After being numbered and 
.registered in the record-room the enumeration books were made over to the 
office. for abstraction. The system adopted for obtaining the required data from 
the schedules was that known as the slip system of abstraction. It is described 
in some detail in the Administrative Volume. Here it will suffice to say that its 
most distinguishing feature was the process by which each individual person 
enumerated was represented for abstraction purposes by two slips or pieces of 
paper about the size of a carte de visite photograph. The colour of the slips de- 
noted the religion of the person concerned,* their shape (according as corners were 
or were not cut off) his or her sex and civil condition. On the slips were copied 
in an abbreviated form the entries made against the person in the enumeration 
book, some on one slip some on the other. Thus, after having been dealt with as 
above, the population of each block assumed the form of two bundles, of slips of 
different shapes and colours with different particulars regarding age, occupation, 
birth-place, &c, noted on them. These bundles were then sorted by the 
Abstraction staff, now in one way now in another, according as it was desired to 
ascertain this or the other set of facts for the Census tables, and the result of the. 
sorting was entered in its appropriate column in a printed form called a tabulation 
sheet. Altogether five processes were gone through by the Abstraction staff. 
In the first place, for the names of the occupations entered in the occupation 
columns of the schedules, numbers were substituted by a gang of clerks who 
formed what was known as the Occupation department. The schedules were then 
made over to the Posting department, where the slips were written up by a staff 
of posting clerks. The posters' work was next checked by the Checking depart- 
ment, and the schedules and slips were then passed into the Sorting and Tabulat- 
ing department, where the slips were sorted for the various tables and the results 
entered on the tabulation sheets. The last stage of the work consisted in.compil-" 
ihg the various tabulation sheets into the Imperial and Provincial Tables. This 
was. the duty of the Compilation department. There can be no question that the 
system was an improvement on the method of abstraction adopted at the 1891 
census, which has been described in paragraphs 343 to 349 of Mr. Eales' report. 
Mention has been made in the Administrative Volume of the strength or the 
various departments on various dates and the average amount of work they turned 



-*. InrBurma, the.colours selected were— 
Brown for Buddhists. 
Red for Hindus. 
Green for Muhammadans. 



Yellow for Animists. 
Blue for Christians. 
White for Others. 



IO REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

out. I would here only mention that when at their full strength the Posting and 
Tabulating departments numbered 274 and 187 clerks respectively, and that, 
while occupation writing was going on, a staff of thirty occupation writers was 
employed. The Checking department ordinarily numbered about the same as 
the Occupation department. The normal strength of the Compilation department 
was seventeen. All the departments were not, however, at their full strength at the 
same time. The maximum attendance never exceeded _ 570. Experience show- 
ed that an industrious poster had no difficulty in writing up the slips for 450 
•persons (i.e., 900 slips) in an ordinary working day of seven hours (10 A.M. to 5 
•p.M ) An outturn of over 720 slips meant extra pay, and a large number of ener- 
getic men earned additional remuneration by exceeding this minimum, but the 
average for good and bad workers combined was between five and six hundred 
slips a day only, and with Burman posters this average is not likely to be largely 
exceeded hereafter. It took some little time to teach the tabulators their work, 
but when once they had mastered the system, the men were able on an average to 
sort the slips for 1,500 persons a day, and I have taken this outturn as what my 
successor in 191 1 may reasonably expect on an average from a Burman start that 
has learnt the elements of its business. Posting and tabulating were delayed by 
our having to wait while a matter of .175,000 entries written in Hkun Shan were 
beino- translated by a special staff of Hkun Shan clerks who were sent to Rangoon 
from" Kengtung for this purpose in September. The Kengtung schedules were 
among the last to be taken in hand, and it was not till they were made over to 
the posters to be posted that it was found that the clerks who had dealt with the 
ordinary Shan entries were unable to read those in the Hkun script. In the end 
posting and tabulating were completed, within a day or two of each other, towards 
the close of October. A certain amount of compilation work was done before the 
office moved up to Maymyo in November. A special gang of 72 Native of India 
clerks from the offices of the Accountant- General and the Examiner, Public Works 
Accounts, achieved a substantial portion during the October-November holidays. 
The rest'was disposed of by a staff of clerks who accompanied me to Maymyo. 
The abstraction showed that the final totals for the Province were as follows : — 



Males 
Females 



5.342,033 
5.I48.59 1 

Total 10,490,624 



19. The following statement shows the cost of the operations, as compared 

with that of the census of 1891. It is approximate 

Cost of the operations. on i yi as the final accounts for the financial year 1891-92 

have not yet been made up. In the Administrative Volume the accounts will 
be presented in greater detail and in a more final form, but the figures now given 
will afford a general idea of the relative cost of the two enumerations. It must 
be borne in mind that in 1881 and 1891 only the extra cost involved in the census 
was treated as census expenditure for the purposes of the Report. Thus, the 
salaries of all Government officers employed on census were then charged to ordi- 
nary administrative heads and werenot debited to census, as at the last enume- 
ration. For this reason a certain percentage should properly be deducted from 
the 1 90 1 figures of cost if it is desired to institute a comparison with the cost of 
previous enumerations. 



Head. 


1891 Census. 


* 190X Census. 


1890-91. 


1891-92. j 1892-93. 


Total. 


1900-01. 


1901-02. 


1903-03. 


Total, 


Enumeration ... 

Abstraction 

'Superintendence 


Rs. A. P. 

19,040 7 7 
4,195 13 6 
5,908 11 s 


Rs. a. p. 
713 5 9 

83,110 5 4 

3,251 6 8 


Rs. A. p. 

16,771 10 7 
I,6l5 8 7 


Rs. A. p. 
19,762 13 4 

1,04,177 13 5 

■0,775 "o 8 


Rs. a. p. 
23,902 13 1 

4,668 8 8 

25,264 2 g 


Rs. A. P. 
3,6So 13 

66,344 8 4 
29,073 12 5 


Rs. A. p. 

4,232 14 6 
11,500 


Rs. A. p. 

>7,583 10 I 

75,345 IS 
65,837 IS » 


Total 


29,154 6 


87,175 1 9 


18,387 3 2 


l,34,7l« 5 5 


53,835 8 6 


99,099 I 9 


15,732 14 « ]l,68,667 8 9 



Calculated on this basis, the cost of enumeration per head of the population 
was 3-1 pies, as compared with 3*3 pies per head in 1891, and between 3*9 and 
4 pies per head in 188 1. In the Administrative Volume I shall endeavour to show 
that the actual cost per head was somewhat below 3*1 pies. 



LOWER BURMA 

SHOWING SYNCHRONOUS, &C, AREAS. 




REFERENCES. 
Area censused synchronously 
Area censused non-synchronously 



Scale of miles. 

so o go too -so 

II I i " i i i ' I I i 



No, 6". Supt., Census, 13-11-1901 — 330. 



UPPER BURMA 

SHOWING SYNCHRONOUS, &C, AREAS, 




Scale of miles. 



SO 

f-ri 1 l l l 1 1 i i— 



50 



100 

-I — 



!50 



REFERENCES. 

Area censused synchronously 
Area censused non-synchronously 
Area estimated 
Area omitted 



-□ 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. I I 



CHAPTER I. 



The Distribution of the Population. 

20. Having ascertained (exactly' the total of our population, the first of our 

. . duties is to form a general conception of how that 

^Wdr^Wbitdteibuti^r 8 '" population is spread over the natural no less than the 

political and social divisions of the area within which it 
■was on the 1st March 1901 enumerated, to determine where it is dense and where 
it is sparse, to learn how the town-dwellers compare with the residents of the rural 
tracts, and the like. For the present we will- leave the social distribution of the 
community out of consideration and look at its political and geographical distribu- 
tion. There is no difficulty in ascertaining the political distribution of the people 
with whom we are concerned. When, however, it comes to dividing the province 
up according to its natural or physical features for the purpose of comparing re- 
lative densities, the task is, if over-subdivision is to be avoided, not so easy. In a 
note dealing with this matter the Census Commissioner for India pointed out that 
the close relation existing between rainfall and population was such as to justify 
the selection of meteorological conditions as the primary basis of a classification 
of this kind. Stated in general terms, the theory that in a torrid clime and in a 
region peopled by a nation of agriculturists, population depends upon the fertility 
■of the land and fertility, in its turn, on rainfall is, no doubt, correct. A variety of 
conditions have, however,- to be identical if, of two equal areas, the wetter is to be 
the more populous ; both must be equally accessible, for instance, both must com- 
prise approximately the same extent of cultivable land. If one is a barren moun- 
tain ridge and the other a well-watered valley, the amount of rainfall will have no 
weight in determining the strength of the population. - In Burma the required 
conditions vary so largely that a rough and ready classification of areas according 
to rainfall is exceedingly difficult. The dry districts are, as a rule, open, level and 
accessible ; the wet are frequently the same; as often as not, however, they are 
hilly, remote and ill-adapted for cultivation. Mergui has a rainfall of over 150 
inches and a density of 9 inhabitants per square mile, Sagaing a rainfall of less 
than 50 inches and a density of 1 52 per square mile. No one would, in the case of 
a tropical or sub-tropical region, venture to lay down as an axiom that alight mon- 
soon meant a dense, and heavy rains a sparse, population, yet, as will be seen below, 
this is precisely the inference that would be drawn from a comparison in Upper 
Burma of the rainfall figures with the density of the population. The fact is that 
. , in Burma the one universal rule is for the uplands to 

*£ySS££ft££ be thinly peopled and the plains, whether wet or dry, 

thickly, and the only satisfactory division of the 
country for our purpose would be into high and low land. It would, however, be 
impossible to embody this distinction in any formal scheme of district classifica- 
tion and, as it is indubitable that, caeteris paribus, the more abundant the rains 
in a country like Burma the richer the paddy crops and the larger the host of 
husbandmen, there seems on the whole to be no better system of classification 
than one which gives the first place to meteorological considerations. Such a 
system has been employed in the following list of natural divisions which has been 
approved by the Census Commissioner and adopted in subsidiary Table No. I-A 
appended to this chapter. The divisions are four in number : (1) the Upper Burma 
wet division, with a rainfall of over 50 inches, comprising the Shan -States, the 
Chin Hills and the damper districts of Upper Burma ; (2) the Upper Burma dry 
division, with a rainfall of under 50 inches, embracing all the districts of the dry 
zone ; (3) the Lower Burma littoral (and deltaic) division, where the rainfall 
exceeds 90 inches, namely, generally those districts on and adjoining the sea-coast ; 
and (4) the Lower Burma sub-deltaic division, consisting of : five. inland districts 
with a rainfall of less than 90 inches. These divisions coincide to a certain extent 



-I- 2 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

with the classes enumerated in paragraph 13 of Mr. Eales' 1891 Report. In de- 
tail they are as follows : — 

I. — Upper Burma (wet) ... Upper Chindwin, Katha, Bhamo, Myitkyi- 

na, Ruby Mines, Northern Shan States, 
Southern Shan States, Chin Hills. 
II. — Upper Burma (dry) ... Yamethin, Meiktila, Kyaukse, Myingyan, 

Sagaing, Shwebo, Lower Chindwin, 
Pakokku, Magwe, Minbu, Mandalay. 
III. — Lower Burma (littoral and Akyab (with Northern Arakan), Kyaukpyu, 
deltaic). Sandoway, Bassein, Myaungmya, Th6ng- : 

wa, Hanthawaddy, Rangoon Town, Pegu, 
That6n (with Sal ween), Amherst, Tavoy, 
Mergui. 

IV. — Lower Burma (sub-deltaic) Thayetmyo, Tharrawaddy, H e n z a d a, 

Prome, Toungoo. 

In the maps appended to this chapter are shown the densities of the different 
districts of Upper and Lower Burma as well 'as those of nearly every township in 
the province. The district density is in each case indicated by green shading, 
the township by red figures. We are not here intimately concerned with the 
latter, but may with advantage pause to consider how the districts of the four 
"natural" divisions figure on the map. 

21. A glance at Division I, as shown on the map, would, as I have remarked 
n . . , . . above, at first sight incline one to the belief that in 

District densities. n 1 - i ■ r n . i , - r 

Burma a high raintall meant a scanty population, lor 
the whole of the wet area, without exception, has the light shading, which indicates 
a low density. With the exception of. Katha none of the districts can boast of as 
many as twenty-four inhabitants per square mile, and Katha is only just in excess 
of the above figure. We know, however, that rainfall has had nothing to do 
with the scantiness of the population of the tracts in question. They are all hilly 
and on the whole rugged, and it is their mountainous character alone that is re- 
sponsible for their dearth of residents. The averages for the Shan States give no 
conception, of course, of the fertile and populous stretches that extend here and 
there like oases amid the uninhabited uplands. The state of Pang Ni, for instance, 
has a density of 119, that of Nawng Wawn 1 1 7 inhabitants per square mile. It-has 
not however been found convenient to indicate the density for anything smaller than 
the two main political charges on the map, except in the same way that the township 
figures have been indicated in Burma proper, namely, in red ; for the purposes of a 
.general average the favoured States have had perforce to be lumped with the un- 
blessed. In Division II as in Division I, one is confronted with figures that appear 
at first sight anomalous. Here, if anywhere in Burma, are to be found the famine 
districts of the province ; here alone are the prospects of an ample harvest ever 
a matter of doubt ; yet here we find a density ranging from a minimum of 5 1 to a 
maximum of 152 inhabitants per square mile. The districts lie, along the valleys of 
the Chindwin and the Irrawaddy or are watered by the streams from the neighbouring 
highlands and, for all their meagre rainfall, succeed in supporting a by no means in- 
significant population. When we turn to Lower Burma we find far more variety 
within the divisions ; here again the rain-gauge is no guide. Kyaukpyu, Sandoway, 
Tavoy and Mergui in Division III are all extraordinarily wet, and at the same 
time, in consequence of their hills, very thinly populated and the. same may Be 
-said of Northern Arakan and Salween, which, though not, strictly speaking, coast 
districts, are included in Division III, as partaking rather of the nature of the dis- 
tricts to which they form, so to speak, a Hinterland than of that of any other por- 
tion of the province. Akyab, Thaton and Amherst enjoy a heavy rainfall, but, 
-having more cultivable plain land, show a higher density than the districts previously 
named. In the delta the rains, though heavy, are not so heavy as on the Arakan 
and Tenasserim coasts, but nearly the whole of the vast level is capable of being 
brought under the plough and it is here that the population is on the whole thick- 
est. In this category come Bassein, Thongwa, Myaungmya, Hanthawaddy and 
Pegu, with densities varying from 160 to 79 persons per square mile. ~ Pegu is 
Composite in nature: its northern/portion falls more properly into Division IV, \which 
is discussed below, and hardly any portion of it, as at present constituted, touches 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 1 3 

the sea, but for various reasons it appears convenient to treat it as a coast district.; 
Though the delta districts of Division III have, on the whole, most inhabitants of 
any in Burma, it is a district of Division IV that is actually the most thickly popu- 
lated in the province/ Each square mile in Henzada carries on an average 169 
people or nine more even than Hanthawaddy, which in point of density comes second 
in the province. Henzada is, properly speaking, a delta district, and its conditions 
are much the same as those of Bassein, Thongwa and Myaungmya, but no portion 
of its area is near the sea and it has therefore been classed with Tharrawaddy, 
Prome, Toungoo and Thayetmyo as a sub-deltaic district in Division IV. 

22. For Burma as a whole, exclusive of the Shan States and the Chin Hills, 

Provincial density. the ^ty .°f P°P ulation .Per square mile is 55, as 

compared with 45 in 1891, or, taking as a basis 
for computation the revised figures that have been obtained during the inter- 
val by re-survey, 46. Calculated on the figures for theprovince as a whole (i.e., 
including the Shan States and the Chin Hills), the figure is 44. This, of 
course, compared with the bulk of European countries and the rest of India, is 
extraordinarily low. The mean density for the whole of India in 1891 was 184 
persons per square mile, a figure which is rather above the Burma district maxi- 
mum. It may be of interest to note, however, that the Burma density is higher 
than that of both Sweden and Norway and is not far removed from that of Russia in 
Europe. According to the census held on December 3rd, 1900, the density for 
Norway was 17*9 only, and at the close, of 1899 tnat f° r Sweden was estimated at 
2 9'5 P er square mile. In European Russia the first general census of the popu- 
lation, which took place on the 9th February 1897, gave a density of 51 per square 
mile, which is actually lower than the figure for Burma proper, though above that 
for the whole province with Shan and Chin land. In the first year of the century 
that has just elapsed the density of the population in England and Wales was 153 
inhabitants per square mile. The preliminary figures for the census of the 1st April 
1901, the first year of the new century, show that that density has now risen to 
558 per square mile ; in other words England and Wales are at thVpresent moment 
almost exactly ten times as thickly peopled as Burma proper and have a population 
more than twelve times as dense as that of the whole of the regions with which 
the Provincial Census Department had dealings. 

This is not the place to discuss the difference between the mean district den- 
sities for the recent and previous censuses, though these earlier figures are given 
in Subsidiary Table I-A. It will be sufficient to state merely that there has been 
a steady increase throughout the province, and to remind those interested that, in 
consequence of the more accurate survey alluded to above, the densities for previ- 
ous years now given differ slightly from those embodied in the earlier reports. 

23. Another point of view from which the population may be regarded is that 

, . selected with the object of ascertaining its distribu- 

Urban and rural population. , - , L , ' j ■? ., 

tion over the town and country areas of the province 1 
respectively. This distribution is indicated in Imperial Tables Nos. I and III and 
in the Diagram showing " total and urban population by districts," which is ap- 
pended to this chapter. Let us first take Table No. I, which is to be read with 
the diagram. We here find that of the total population of the province 9,500,686 
persons, or 90*6 per cent, of the aggregate, were enumerated in rural areas and 
989,938 or 9"4 per cent, in urban. In the Rangoon Town district the whole of 
the population is urban. In the Mandalay district rather over half the inhabitants 
live in towns, but the diagram shows that in all the other districts of the province 
the urban element, indicated in black on the bar concerned, is relatively small. In 
the Amherst district the black section of the bar represents 20 'j. per cent, of its 
total length ; elsewhere, except in the case of Tavoy, the proportion to the total 
population living in towns is less than one-fifth of the total district population. 
A striking feature brought out by the diagram is the fact that Hanthawaddy, which 
is not only the most populous district in the- whole of Burma, but, after Rangoon 
Town, Mandalay and Henzada, the most densely peopled, is inhabited by a purely 
rural population. In 1891 the urban population of the province amounted to 
946,649, or to 12*4 per. cent, of the total population, that is to say, was 3 per 
pent, higher than in 190 1. The fall during the decade from !?"4 to 9*4 per cent. 



14 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

is due partly to the fact that the Shan States and the Chin Hill areas, comprising 
a vast population that is purely rural in character, were ten years ago excluded;fbr 
the most part from the dealings of the Census Department. Apart from, this, 
however, the urban figures for Burma proper show a real decline. The 1891 ratio 
for Burma proper was the same, for all practical purposes, as for the province as a 
whole (124 per cent.), for the political areas only affected the percentage figures 
in the second place of decimals. The percentage for the same area, i.e., Burma pro- 
per, at the recent census was 10*7 only. The inference to be drawn from this is 
that in Burma the growth of the urban population does not keep step with the 
growth of the population as a whole. This I believe to be the case and I shall 
have more on the subject to say when dealing directly with the movement of the 
population. 

24. I must, however, here point out that the value of the figures last quoted is 

seriously vitiated by the fact that the areas on which 
: Imperial Table No. I of little t jj e ca l cu 1 a tions for the two censuses are based are 

value for purposes of comparison . . . , ,-, , . , , , 

of urban population. not identical, r or both years the urban area has 

been taken to mean the area of towns treated as such 
for census purposes, and the rural as that lying outside the limits of census towns, 
but all the 1891 census towns do not figure in the 1901 list, nor were all the 
1 901 census towns classified as such at the preceding census. The definition was 
in both years more or less arbitrary. The differences in the two lists of towns are 
not very great, but they are great enough to detract sensibly from the usefulness of 
the figures for purposes of comparison. In fact if a contrast between the data fur- 
nished at the last and at the 1891 census is desired, or if we wish to place side 
by side the figures for Burma and other provinces or countries, the only useful 
table is Imperial Table No. Ill, which attempts no definition of towns or villages, 
but contents itself with applyinga purely numerical test for the purposes of classi- 
fication. Taking the data that this table affords as a basis for our calculations 
and treating all collections of houses containing more than a specified number of 
inhabitants as towns and all such as do not contain that number as villages, we 
have material for an instructive comparison, 

25. The chief difficulty consists in fixing the numerical limit for the " town," 
.,,...,_ but here European practice affords a guide. In Ger- 

Numencal distinction between •*-,„,-.„ «„„,,, „„„*: 11 *.• c 1 

towns and villages. manv e . ver y .continuous collection of houses perma- 

nently inhabited by not less than 2,000 persons is 
deemed, ipso facto, to possess urban characteristics and is classified as possess- 
ing them. A distinction is, however, drawn between the Landstadte or "rural " 
towns of between two and five thousand inhabitants and Kleinstadte (small 
towns) of between five and twenty thousand inhabitants. Much the same classi- 
fication appears to have been adopted in France, but in Belgium the line is 
drawn at 5,000 inhabitants, and no collection of houses containing less than that 
number of residents is there treated as a town. For definition purposes at the 
recent enumeration 5,000 was regarded as the figure below which the population 
of census towns was not ordinarily supposed to fall, and it may conveniently be 
taken as the dividing line between the urban and the rural population when we 
come to an examination of Imperial Table No. III. That table tells us that 
in Burma there were on the ist March 1901, 972,813 persons living in areas in- 
habited by 5,000 or more people and 9,517,81 1 persons living in areas inhabited by 
less than 5,000 people, that is to say that the urban population was 9-3 per cent 
and the rural 907 per cent, of the total population of the province. In Germany 
in '1-890 the rural population, calculated on a similar basis, was 67-8 per cent 
of the total population, the urban 32-2. In Austria in the same year 8o-i per 
cent, of the people were country-dwellers and 19-9 town- dwellers. On the other 
hand, m England and Wales in 189 1, a total of 68- 1 per cent, of the population 
lived in urban areas and 3 1 "9 in villages. 

26. The actual total of villages is 60,395, as compared with 28,719 at the 

The average number of inhabi- Qf^ ^^ ^ ^average number of fo- 
unts in each village and of resi- 05. . s P er village has fallen from 2327 to 157-3. 
dents in each occupied house. This rise in the tale of villages with the resultant 

fall in the ratio is the outcome, not so much of the 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 1 5 

extension of the Census area as of the wider interpretation put for the purposes of 
the tables on the term " village," which does hot mean the charge of a separate 
village official, but is practically synonymous with: "hamlet,- 1 i.e.,1 the smallest 
collection of buildings known by a separate name. Imperial Table No. I' gives 
168,508 and 1,924,303 as the totals of occupied houses in the towns and villages 
respectively of the province. We thus have 5*87 as the average number of resi- 
dents in each house in the urban areas and 4*94 as the average number of residents 
in each house outside urban limits. Compared with the figures of the previous 
census (5-22 and 5-34) these totals are noteworthy, for while, on the one hand, 
the rural house density has fallen, the urban has risen. As I have observed in an 
earlier paragraph the decision as to what was and what was not to be a house for 
census purposes was for the most part left to the local authorities in each case 
and where so much scope has been allowed for the exercise of individual judgment 
certain variations in totals are in the natural order of things to be looked for. As 
a matter of fact I believe that the number of cases in which any doubt can have 
been entertained as to whether a building should be regarded as a census house or 
not must have been exceedingly small and that the personal factor may be treated 
as almost non-existent. If this is granted we may take it, I consider, first, that in 
the areas which have now for the first time been thoroughly censused, — namely, 
the Shan States and the Chin Hills, : — the household, i.e., the number of individuals 
inhabiting a single house, is on the whole rather smaller than in Burma proper and 
next that in towns the population is actually somewhat more thickly distributed 
than in 1891. As, however, the possibility of variation of treatment is not wholly 
absent, a point which is emphasized in the case of Rangoon below, it would neither 
in my opinion be safe to draw any far-reaching conclusions from the variation in 
the figures for the two censuses alluded to above nor profitable to undertake a 
detailed comparison of the house densities for the various districts of the province; 

27. The question of overcrowding in cities has not reached in this province a 
n ,. . „ stage which, from a European point of view, would be 

Overcrowding in Rangoon. & , , ' -w _ •.- , i « 

regarded as acute. Yet congestion is not wholly un- 
known in Rangoon, and the following few figures may be useful in showing to 
what extent it prevails in that city. Rangoon has an area of nineteen square miles, 
over which its population of 234,881 spreads at the average, rate of 12,362 persons 
per square mile. In area, population and density it is not very dissimilar from the 
county borough of Nottingham according to the returns for that town in 1891. 
The figures for the two are as follows : — 





Area. 


Population. 


Density. 


Nottingham, 1891 


17 square miles 


203,877 


12,508 per square mile. 


Rangoon, 1901 


19 .» >• 


234,881 


12,362 



The preliminary figures for Nottingham at the 1901 census were 239,753, so 
that the existing populations of the two towns are within five thousand of one 
another. In fact, of all English boroughs, Nottingham is still the nearest in point 
of numbers to Rangoon. Compared with other towns of the United Kingdom the 
density exhibited by Rangoon, though it is nearly three thousand per square 
mile higher than in 1891, is by no means excessive. The density of Liver- 
pool in 1 891 was 50,782 persons per square mile, that of Plymouth 35,103, and, 
as the population of Liverpool has increased by 8-8o per cent, in the interval and 
that of Plymouth by 26-90 per cent., the density must, unless the areas of the towns 
nave been extended, be still higher now. We may take it, therefore, that Rangoon 
as a whole could bear a substantial increase to its population without laying 
itself open to the charge of overcrowding. Within our nineteen square miles, 
however, we have areas of very varying degrees of density. Open stretches like 
the brigade parade-ground and the Cantonment Church maidan affect the average 
enormously and, if these are left out of consideration, the density figure mounts to 
a surprisingly high level. Let us take, for instance, those blocks lying between God- 
win road and Judah Ezekiel street which are bounded on the south by the Ran- 
goon river and- on the north by portions of Montgomery, Fraser, and Canal streets. 
They comprise the bulk of the business portion of the city, the bazaars, the mer- 
chants' offices, the banks, and all the most frequented thoroughfares. They cover 



i6 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



468*7 acres and have a population of 73,309 souls. This gives a density of 99,840 
persons per square mile, or nearly double that of Liverpool (the most crowded 
town of the United Kingdom) as a whole. It is not for a moment to be supposed 
that there are not areas of an equal if not of larger size in Europe and America 
which are more thickly peopled than this portion of the city, but it must be borne 
in mind that climate, sanitation and the prevailing type of architecture are all points 
that have to be taken into consideration. A density of 1 00,000 souls per square mile 
would be nothing alarming in an area covered with trans-Atiantic " sky-scrapers," but 
where the distribution strata are on the whole less than three in number, matters 
assume a different complexion. As it is the figures given are quite sufficient to show 
that any substantial increase in the density of the population of these particular 
quarters of Rangoon would be a standing menace to the health of the community. 

This fact has already been recognized by the muni- 
Measures taken to obviate con- c ; pa i authorities, who, with a view mainly to minimizing 

the danger from fire, but with an eye, no doubt, also to 
the obviation of further congestion, have prescribed special building rules for the area 
above referred to, the exact boundaries of which are given in the schedule to the 
Local Government's Municipal and Local Department Notification No. 182, dated 
the 31st October 1899. Expansion outwards is practically impossible within the 
narrow limits, and such further building as is undertaken will have in the future to 
be for the most part upwards, i.e., will have to take the form of additional storeys, 
and the Municipal Committee have taken power to cope with this form of expansion 
by regulating the number of storeys in houses built within the scheduled area. No 
building is allowed to have more than four storeys or be more than seventy feet 
high ; no building abutting on a street less than fifty feet wide may have more 
than two storeys without special sanction from the Committee ; the minimum 
height of the roof above the uppermost floor has been prescribed. The operation 
of these rules ought certainly to be beneficial. If it were merely a question of the 
better housing of the existing population on the existing area, there would be every 
reason for encouraging the erection of many-storeyed houses, but it would be use- 
less to expect that the provision of additional accommodation would not mean an 
influx from less congested, but more unpopular, quarters and a further increase in 
density. 

28. The total number of houses within the scheduled area is 1 2,000, so that the 

Average nmnber of inhabitants * V **& nUmber of P^SOUS inhabiting each house is 

per house in the scheduled area. ° - l. for census purposes the tenement was re- 
garded as a house and numbered accordingly. Rule 
4 of a special manual for Charge Superintendents and Supervisors, based on the 
provincial manual, which was issued by the Municipal authorities before the pre- 
liminary enumeration, runs as follows : — 

" A house in this manual means any house or apartment to which a census number is 
given. A cooly-barrack having twenty separate apartments will probably have twenty 
census numbers and forms twenty census houses." 

From the President's report it would seem that during the operation of house- 
numbering the tendency of the Rangoon census officers was, if anything, in the 
direction of over minute subdivision, so that often " house " must have meant 
nothing more than " apartment." This being so, there can hardly be any ques- 
tion that the census house in the city was often of exceedingly restricted dimen- 
sions and that its average capacity was in all probability frequently far below the 
provincial mean. If this assumption is correct the average of inhabitants per 
house in Rangoon cannot be regarded as in any way low. 

29. It is in cooly-barracks of the kind alluded to in the rule quoted above 
Registered buildings. that . the temptation to overcrowd is greatest. Here 

a g air > the Municipal Committee have not been slow 
to recognize that a danger exists and have taken certain steps to meet it. 
Their rules for the registration of registered buildings are specially designed 
to give the authorities responsible for the health of the town full control of all 
those collections of tenements in which numbers of the poorest classes of natives 
live herded together, often amid the most insanitary conditions of life. They pro- 
vide titter aha thai, in registered buildings each lodger shall have not less than 24 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. ' VJ 

square feet oi floor room to occupy. I doubt whether there are many who would 
consider this, even as a minimum, generous measure and am inclined to think 
that overcrowding might be said to have exceeded all bounds in this or the 
other area long before the above minimum was approached. However, the rule 
shows that the authorities have recognized the necessity for ensuring the provi- 
sion of something approaching adequate house-room in those classes of buildings 
in which the law allows the exercise of municipal supervision. It has not been found 
practicable to enforce the lodging-house rules in the past quite as stringently 
as might have been wished, but it is intended to insist upon them more rigorously 
in the future. Even as they stand they are a potent weapon in the hands of the 
committee for combating; the evils of overcrowding. 

30. In 1891 special measures were taken to secure a full and accurate return 

KT „ „ ,, „ ... of the boat population of the province. A form of 

No return of boat population. . , r r r , ^ r ..,,.., 

register was trom the very outset prescribed tor boat 

landing-places, boat schedules were indented for separately from house schedules 
and spejcial rules for the enumeration of the boat population were issued. The 
information which these measures were designed to obtain was not required for any 
of the Imperial Tables, which were only concerned with two main social classes 
of the population, the urban and the rural. At the recent census the rules of proce- 
dure, though they dealt fully with the matter of boat enumeration, contained no 
special provision for showing the floating population separate from the land popu- 
lation. ! The reason for this omission is obvious from the 189 1 returns. Where 
figures for boat population have been given, as, for instance, in Burma and in 
Bengal, a comparison with the figures of the previous census (that of 1881) has 
demonstrated their uselessness. In paragraph 34 of his report Mr. Eales subjected 
the surprising discrepancies between the divisional totals for the two censuses in 
Burma to a minute and painstaking examination. His investigations showed clearly 
that it was largely a matter of chance whether a boatman was enumerated on 
shore or on his boat and left no doubt as to the impracticability of obtaining re- 
liable data except at an expense of time and labour that the results would be far 
from justifying. In Bengal the general agreement of the figures for 1891 and 1881 
suggested the " approximate accuracy of the whole," but even here Mr. 
O'Donnell, the Census Superintendent, was forced to admit that in more than one 
case the district totals were unquestionably wrong and untrustworthy. Altoge- 
ther there was nothing in the records of past enumerations to encourage the abstrac- 
tion office to attempt to repeat the efforts of 1891 and 188:1. The matter of the 
strength of the boat population is no doubt one of interest in the province, but it 
is hoped that the information contained under this head in the Provincial Tables 
will suffice for ordinary requirements. 



i8 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary. Table No. I-A. 



Density of the Population' 



7*&* , 



o 
Z 



Natural divisions, 
districts, and cities. 



9 
10 

II 



I 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 
14 



Katha 

Bhamo 

Northern Shan States 

Southern Shan States 

Upper Chindwin 

Ruby Mines 

Chin Hills 

Myitkyina 

Pak&kku Chin Hills ... 

Upper Burma, wet ... 



Sagaing 

Meiktila 

Myingyan 

Kyaukse 

Mandalay (rural) * 

Magwe 

Lower Chindwin 

Minbu 

Yamethin 

Pakdkku 

Shwebo 

Upper Burma, dry 



Hanthawaddy 

Thfingwa 

Myaungmya 

Bassein 

Akyab 

Pegu 

Thatdn 

Amherst 

Kyaukpyu 

Sandoway 

Tavoy 

Sal ween 

Mergui 

Northern Arakan 

Lower Burma, litto- 
ral. 

Henzada 

Tharrawaddy 

Prome 

Thayetmyo 

Toungoo 

Lower Burma, sub- 
deltaic. 

Burma (rural) 
Burma (rural) with 
Shan States, &c. 

Rangoon 
Mandalay* 

Burma (whole) 
Burma (whole) with 
States. 



Mean density per 
square mile. 



25 

19 
'9 
19 
18 
16 
11 
6 
5 

15 



19 



160 

139 
102 

95 
94 
79 
68 

43 
38 
24 
21 
14 
9 
4 

55 



169 

139 

125 

5° 

45 

90 



52 
42 



12,362 
7.353 

55 

44 



20 
10 



152 


132 


116 


loo 


"4 


112 


in 


99 


87 


89 


«5 


75 


79 


67 


71 


65 


57 


49 


57 


5° 


5i 


4i 



70 



131 

96 

70 

77 
81 

56 
5 2 
33 
37 
21 
18 



3 
43 



152 

119 

127 

53 

34 

82 



44 



9491 
7.553 

46 



6S 

41 

65' 

/o 

43 

45 

26 

34 
17 
16 
II 
6 



34 



127 
95 

"3 
3& 
3' 

68 



7,062 



Variation; increase (+) 
or decrease ( — ). 



62 

43 

24 
49 

54 

26 

33 
18 

33 
15 
14 
10 

5 
2 

25 



89 
60 
96 

33 
22 

5i 



5.197 



+ 


5 


+ 


9 


+ 


12 


+ 


10 


+ 


1 


+ 


7 


+ 


20 


+ 


16 


+ 


2 


+ 


12 


— 


2 


+ 


10 


+ 


12 


+ 


6 


+ 


8 


+ 


7 


+ 


10 



+ 9 



+ 29 
+ 43 
+ 32 
+ 18 

+ '3 
+ 23 
+ 16 



+ 
+ 
+ 
-t- 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 17 
+ 20 

— 2 

— 3 
+ n 

+ 8 



+ 2,871 
— 200 



+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 33 

-f 28 

+ 29 

+ 12 



11 
13 

7 
7 
3 
4 

2 

I 
2 



25 
24 
14 
17 

3 
14 



+ 2,429 



+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 



36 
25 
17 
16 
16 

17 

12 

8 

1 
2 

2 
1 
1 

1 



33 

35 

>7 

3 

9 

17 



+ 1,865 



Net vari- 
ation, 
1872 — 190 1. 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 



98 
96 
78 
46 
40 
53 
35 
25 

5, 

9 

7 

4 

4 

2 

3° 



So 

79 

29 

17 
23 



+ 39 



+ 7.165 



■ The density shown on the map is for the rural and urban areas of Mandalay combined 



CENSUS 1901. 

TOTAL AND URBAN POPULATION BY DISTRICTS, 1901. 



District. 



Population in Lakhs. 
Z 3 



Hanthawaddy 

Thongwa 

Henzida 

Akyab 

Tharrawaddy 

Bassein 

Mandalay 

Prome 

Pakokku 

Myingyan 

Thaton 

Pegu 

Myaungmya 

Amherst 

Shwebo 

Sagaing 

Toungoo 

Lower Chindwia 

Meiktila 

Magwe 

Yamethin 

Thayetmyo 

Rangoon 

Minbu 

Kathi 

Kyaukpyu 

Upper Chindwin 

Kyaukse 

Tavoy 

Sandoway 

Mergui 

Ruby Mines 

Bhamo 

Myitkyina. 

Salween 

N. Arakan 



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such for Census purposes. 



NS 6, SUPI CENSUS 8- "\--02— IZIO, 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. . \Q 



CHAPTER II. 



The movement of the Population.' 

31. In his Grundriss sum Studium der Politischen Oekonomie Professor 
„ , . Conrad tells us that the causes which regulate the 

Factors regulating the move- , ,,, , ,- , n ,, p x 

ment of the population, movement of the population \pevolkerungsbeweguiig) 

may be classified as follows : (i) Marriages-and divor- 
ces, (2) Births, and (3) deaths, which may be called the " natural " factors, as op- 
posed to the " social factors," (4) immigration and emigration. While admitting 
that, strictly speaking, marriages indubitably constitute a social factor and contri- 
bute indirectly only to an actual increase in population, he prefers to classify them 
with the other natural factors rather than treat them on the same footing as the 
phenomena connected with the alteration of habitat, to wit immigration and emi- 
gration. When dicussing the movement of the population of Burma we may leave 
the first of the three natural factors (marriages and divorces) entirely out of consi- 
deration and therefore need not go into the merits of the somewhat academic ques- 
tion of whether marriage should be treated as a natural or as a social factor. All 
that is required in the present chapter is to bear in mind the essential distinction 
between the natural and social factors, and to keep it clearly in view when examin- 
ing and attempting to analyse the movement of the population of the province. 

An enormous tract of country that had never been previously enumerated was 
brought within the scope of the 1901 operations. It follows, therefore, that a com- 
parison of the Provincial total of the 1901 census with that secured at the 1891 
enumeration yields no result of any particular value. The operations that are just 
over dealt with nearly twenty-four lakhs more people than had been numbered ten 
years before, but this figure is, of course, no real measure of the growth of the 
population of the province during the interval. We know, however, that popu- 
lation has been increasing steadily during the past decade in Burma and that, as a 
general rule, the inhabitants of a given area were more numerous iri 190 1 than they 
were ten years before. We may further, for all practical purposes, treat Burma 
proper, that is excluding the Shan States and the Chin Hills, as an area which, in 
extent, is the same now as it was ten years ago. Within this area the population 
has risen from 7,722,053 to 9,252,875, or by rather over a million and a half, and 
it is now necessary for us to try and form some estimate of how much of this 
increase of 19*8 per cent, (which, it is interesting to note, is 7*6 per cent, higher 
than the decennial rate of increase in England and Wales during the same period) 
is due to the " natural " factors referred to above and how much to the " social." 
The matter is of special interest in Burma which more than any other province 
of the Empire owes its annual increment to extraneous sources. 

32. The estimate can at best be rough, for not only is the registration of the 

two forms of migration defective, but even that of vital 
The natural factors. statistics is as yet in its infancy in the province. - Up 

till recently neither births nor deaths were registered in the rural areas of Upper 
Burma. Deaths are now recorded in the majority of these areas, but births are 
still unregistered. Save in the case of Christians, marriages are not registered at 
all in any portion "of the province and in any case for the purposes of our rough 
estimate they may, as I have already said, be left entirely out of consideration. So 
far as they go, however, the figures may be instructive. Let us first take Lower 
Burma, where vital statistics have been duly recorded for a reasonable number of 
years. The total number of births and deaths registered in the Lower Province 
(including Thayetmyo, but e'xcluding Salween and Northern Arakanj, during the 
ten years 1 891- 1900, are as follows : — 

Births ... ■■■ ... ••• •" i)3<5o>3 6 ' 

Deaths ... — ••• — — i>°56>735 

According to the above figures the increase in the population during the 
decade (leaving immigration and emigration out of the question) should have been 
to the extent of 303,626, whereas the actual increase in population from 1 891 -to 



20 " REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

1901 in Lower Burma, including Thayetmyo but excluding Northern Arakan and 
Salween, was 974,594. or more than three times the above amount. If implicit re- 
liance were placed upon vital statistics, we should accordingly calculate the increase 
in the population due to immigration at 670,968. It would be unwise, however, for 
us to pin our faith on these figures. What Mr. Eales in his 1891 Report says 
about births and deaths registration in Rangoon is applicable with even greater 
force to the rest of the province. He remarks as follows in paragraph 42 : — 

" Leaving Hindus, Musalmans and Christians out of the calculation, we are still forced 
to believe that the registration of births is very defective, as it falls so far below the return 
of the rural tracts. This agrees with what the President of the Municipality himself said. 
Deaths, he believes, are accurately reported. There are so many people, including the 
police and the undertaker, who must know about every death that occurs and there is also 
the body to be disposed of. Moreover, a funeral in Burma is quite a social function and 
there is no rite to correspond to Christian christening, except the ear-boring, which is not 
celebrated till the child is some years old and many children die before their ears are pierced. 
But any Burmese loafer will walk miles to be present at a funeral which is generally 
celebrated with music and dancing, and a general feast if the means of the relations of the 
deceased will permit of it. * * * It is difficult, therefore, with doubtful 

returns, both in birth-place and vital statistics, to ascertain what is the rate of natural incre- 
ment or of decrease since 1881." 

33. How faulty, in all probability, the births and death figures for the past de- 
tT ,. ., , , , cade are can best be r reailzed from a comparison with 

Unreliability of birtn and death ,, , ,- ,• r • t.' j , , ■ i , L 

statistics. the statistics turnished by countries where the system 

of birth and death registration'^ has achieved some de- 
gree of accuracy. Let us take for instance the Lower Burma birth-rates per mille 
for the years 1891, 1895, and 1900. They are as follows : — 

Birth-rate 
per mille. 
1891 ... ... ... ... ... 2074 

1895 ... ... ... ... ... 20*04 

1900 ... ... ... ... ... 38-37 

In 1891 the calculations were based on the figures of the then recent 1891 census 
and in this respect must have been far more reliable than those of later years. We 
find a birth-rate of 20-74 only. During the quinquennium 1891 — 95, the birth-rate 
in Europe ranged from 46-5 per mille in Russia to 2 2'6 in France. Though the 
Burmese are not extraordinarily prolific, there can, I think, be no question that 
their reproductive efforts cannot well have borne less fruit in 1891 than those of the 
French, for whom the dwindling of the national birth-rate has of recent years assum- 
ed the proportions of a national calamity. In 1895 the birth-rate per mille had risen 
in Lower Burma to 29'04. Here there is improvement in registration apparent, 
but it must be borne in mind that the population on which the^rate was calculated 
must have been a good deal higher in 1895 than in 1891 and that a certain reduc- 
tion in the figures of proportion will have to be conceded. In 1900 the figure had 
risen to 38-37 or, calculated on the population of Lower Burma in 1901, to 30-64. 
This, measured by a European standard, seems to bear some approximation to 
correctness, but the apparent increase of ten in the birth-rate per mille during the 
decade shows only the more clearly that, taken on the whole period of ten years, 
the figures are largely understated. 

34. The case is much the same even with the Lower Burma death-rate, 
which, for the reasons indicated above, is more likely to come within the neigh- 
bourhood of accuracy than the birth-rate. The following are the figures for the 
three years selected — 

Death-rate 
per mille. 

llll 15-93 

ia 95 ... ... ... ... ... 23-40 

1000 .» ... ... ... ... 2 7 - 5 t 

The 1 89 1 death-rate (15-93) seems manifestly incorrect. During the five years 
1891—95 the ratio of deaths in Europe to every thousand of the population varied 
from 36-1 in Russia to 16-8 in Norway. He would be a rash man who would 
assert, when regard had been had to pestilence, dangerous beasts and defective 
hygiene, that there was less relative mortality in Lower Burma than in the most 
'favoured of European countries. The 1900 death-rate, calculated on the 1891 



•* * REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA, 

Chin-born population accounts for the excess of about i percent. This would 
mean that the rate of natural increase in Lower Burma during the decennium was 
i *5 per cent, per annum. 

36. In Upper Burma we have practically no birth and death figures to help us 
in our calculations. Thereturns show, however, that, whereas in 1891 of the total 
population enumerated within the limits of Upper Burma proper, 73,868 persons 
had been born outside those limits and 55,580 beyond the limits of the province as 
a whole, the corresponding figures for 1901 were 114,396 and 76,601- We shall, 
in these circumstances, be justified in setting down the increase to the population of 
Upper Burma due to foreign immigration at a total of 21,021. This represents 3-8 
per cent, of the total increase that has taken place in that area within the last 10 
years. The increase due from migration from other portions of the province is thus 
*9»"5 7> or 3"6 per cent., and natural causes account for the balance of 926 per 
cent. The above calculations ignore the natural increase that has been going on 
among the foreign-born population in Upper Burma during the decennium under 
consideration, but, as they stand, the figures will give a general idea of the relative 
strength of the different factors that have brought about an increase of the popu- 
lation since 1891. 

37. Let us now consider how the total provincial increase has been distributed 
, ,, , ,. , . , over the districts of Upper and Lower Burma. Subsi- 

Increases and decreases by districts. .. ~ , . .. , , « i i t-v- ■ i- 

diary lable No. IIA. and the District diagram ap- 
pended to this Chapter show that, with the exception of Prome and Thayetmyo, 
L B where there is a falling off in population of 3,173 and 

10,455 souls, all the districts in Lower Burma have 
partaken of the numerical growth, but in very varying degrees. The inhabitants of the 
Kyaukpyu district are only three per cent, more numerous than they were 10 years 
ago ; on the other hand those of the Myaungmya district have multiplied to the ex- 
tent of 46 per cent. Thongwa follows close on Myaungmya with an increase of 45 
per cent. In the Pegu district the percentage of growth is 43 per cent. The reason 
for the very substantial rise in the last three districts is not far to seek. There is no 
necessity to look beyond their fertile paddy plains to see where their attraction for the 
immigrant lies. It is the influx of cultivators, desirous of opening up the rich waste- 
lands of the delta, that has sent up the population totals ; the " natural" factors al- 
luded to above have had but little hand in the work. " Large areas, which 10 years 
ago were forest," says the Deputy Commissioner of Pegu, " are now under cultiva- 
tion." Immigration, the Deputy Commissioner of Myaungmya tells us, has sent the 
population of the Wakema township up by 64 per cent. The strangers come to 
a great extent from Madras and other portions of India, but to a certain extent also 
from the less favoured regions of Upper and also of Lower Burma. The high 
rate of increase in these three districts is not a thing of recent creation. During the 
preceding decade the growth was generally as high in the delta as' in the 10 years 
under review. In fact in the old Thongwa district the percentage of increase 
between 1881 and 1891 was 57 per cent., so that we may infer that the high -water 
mark of immigration in this quarter of the province has by now in all probability 
been reached. Next to Pegu in growth of population comes, curiously enough, 
Northern Arakan, with an increase of no less than 41 per cent. Here, however, 
we must recognize the operation of special causes. There may have been immi- 
gration during the ten years 1891 -1900, the death-rate may have. fallen and the 
birth-rate risen, but the Deputy Commissioner himself admits that the increase 
is more apparent than real and is due in the main not to these factors, but merely 
to improved enumeration. After Northern Arakan there is a drop in the percent- 
age of growth. Toungoo shows the next highest figure (32 per. cent.) for which 
immigration from Upper Burma seems to be mainly responsible, and next comes 
Rangoon Town with 30 per cent. Hanthawaddy and Henzada, the two most 
denselv populated districts of the province, exhibit increases of 22 and 1 1 per cent, 
only, thus showing that the limit of their capacity for supporting a growing 
population has almost been reached. Bassein district has the same figure 
as Hanthawaddy. We learn from the Deputy Commissioner of Bassein that this 
district " is not now considered by the Upper Burman to offer him the same chances as 



21 

REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

figures, is 27-51 and, on the 1901 figures, 21-97 per mille. This is nearer the mark, 
but is still, in all probability, rather too low. In 1900 the births in the area m 
question exceeded the deaths by 48,469, an increase equivalent to "80 per cent, 
of the population at the 1901 census. I doubt whether the natural rate of increase 
for the year was in reality quite as low as this percentage would indicate. 1 he 
decennial rate of increase in England and Wales between 1881 and 1891 was 
11-65 per cent., and the preliminary figures for the 1901 census of the United 
Kingdom show for England and Walesa decennial rate of increase of 12-17 or an 
annual one of r 1 per cent, between the years 1 891 and 190 1 . In Germany the rate 
of increase between 1890 and 1895 was 112 percent, per annum. I am inclined 
to think that, even if it does not exceed 1 per cent., the natural annual rate of 
increase in Lower Burma is nearer that figure than from the vital statistics avail- 
able it would appear to be. For reasons which are given in the next paragraph, 
I think that it is probably above 1 per cent. 

35. Poor as are the materials for calculating the effect of the natural factors of 

increase or decrease, those for gauging the working 
The social factors. q{ the soc;al f actorsare almost as meagre, for there is 

practically nothing in the shape of a systematic collection of statistics relating to 
immigration into and emigration from the province which could be made use of 
for purposes of reference. Mr. Tilly, Chief Collector of Customs, has kindly fur- 
nished me with a statement showing immigration into and emigration out of the 
Port of Rangoon during the past ten years, from which it appears that between 
March 1891 and February 1901 a total of 1,092,762 immigrants and 813,554 
emigrants were registered at the Port, and that there was thus an excess of im- 
migrants over emigrants amounting in all to 279,208. These figures represent of 
course only a portion of the immigration and emigration of the country, but are 
useful as indicating fairly well a minimum below which the figures of net immi- 
gration, calculated on other data, ought not to fall. The only satisfactory material 
we have for analysing the social increase is contained for the most part in Imperial 
Table No. XI, which deals with the birth-places of the people censused in Burma in 
March 190.'. Of the total population of Lower Burma at the 1901 census 764,683 
persons were returned as having been born beyond the limits of that area, as com- 
pared with 643, 1 76 outsiders shown as such in the figures for the preceding census. 
This is practically the only indication we have of the extent to which the popu- 
lation of the Southern Districts has been swelled by immigration, and it must be 
confessed that it does not carry us very far. We know that there were in Lower 
Burma at the end of the decade under review 121,592 more non-indigenous folk 
than at its commencement, but the figures tell us nothing of how emigration and 
immigration fluctuated during the ten years in question, so that in one respect our 
conception of the working of the social is even more shadowy than that of the 
operation of the natural factors. Such as they are, however, the totals may be re- 
garded as instructive. Having arrived at our aggregate of non-indigenous increase 
for Lower Burma, it will be of interest to note how much of it represents immigration 
from outside the limits of the province and how much immigration from within 
those limits, i.e., from Upper Burma, the Shan States, &c. Looking at the popul- 
ation of the province as a whole, the two classes of migration bear a very different 
aspect, for it is an increment from outside Burma only that can be looked upon 
as a net provincial gain. Of the 643,176 persons born outside, but enumerated 
within, Lower Burma in 1891, a total of 270,759 had been born in India, Europe 
and other places outside Burma, while the balance, 372,41 7, claimed Upper Burma, 
the Shan States and the Chin Hills as their birth-place. In 1901 the " foreign " 
born population numbered 398,711 and the Upper Burma, Shan and Chin-born 
365,972, so that we may take it that the immigrant population of Lower Burma 
has been reinforced to the extent of 121,507 souls during the ten years under 
review, and may regard 127,952 as indicating roughly the total for which immigra- 
tion from outside the limits of the province is responsible. I shall not, I think, 
be far from the mark if I say in general terms that in Lower Burma 88 per cent, 
of the increase in the population during the past decade is due to the excess of births 
over deaths, and 13 per cent, to immigration from India and elsewhere beyond 
the provincial limits. The decrease in the total of the Upper Burma, Shan and 

6 



wEPORT ON THE CPNSVS OF BURMA. ^3 

the new land now opening out in Myaungmya and Thongwa." Taken on the 
whole of Lower Burma the average of increase is 21 percent. With the excep- 
tion of Northern Arakan, where the data are no real gauge of growth, all the 
districts of the Arakan division fall below this figure and, in spite of the Pegu 
district, the Pegu divisional average .too is smaller. Kyaukpyu, Henzada, and 
Akyab show the three smallest increases in Lower Burma ; Prome and Thayet- 
myo, as I have already stated, the sole decreases. Mr. Cooke, Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Kyaukpyu, says of his district : " There is no emigration or immigration 
to speak of * * * during the time of harvest large numbers of 

men go to the" Akyab and Bassein districts, but these also return home as soon 
as the crop is cut." According to the vital statistics the population of Kyaukpyu 
should have been 5,015 higher in 190 1 than in 1891. The census showed that 
the actual increase was exactly 20 less than 3 this estimate. The exodus of 
reapers is no doubt more or less responsible for this difference, but Mr. Cooke is 
further of opinion that an enormous number of the deaths that took place during, 
the cholera epidemic of 1894 never figured in the vital statistic returns. In Prome 
the actual falling off in population amounted to 3,1 73, or a decrease of o"86 on the 
1 89 1 figures. The greater part of this is accounted for by a diminution of 2,647 
in the number of the inhabitants of Prome town, which will be referred to later. 
There is no doubt that large numbers of the cultivators from the district have 
moved southwards, either permanently or temporarily, to swell the totals of the 
delta villages. Similar causes have no doubt operated in Thayetmyo, which shows 
a decline of 10,455 m population and a strength cf four per cent, below the total 
',. . for 1891. In Upper Burma one would not ordinarily 

Upper Burma districts. , , < , , l \ , • , , ,/ 

be led to look for any such increases as the delta 
districts display, and it is therefore with some little surprise that one notes rises of 
no less than 157, 95 and 90 per cent, in the populations of the Ruby Mines, Katha, 
and Bhamo districts respectively. Examination, however, will show thatthe actual 
growth of population in these districts is not commensurate with these figures. 
In 1 891 the inhabitants of Mongmit were not, while in 1901 they were, reckoned 
among the population of the Ruby Mines, while portions of the Bhamo district 
which at the recent enumeration came within the scope of the operations had. 
similarly been omitted ten years earlier. This non-enumeration of the wilder 
Kachin tracts, coupled with the disturbances in Katha and the Upper Chindwin, 
which coincided with the census and hampered its efficiency, are sufficient to ac- 
count for what, in view of the percentages elsewhere, seem somewhat abnormal 
increases of 32 per cent, and 39 per cent, in the districts of Myitkyina and the 
Upper Chindwin. Exclusive of these five districts, where conditions are abnor- 
mal, the average rate of increase for Upper Burma is 11 '2 per cent. Mandalay 
district alone of a'l shows a decrease during the decade. It is, however, one 
of two per cent. only. The fa'l in the district figures as a whole is largely ac- 
counted for by a drop in the population of Mandalay city which will be touched upon 
hereafter. It is clear, however, that the country as well as the townspeople show 
signs of quitting the district. The Deputy Commissioner has assigned no cause for 
this rural defection, but there can, I think, be no question that it must be accounted 
for by the fact that the presence of the Burmese Court in Mandalay gave an artificial 
stimulus to immigration not only into the city kself but also into its environs, and that 
since the withdrawal of that radiant centre of interest the cultivators have graduaHy 
realized the sentimental nature of their attachment to the soil and have drifted else- 
where where conditions are intrinsically more favourable. It is possible that the con- 
struction of the Mandalay canal may recall a large proportion of these wanderers to 
their ancient seats and tend to re-establish the status quo ante. The inhabitants of 
the Myingyan district are only one per cent, more numerous now than they were ten 
years ago. In his district report Mr. Parlett adverts to the different causes which 
might have been expected to bring about this state of things, which at first sight sug- 
gests stagnation. " Emigration and immigration in Myingyan " he says " follow the 
barometer. It has long been an established custom in this district to migrate 
when scarcity threatens, and to return when the rains promise a livelihood." It 
is doubtless the threatenings of scarcity in the past that has thus arrested the nor- 
mal growth of the people, and it occurs to me as conceivable thatthe reason why 



24 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA, 

the readjustment of population after the lean years is slower in Myingyan than in 
the neighbouring districts of Meiktila and Yamethin and in Shwebo — areas also 
liable to scarcity — is that until quite recently Myingyan has not, like these other 
three districts, been traversed by a railway. Time will show whether the new 
branch line from Thazi to Myingyan will facilitate and expedite the ebb and flow 
that are bound to ensue on a failure of crops and a hint of famine. The percen- 
tages of increase for the remaining districts of Upper Burma call for very little 
comment After Myingyan, Minbu, with a rise of 8 per cent, shows the slowest 
growth in population. Of what I would call the normal districts, Shwebo shows 
the highest' increase, one of 24 per cent. The rest closely approximate to the 
provincial average. 

38. Imperial Table No. IV gives a list of towns classified by population, with 

variations from 1872101901. Data for the first named 
Variations in the urban popula- f are t - ev case available, but the statement 

tion, Lower Burma. J , , . , J . ,, . <~ 

shows that of the towns where all the figures are procu- 
rable there are in Lower Burma five, Prome, Shwedaung, Pantanaw, Kyangin and 
Shwegyin, which have a smaller population now than thirty years ago. All five show 
a decline during the last decade and the falling off in all, except Pantanaw, began 
more than twenty years ago. It is noticeable, however, that Pantanaw was the 
only town of the five where there were no signs of recuperation during the 10 years 
1881 to 1891. It seems probable that, but for the annexation of Upper Burma 
Prome would have been raised by the railway to its former state of prosperity. 
As it is, the same causes seem now to be at work as reduced its population during 
the years 1872 — 1881 from 31,157 to 28,813, and there seems to be no immediate 
prospect of its recovery, though the Deputy Commissioner hopes for better 
things, putting the decrease down largely to deficient rainfall and cholera. 
Similarly there is little likelihood of a revival in Shwegyin, for the abolition of the 
district was as much the effect of the decline in prosperity and the consequent 
depopulation as its cause. The numerical falling off in Kyangin is attributed by 
the Municipal President to the people " being unable to maintain themselves in 
the town." Emigration here seems to have taken place both to Upper and Lower 
Burma. In Pantanaw the decrease is due to the silting up of the river. Akyab, 
Kyaukpyu, Yandoon, Toungoo and Thayetmyo, though they show a net increase 
since 1872, have gone down in the matter of population since the last census. 
In Akyab the plague segregation rules and the comparatively poor paddy season 
were responsible for a smaller immigration of coolies than usual at the time of 
the census. There is nothing to show that the resident population is leaving the 
town. In Yandoon it would appear to be otherwise. The decrease of 7,456 is 
not commented on in the Deputy Commissioner's report, but it seems probable 
that it is due to a certain extent to encroachments by the river, which have 
compelled numbers of the residents to move elsewhere. However that may be, 
the population which, according to Mr. Eales' estimate, should by now have been 
32,309 in the ordinary, course was 1 2,779 only. Toungoo has lost its military po- 
pulation since 1891, and a considerable section of its inhabitants appear to have been 
diverted on the census night to a pagoda festival a few miles out of the town. I 
do not think that the reduction from 19,232 to 15,837 need be looked upon as 
serious. Toungoo increased enormously during the nine years 1872—1881 and 
it would be too much to expect it to maintain the same rate permanently. It has 
still over five thousand inhabitants more than it had thirty years ago. In Thayet- 
myo the decrease of 1,277 since the last census is practically counterbalanced by 
an increase of 1,195 in Allanmyo, on the opposite bank of the river. The falling 
off in population noticeable in Kyaukpyu is insignificant. All the remaining Lower 
Burma towns show an increase. In some the growth of population during the 
last decade has been very marked. In Thaton the total has risen by 4,659 souls, 
in Henzada by 4,994, in Thdnze by 4,321, in Letpadan by 6,621 and in Tavoy by 
7,272. It is possible that the construction of the, Bassein railway has added tem- 
porarily to the Letpadan figures. As regards Tavoy, the Deputy Commissioner 
writes : — 

'The figures point to an influx of population in the town from the district, the increase 
of population in the town being far larger in comparison than the increase in the district." 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



The inhabitants of Rangoon number 54,557 more than in 1891, while Bassein 
and Moulmein have risen by 1,687 anc ' 2 i66i respectively. Moulmein has of all the 
towns specified most nearly fulfilled the expectations embodied in the forecast 
of population given by my predecessor in paragraph 37 of the 1891 Report, in 
other words its rate of progress during the last decade has been to all intents and 
purposes identical with that of the period 1881 — 1891. Ten years ago Mr. Eales 
calculated that in 1901 it would number 58,598 inhabitants. The actual figure 
was 58,446. The " Statement showing probable population of the towns of 
Lower Burma in 1901" is interesting as showing that in not one of the towns in 
the Pegu division chosen for illustration has the rate of progress been as great 
during the last decade as during the preceding one, and that only in three of the 
specified towns (Henzada, Myanaung and Tavoy) has the latter rate been ex- 
ceeded to an appreciable extent. In thirteen out of the seventeen instances the 
actuals are below the estimate. The list does not, however, comprise Thaton, 
Letpadan-and Thonze. 

39. ■ It is impossible to peruse that portion of Imperial Table No. IV which 

deals with Upper Burma, without being struck by the 
Variations^ Uie urban popula- i arge numD er of towns which are less populous now 
ion, pper than they were at .the last census. Of the nineteen 

Upper Burma urban areas dealt with in that table no less than twelve show a 
falling off during the past decade, and only in the case of Bhamo, Meiktila and 
Yamethin does such increase as is apparent form any relatively large proportion of 
the people of the town. The population of Mandalay has diminished since 1891 
by one short of five thousand souls. Major Strickland, the Deputy Commis- 
sioner, would throw the responsibility for this falling off largely on the reduction 
of the garrison and doubtless this is the explanation of a good deal of the de- 
crease. It cannot, however, be of all. There is, apart from the diminution in the 
figures for the Cantonment and Shore, a reduction in those for the municipal area 
which is proportionately greater than that in the military portion of the city, and 
can only be accounted for by the operation of some such causes as in my opinion 
has brought about the diminution in the Mandalay district as a whole. The 
glamour of the court has vanished and the seductions of trade have failed to take 
its place. As an industrial centre Mandalay has not been altogether a success, 
and, unless its economic conditions alter considerably, there seems to be no im- 
mediate prospect of its regaining its lost thousands. In Myingyan town there has 
been a decrease of 3,651 since 1891. Scarcity is no doubt one of the factors, but 
the shifting of the bed of the river which has resulted in the bazaar being cut off 
from the steamer ghat for several months of the year by a vast expanse of sand 
has probably done even more to damage the prospects of the town. It is to be 
hoped that the arrival of the railway will counteract the evil effects of the Irra- 
waddy's vagaries. Salin shows 2,388 fewer residents than in 1891, when the 
population numbered .10,345. On the head of emigration and immigration Mr. 
Pratt, the Deputy Commissioner, says : — 

" There appears to have been a movement of agricultural labourers from Salin town- 
ship to Lower Burma and a tendency to settle there permanently, but the data on this 
point are inadequate and I am unable to give any detailed information." 

It is to be presumed that these causes operated in the urban as well as in the 
rural areas of the township. In addition to the above, Minbu, Yenangyaung, 
Kyaukse, Amarapura, Shwebo and Pagan show a falling off of over one thousand 
persons each. Except in the case of Kyaukse, no explanation has been given 
by the District Officers concerned of these decreases. With regard to the last- 
named town Major Cronin writes : — 

" A noticeable decrease in the population of the town of Kyaukse that has occurred in 
iqoi as compared with the figures of the last census, is due to a considerable portion of 
the poorer classes having moved just outside the municipal boundaries owing to their be- 
in<* unable to build suitable dwelling-houses and pay municipal taxes." 

This affords, no doubt, a clue to the secret of the other decreases alluded to. 
There are substantial increases in Bhamo, Meiktila and Yamethin. The railway 
jnay be put down as operating in the case of the last two towns. Commercial 

7 



26 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

activity and immigration from the Chinese Shan States appear to have brought 
about the rise in the population of Bhanio. 

40. If it is desired to obtain a comprehensive view of the relative indebted- 

ness of the different districts of the province to 
Extent of foreign immigration in foreign countries for their population, reference should 

the vanous districts. ^ ^ ^ g^;^ ^ No IT Bj appende d to 

this Chapter, which indicates how many people in each ten thousand of the popula- 
tion of each district were born within the limits of the province and how many 
outside those limits, whether in India or elsewhere. Rangoon naturally shows the 
highest proportion of Indian immigrants. A trifle over half its inhabitants are 
foreigners of this class. Akyab has the next highest figure. 1,531 Indians (for 
the most part Bengalis) in each io,ood of its population. Hanthawaddy has 903 
and Amherst 850 out of a similar total. The districts with the largest propor- 
tions of inhabitants born in Asia beyond India are Myitkyina and Bhamo (638 
and 524, respectively, in each 10,003 of the population). These Asian immigrants 
are from China arid the Northern regions beyond our administrative border. Next 
to these two districts, in point of numbers, come the Ruby Mines, and then 
follows Rangoon, with 382 non-Indian Asians in every 10,000 citizens. These are 
presumably mostly Chinamen. Malays, Siamese and Chinese form the bulk of the 
349 Asian-born foreigners who figure in every 10,000 of the Mergui district. 
Elsewhere, except in the case of the Northern Shan States and Amherst the 
proportion of persons born in Asia beyond India is less than 1 per cent, of the 
total population. The column in Subsidiary Table No. II B headed "Born in other 
Continents " may be said practically to indicate the distribution of the European 
population over the province, and the fact that, after Rangoon and Mandalay city the 
districts showing the highest ratios per 10,000 of the population are Shwebo (26) 
and Thayetmyo (13) is significant of the share borne by British troops in the total 
European population of the province. The mercantile community of Moulmein 
places Amherst next in order of strength, but after Amherst come the Military 
districts of Bhamo and Meiktila. I n the province, as a whole, 458 persons in every 
10,000, that is to say 4*5 per cent, of the total population entered in the schedules 
on the :st March 1901, claimed countries other than Burma as their birth-place. 
In 1851 the number of foreign-born in each 10,000 of the population was 429. 
The difference (29) is no real measure, however, of the growth of the foreign popu- 
lation during the decade, for in 189 1 the Chin Hills were not at all, and the Shan 
States only partially, represented in the returns. 

41. The figures relating to towns given above settle one question incontestably. 

We are at any rate not at present faced with a prd- 
^Movemer.t from rural to urban blem that is agitating economists in England and 

doubtless in other European countries, namely, how 
best to cope with the tendency of the rural population to gravitate in undue num- 
bers into urban areas. In Tavoy there seems to have been a movement of this 
nature, but Tavoy is a significant exception to the general rule. The Burman, 
fond as he is of gaiety and the amenities of city life, is quite incapable of respond- 
ing to the calls that it makes upon his energies. In industrial matters he finds it 
hopeless to compete with the Native of India or the Chinaman and, though ■ 
precluded by no caste prejudices from taking up fresh occupations, soon learns 
that it is in the non-industrial pursuits of the country that he can best ho!d his 
own. The following table showing the increases or decreases, . as the case may 
be, among the Buddhists, the Hindus and the Musalmans in six of the largest 
commercial centres in the province, will demonstrate how little the indigenous 
races are responsible for any growth in population that may have takfen place 
in the larger towns of Burma during the decade under review. We shall here 
be proceeding on the assumptions, firstly that Buddhism is the sole religion of 
the provincials and next that none but the indigenous profess it. Neither as- 
sumption is, strictly speaking, correct but, for the purposes of a comparison such 
as it is here desired to give, the non-Buddhistic people of Burma may be treated 
as a negligeable quantity, while the fact that .many foreigners (such as Chinese) 
are to be included among the Buddhists only serves to emphasize the point which it 
is desired to establish. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA" 27 





Buddhists. 


Hindus. 


Musalmans. 




1891. 


1901. 


r~ 
1891. 


> 

1901. 


1891. 


1901. 


Rangoon 


- 79,857 


83,631 


57,845 


82,994 


28,836 


43,oi2 


Moulmein 


28,427 


87,551 


15,094 


19,081 


9,039 


8,544 


Bassein 


... 19,908 


19,982 


5.415 


7,181 


3,621 


3.651 


Akyab 


14,291 


12,849 


6,460 


8,340 


16,223 


14,225 


Prome 


.. 27,052 


24,232 


i,235 


i,38i 


i.34> 


1,367 


Mandalay 


:.. l60,574 


152,201 


7,892 


9,888 


>5,5>4 


16,215 



In four out of the six cases cited there are now actually fewer Buddhists 
inhabiting the urban area than there were when the last census was taken. In 
the other two cases (those of Rangoon and Bassein) the increases among 
Buddhists are relatively small and quite out of proportion to those exhibited by the 
representatives of the exotic religions. In Rangoon the Hindus and Musalmans 
are nearly half as numerous again as they were ten years ago while the Buddhists 
have not even a five per cent, increase to show. In Bassein the Buddhist increase 
for the decennium is less than i per cent, while the Hindus are more than one-third 
as strong again as in 1891. In Prome, though the population as a whole has fallen, 
it is not clearly not the Hindus or Musalmans who have been forsaking the town. 
They have been gaining steadily in numbers while' the Buddhists have been going 
down, In Moulmein the Buddhists have diminished by nearly a thousand during 
the decade that is just over and though the Musalmans have followed suit, the 
Hindus have a substantial increase to show. The above few facts and figures 
will, I think, be sufficient to show that much water must flow under the bridge before 
the swarming of the indigenous population of the country into the large towns can 
become a source of uneasiness to our administrators. 

42. Subsidiary Table No. II C appended to this chapter shows the total num- 
ber of persons born in Burma who were enumerated in 

Persons born in Burma but cen- th other p rov j nces f India, on the night of the ISt 
sused in India. n , . r , . . . ° , . 

March 1901. 1 he total of males and females is 7,024 
as compared with 6,236 at the 1891 census. No details are available to show how 
many of these persons were the off-spring of parents temporarily resident in Burma 
who have since returned to their native country or what proportion the involuntary 
emigrants — to wit Burmese convicts transferred to Indian jails — bore to the whole, 
but it is probable that these two classes form the bulk of the total- In any case, 
however, the figures are small. The Burman is notoriously not given to migration 
from his country of birth and data regarding his tendency to move outside the 
limits of the province are of no particular statistical value. 



28 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. II-A. 



Variation in Population by Districts. 



Natural divisions, districts, 
and cities. 


Percentage or variation; increase (+) or 
decrease ( — ). 


Net variation in 
period 1872 to 
190 1. Increase 
(+) or decrease 




1891 to 1901. 


1881 to 1891. 


1872 to 1881. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1. Ruby Mines 

2. Katha 

3. Bhamo 

4. Upper Chindwin 

5. Myitkyina 


+ 157 
+ 95 
+ 90 

+ 39 
+ 32 


... 


... 


... 


Upper Burma, Wet. 


+ 72 




... 


... 


1. Shwebo 

2. Yamethin 

3. Lower Chindwin 

4. Meiktila 

5. Sagaing 

6. Pak6kku 

7. Magwe 

8. Kyaukse 

9. Minbu 

10. Myingyan 

11. Mandalay (rural) 


+ 24 
+ 18 
+ 18 
+ 16 
+ 15 
+ 14 
+ 13 
+ 12 
+ 8 
+ 1 
— 2 


... 


... 


... 


Upper Burma, Dry. 


+ 12 




... 




1. Myaungmya ... ... 

2. Thongwa 

3- Pe S u 

4. Northern Arakan 

5. Amherst 

6. Thaton 

7. Hanthawaddy ... 

8. Bassein 

9. Mergui 

10. Salween 

11. Akyab 

12. Sandoway ... ,., 

13. Tavoy 

14. Kyaukpyu 


+ 46 
+ 45 
+ 43 
+ 4i 
+ 29 
+ 29 
+ 22 
+ 22 
+ 20 
+ 20 
+ 16 
+ 16 
+ 16 
+ 3 


+ 70 
+ 42 
+ 29 
+ 1 
+ 29 
+ 16 

+ 34 
+ 20 
+ 10 

+ ~5 
+ 16 

+ 20 
+ 12 
+ 10 


+ 70 
+ 58" 
+ 67 
+ 65 
+ 39 
+ 39 
+ 53 
+ 32 
+ 20 

+ 15 

+ 3° 
+ 18 
+ 18 
+ 4 


+ 321 
+ 225 
+ 206 
+ 135 
+ 131 
+ 108 

+ =59 
+ 93 
+ 88 

+ 45 
+ 74 
+ 64 

+ 53 
+ 17 


Lower Burma, Littoral. 


+ 27 


+ 25 


+ 39 


+ 121 


1. Toungco 

2. Tharrawaddy 

3. Henzada 

4. Prome 

5. Thayetmyo 


+ 32 
+ »7 
+ 11 

— 1 

- 4 


+ 11 
+ 25 
+ 20 
+ 12 
+ 48 


+ 39 
+ 59 

+ 42 

+ 17 
+ 8 


+ 104 
+ 131 
+ 89 
+ 3« 
+ 53 


Lower Burma, Sub-Deltaic. 


+ 11 


+ 21 


+ 32 


+ 76 


1. Rangoon city 

2. Mandalay city ... 


+ 30 
- 3 


+ 34 


+ 36 


+ 138 


Burma (whole). 


+ 20 









REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. II-B. 



29 



Immigration per lOjOOO of Population. 





Proportion per 10,000. 












Percentage of 


District, State or City of 
enumeration. 


Born in Bur- 
ma. 




Born outside Burma. 


immigrants 
from outside 
Burma to to- 
tal popula- 
tion. 




Born in 


Born in Asia 
beyond In- 
dia. 


Born in other 


Birth-place 
(out of Bur- 






India. 


Continents. 


ma) not ascer- 












tained. 




1. Bhamo 


8,941 


528 


524 


6 


1 


105 


2. Myitkyina 


8,742 


616 


638 


3 


1 


125 


3. Katha 


9,882 


100 


17 


1 




i'7 


4. Ruby Mines 


9,268 


232 


495 


4 


1 


7'3 


5. Upper Chindwin... 


9,840 


147 


11 


2 


... 


>5 


6. Northern Shan 


9,721 


'57 


121 


1 




27 


States. 














7. Southern Shan 


9,968 


29 


3 




... 


0-32 


States. 














8. Chin Hills 


9,808 


152 


40 






t'9 


Upper Burma, wet ... 


9,780 


125 


94 


1 




2'lg 


1. Pak&kku 


9.950 


45 


4 


1 




OS 


2. Minbu 


9.931 


60 


8 


1 


... 


06 


3. Magwe 


9.94-7 


49 


3 


1 




o'5 


4. Mandalay (rural) 


9.741 


184 


72 


3 




2'5 


5. Shwebo 


9.877 


9i 


6 


26 




I"2 


6. Sagaing 


9.95° 


47 


2 


1 




04 


7. Lower Chindwin... 


9.937 


60 


3 






06 


8. Kyaukse 


9,906 


85 


8 


1 


... 


09 


9. Meiktila 


9.883 


107 


5 


5 




i'i 


10. Yamethin 


9,846 


137 


15 


2 




i'5 


11. Myingyan 


9,960 


33 


6 


1 




o"4 


Upper Burma, dry ... 


9.9io 


76 


10 


4 


... 


o§ 


1. Akyab 


8,457 


t.53i 


8 


4 




>5'4 


2. Northern Arakan 


9.75+ 


182 


64 


... 




2'5 


3. Kyaukpyu 


9,920 


70 


10 




... 


07 


4. Sandoway 


9,880 


U3 


5 


2 


•••-» 


i'i 


5. Hanthawaddy . ... 


9,028 


903 


66 


3 


... 


97 


6. Pegu 


9=375 


s ? 


63 


1 


... 


62 


7. Bassein 


9.5 8 2 


381 


33 


4 




4"i 


8. Myaungmya 


9.795 


160 


44 


1 




2'0 


9. Thongwa 


9,621 


317 


61 


1 


... 


3' 7 


io. Salween 


9,902 


81 


16 


1 


... 


09 


11. Thaton 


9.537 


403 


59 


1 




4-6 


12. Amherst 


9,026 


850 


117 


7 


... 


9' 7 


13. Tavoy 


9.909 


66 


24 


1 


... 


09 


14. Mergui 


9.538 


112 


349 


1 




4'6 


Lower Burma, litto- 


9.350 


592 


so 


2 




6'5 


ral. 














1. Tharrawaddy ... 


9.7*4 


245 


3o 


1 




27 


2. Prome 


9,890 


95 


15 




... 


l"0 


3. Henzada 


9.884 


- 99 


16 


1 




i'i 


4. Toungoo 


9.723 


237 


37 


3 


... 


27 


5. Thayetmyo 


9.836 


145 


6 


13 


... 


t-6 


Lower Burma, sub- 


9,817 


"59 


21 


3 




18 


deltaic. 














t. Rangoon city 


4.485 


5,012 


382 


117 


4 


55'i 


2. Mandalay city ... 


9,229 


653 


50 


68 




7' 7 


Burma, whole 


9.S42 


401 


5» 


6 


... 


45 



3° 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF^URMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. II-C. 



Return of Burmese Emigrants enumerated in other Provinces. 




Province or State. 


Persons. 


Males. 


Females. 


Aden 


7 


5 


2 


Ajraer Merwara ... 




10 


6 


4 


An damans and Nicobars 


.« ... ... 


1,981 


1,966 


«5 


Assam 


•• •■■ ... 


161 


104 


57 


Baluchistan (British) 


a . ... ... 


23 


8 


15 


Baroda 




25 


18 


7 


Bengal 




1,669 


1,13° 


539 


Berar 


.. ... ... 


4 


1 


3 


Bombay ... ... 




288 


176 


112 


Central Provinces 


.. ... ... 


3'5 


214 


1 01 


Cochin 




1 


1 


••* ' 


Coorg 




11 


4 


7 


Gwalior 




4 


4 




Madras 




1.502 


865 


637 


North- Western Provinces and Oudh 


.. 


794 


611 


183 


Punjab 


.. ... 


802 


423 


379 


R.ijputana 


27 


18 


9 




Total 


7,624 


5.554 


2,070 



CENSUS 1901. 

GROWTH OF POPULATION BY DISTRICTS SINCE 1891. 



District. 



Population in Lakhs. 
2 3 



Hanthawaddy 

Thongwa 

Henzada 

Akyab 

Tharrawaddy 

Bassein 

Mandalay 

Prome 

Pakokku 

Myingyan 

Thaton 

Pegu 

Myaungmya 

Amherst 

Shwebo 

Sagaing 

Toungoo 

Lower Chindwin 
Meiktila 

Mag we 

Yamethin 

Thayetmyo 

Rangoon 

Minbu 

Katha 

Kyaukpyu 

Upper Chindwin 

Kyaukse 

Tavoy 

Sandoway 

Mergui 

Ruby Mines 

Bhamo 

Myitkyina 

Salweeu 

N. Arakan 



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The total length of each bar represents the aggregate population of the district in 1901, while I 
shaded portion of the bar indicates the strength of the population in 1891. 

In Mandalay, Prome and Thayetmyo there have been slight decreases since 1891. 



N§ 6, sup; census 2- * -oz-r'tajo. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS Of BURMA; ; 3 l 



CHAPTER III. 



The Religions of the People. 

43. Of the religions of the Province Buddhism has by far the largest number 
Buddhi m ' of professed adherents. On the ist March 1901 there 

lsm ' ■ were 9,184,121 persons who had returned themselves 

at the Census or had been returned by the heads of their households as Buddhists, 
so that we may take it that 88*6 per cent, of the population of the province, includ- 
ing the Shan States and the Chin Hills, has nominally, at any rate, embraced the 
teachings of Gautama. The total of Buddhists shown at the preceding Census was 
6,888,250, but this is practically the return for Burma 'proper only, for the Bud- 
dhist population outside the limits of the eight formally administered divisions 
was then a meagre. 175. . For Burma proper the total for the recent Census was 
8,223,071, a figure which enables a far truer estimate to be obtained of the 
strength of Buddhism at the beginning and at the end of the decade.' 

Subsidiary Table No. III-A appended to this chapter (General distribution of 
Population by Religion) shows that the actual increase in the Buddhist popula- 
tion of Burma proper during the past ten years is one of 19 per cent., but that, 
whereas in 1891 in every ten thousand of the population 9,056 persons on. an 
average professed the Buddhist faith, the proportion would now be found to be 
only 8,910, or 146 lower. For the whole of Burma the contrast of proportions 
can only be carried back to 189 1. In Lower Burma, however, we can make a 
further comparison and can learn from Subsidiary Table No. III-B that during the 
ten years 1881 — 1891 the Buddhist population of Lower Burma increased by 24 
per cent. For the following decade, the one with which we are immediately con- 
cerned, the Lower Burma figure of increase, is the same as that given above for 
Upper and Lower Burma combined (19 per cent.) ; that is to say, it is lower than 
the growth of the previous decennium. Let us contrast one more set of figures. 
In 1901 in Lower Burma 8,533 persons out of every ten thousand were Buddhists. 
In 1 891 Buddhism numbered 8,680 adherents out of every ten thousand people 
and in 1881 no less than 8,702. We thus see in Lower Burma not only that Bud- 
dhism has not increased as rapidly as the other religions in the aggregate, but also 
that during the past twenty years its actual rate of growth has diminished. That 
its progress should not be marked by such leaps and bounds as is that of the im- 
migrant religions is natural enough. Why in the decade 188 1 — 1891 the Buddhists 
of Lower Burma should have increased by 24 per cent, and in the following ten 
years by only 19 per cent, is not so clear. ■ The cause probably is the return to 
their homes during the first period of ten years of the. Upper Burman Buddhists 
who, during the disturbances that followed on the annexation, sought a temporary 
asylum in the Lower Province, and for the time being swelled the ranks of Bud- 
dhism there. For the whole Province, including the Shan States and the Chin 
Hills, the proportion of Buddhists to every ten thousand of the population is 8,862. 

44. Of Buddhism as a whole this is not the place to write. All that need im- 
_ . mediately concern us here are the main features of 
Burmese Buddh.sm. thg fakh ag actually pro f esS ed in the province, in other 

Words, the practical working Buddhism of Burma. But first let us note that 
Burmese Buddhism, whatever it may now have become, was originally an amalga- 
mation of the tenets of the two main schools of Buddhistic thought, the Northern 
and the Southern, which are more or less, though not exactly, connoted by the ex- 
pressions Mahdydna and Hindydna. In his Studies in Eastern Religions Mr. 
A. S. Geden says: 

" The Buddhism of Burma is therefore certainly composite, and its character is perhaps 
best explained in the light of a fusion of Northern and Southern elements which met and 
exercised a mutual influence in the valley of the Irawadi." 

In his 1891 Report Mr. Eales discusses the two theories regarding the route 
by which Buddhism was introduced into Burma^ and inclines to the view that it 



32 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

found its way in by sea from Ceylon rather than to that which traces its passage 
down the valleys of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin from India. It appears that 
neither of these views is inconsistent with the actual facts as indicated (possibly 
with some fanciful imagery) in the ancient Burmese chronicles. The following 
note, which Mr. Taw Sein Kho has kindly written for me, not only brings out 
clearly the dual origin of Burmese Buddhism (a point to which, perhaps, sufficient 
prominence has not been given in the past) but also shows incidentally that the 
two component parts of the faith as professed in the province crossed its borders 
for the first time at different periods and from different points of the compass : 

" There are two schools of Buddhism, the Northern and Southern. Sanskrit is the vehi- 
cle of the former and Pali of the latter. In the Northern school, which is still professed by 
Nepal, Bhutan, Thibet, Mongolia, Corea, China and Japan, the existence of a Supreme 
Being, the Creator of the Universe, called Adhi-Buddha, is recognized, while in the South- 
ern school, which is now professed by Ceylon, Burma and Siam, the central tenet is that 
man, without any extraneous aid from any Superior Being, is capable of attaining Salvation, 
and that Buddha is the highest type of humanity. The adherents of the Northern school 
immigrated to Burma and settled down at Prome at the beginning of the Christian era. 
Some of the settlers came by sea, because Prome was then a sea-port, while others came 
possibly by land by way of Chittagong and Arakan or via Assam and Manipur. The 
Chindwin valley is full of ancient historic sites, and is redolent of traditions about Brah- 
manic kings similar to those prevailing at Prome. There were also Indian settlements at 
Yazagyo, Male, Tagaung and Legaing. Later on, in the 8th and 9th centuries A.D-, there 
was an upheaval of races in Central Asia and China, and ethnic pressure, due to the displace-' 
ment of race by race, profoundly affected the destinies of both India and Burma. Further, 
the advent of Muhammadan rule into the valley of the Ganges destroyed Buddhism in North- 
ern India, and the Northern school gradually lost its hold over Burma, because its life-blood 
had been cut off at its source. Meanwhile, the Buddhists of the Irrawaddy Valley had entered 
„ T , R , „ . . into relations with the bonzis* of Thibet and the Lamas of 

undoubtedly U d™rived from tlTfrhi- China, and the theistic character of the Northern school 
betan "Bonzi." became tinged with Shamanistic beliefs and corrupt prac- 

tices, of which the unchastity of the Aris of Pagan was the 
most prominent. When Nawrata became king of Pagan in the 1 ith century A.D., the 
prevailing religion had, indeed, reached a very low depth in its stages of decline and cor- 
ruption. 

" That6n was the stronghold of the Southern school in Burma. Thither the monks of 
Ceylon repaired for the propagation of their faith. It is said that the Theras, Sona and 
Uttara, were sent as Buddhist Missionaries to That6n after the Third Council held by 
Asoka in 244 B.C. The truth of this statement rests on the correct identification of the 
term "Suvannabhumi," the Aurea Regio of Ptolemy, with the ancient Talaing kingdom of 
Thaton. Be that as it may, Pagan is the place where the two schools of Buddhism coalesced 
under the auspices of Nawrata and his successors, and where the stronger vitality of the 
Southern school completely absorbed, assimilated and obliterated the Northern school." 

45. An account is given in the 1891 Report of what may be called the High 
Burmese Buddhist Sects and ' Low Church parties in the Burmese Buddhist 

uirr,e. j( . uc< ms acs. Church, the Sulagandis and the Mahagandis, to give 

them two of their many names. Mr. Taw Sein Kho says of them : 

" The Buddhist sects remain as they were 10 years ago. The attitude of each sect to- 
wards the other is not conciliatory ; at the same time it is not aggressive. A new sect has 
arisen called the (Kamatan, cogcp §?)• Its members believe that beatitude can be attained 
even in this life by means of austerity, self-control and ecstatic meditation." 

Another sect not adverted to in the 1891 Report is that of the Mans. These 
are to be found in small numbers in portions of the Pegu and Tenasserim divisions, 
the scattered remnant of a body whose anti-clericalism appears to have created some 
sensation in Upper Burma rather less than half a century ago. Their tenets 
(which seem to be somewhat similar to those of the Sawti sect, referred to in 
the article on Nam Hkam in the Upper Burma Gazetteer) are described in the 
following note, for which I am again indebted to Mr. Taw Sein Kho : 

" The sect was founded by Maung Po, a physician of King Mindon, in 1856. All Bud- 
dhists must revere the "Three Gems," Buddha, Dhamma (Law) and Sangha (Assembly of 
Monks). Maung Po taught that the third " Gem " was a mere excrescence, and he repudi- 
ated the obligation of the laity to supply the monks with the four necessaries, namely, shelter, 
raiment, food and medicine. His principal doctrine is that man's salvation lies in his own 
hands, and that salvation can be attained if one has overcome the Mdras (pronounced man 
in Burmese) as Gotama Buddha did. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 33 

" The Mdras are— . 

(i) Khanda mira or continued existence ; 

(2) Kilesa mira or concupiscence J ! - 

(3) Maccu mira or death; y f ' '■ 

(4) Abhisankhara mira or Karma, the result of one's actions ; and 

(5) Devaputta mara or the Tempter. 

" For a time these heretical teachings spread like wildfire as their acceptance absolved 
the adherents of the sect from the obligation to support Buddhist Monks. The Burmese 
Government, which was an ardent follower of the maxim of the Unity of the Church and the 
State, became seriously alarmed. The King at once ordered the arrest and impalement o£ 
the founder, Maung Po, and his sect was proscribed in Upper Burma. One of his princi- 
pal followers, Maung Ka, fled to Pegu, which then became the rallying point of the disper- 
sed and persecuted adherents. Thence the doctrines spread to Shwegyin and Thabyegan in- 
the Hanthawaddy district." 

46. It is easy to understand that the attempt to inaugurate any form of Bud- 

dhism that did not afford a full measure of regard for 
Bu™T r ° f the pr!esthood in the priesthood must, in Burma, have been foredoomed 

to failure. The Upper Burma Gazetter in the Chapter 
" Religion and its Semblances " shows that there are few phenomena more striking 
than the prominent part taken by the pongyis of Upper Burma in the political life of 
the past century. Their influence over the people on the one hand and the Gov- 
ernment on the other is as great as that exercised by any priesthood whose doings- 
have found a place in the annals of ecclesiastical polity. They have been described 
as "holding the balance between the rulers and the ruled." So dominant a power 
were they in the land a score of years ago that when, with the annexation, the old 
order was changed and the priestly prestige was threatened by the new, which found 
no place for the monkish intermediary in its system, there were few more pertinacious 
and dogged opponents to the British rule in the new territory than the wearers of the 
yellow robe. Nor was it only in Upper Burma that the flame of revolt was fanned by 
the priesthood. In Tavoy, Tharrawaddy and Sandoway, districts of the Lower Prov- 
ince, the pongyis fomented disaffection in the early post-annexation days. I 
should be the last to deny that, as a rule, the Burman ecclesiastic is the upright, 
clean living member of society he is said to be ; what I do maintain is that, when he 
falls below the high level he usually maintains, he but seldom scruples to use to the 
very uttermost his very great powers for mischief. The latter days of early British 
dominion were days of anger, hatred and malice, and it is not to be wondered at that 
the heart of the Church militant burnt within it. We have seen the result. I think 
it may safely be said that, but for the monks, the pacification of the country would 
have been completed far earlier than was actually the case. Even as late as in 1897 
a p6ngyi was able to collect a handful of fanatical laymen around him and lead them 
to a hare-brained attack on the fort at Mandalay. All this active participation in 
things temporal is, as Sir George Scott points out, as little in keeping with the 
frigid precepts of the Great Law Giver as it would be with the pacific teachings 
of the Sermon on the Mount, and would not for a moment be countenanced by 
the laity but for the fact — now largely recognized — that the Buddhism of the 
people, whose spiritual guides the pongyis are, is of the lips only, and that inwardly 
in their hearts the bulk of them are still swayed by the ingrained tendencies of their 
Shamanistic forefathers, in a word are, at bottom, animists, pure and simple. 

47. From a purely statistical point of view it is obviously immaterial whether 

. . the religion returned by the Burmans. or any other. 

' " " r ! ' body of persons is their real and not merely their nomi- 

nal faith. A Census Report, however, must at times be critical as well as statistical 
in its scope, and it will not be without profit, before passing on to a consideration of 
the animistic religion, to form some conception of the extent to which spirit wor- 
ship underlies the faith to which the greater number of people of Burma have given 
a professed adherence. The point is by no means new. It has been touched 
upon frequently before ; it forms the text of some of the most instructive para- 
graphs of Mr. Eales' 1891 Census Report, but I doubt whether even yet sufficient 
stress has been laid upon it. 

The phenomenon of a discredited but real belief existing for long periods 
obscured, but not stifled, by a formally superimposed creed is familiar enough ta 



34 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

observers. At no period of history has a nominal profession of faiths often far 
more exacting than the Buddhist been found incompatible with a genuine, if surrep- 
titious, allegiance to the gods of an earlier age. Who shall say how many centuries 
after the introduction of Christianity the performance of old-time idolatrous rites 
was kept up in rural England, or how many conquered orientals have consented 
to bow down in the house of Rimmon since the Captain of the host of the King of 
Syria was told to go in peace. The difficulty with which idolatry dies, even where 
Islam has long been the nominal creed of the people, has often been the theme of 
Indian writers.*' Among our Southern Mongolian neighbours the story is the 
same. Mr. Blagden, in his preface to Mr. Skeat's recently published Malay 
Magic, says — 

" It is necessary to state that the Malays of the Peninsula are Sunni Muhamadans of the. 
school of Shaf'i, and that nothing, theoretically speaking, could be more correct and orthodox 
(from the point of view of Islam) than the belief which they profess. 

" But the beliefs which they actually hold are another matter altogether, and it must be 
admitted that the Muhamadan veneer, which covers their ancient superstitions, is' very 
often of the thinnest description. The inconsistency in which this involves them is not, as 
a rule, realized by themselves. Beginning their invocations with the orthodox preface 
1 In the name of God j the Merciful, the Compassionate' and ending them with an appeal 
to the creed ' There is no godj but God, and Muhammad is the apostle of God, they 
are conscious of no impropriety in addressing the intervening matter to a string of Hindu 
Divinities, Demons, Ghosts and Nature Spirits, with a few angels and prophets thrown in as 
the occasion may seem to require * * * There can be no doubt that the 
increasing diffusion of general education in the Peninsula is contributing to the growth of a 
stricter conception of Islam, which will involve the gradual suppression of such of these old 
world superstitions as are obviously of an unorthodox character. This process, however, 
will take several generations to accomplish." 

; If this is done in the green tree of Muhamadanism what can be expected in 
the dry, the tolerant, easy-going ethical system of Buddhism? 

The whole spirit of compromise, in which rude uncultured minds regard new 
faiths that appeal more to the reason than to the instinct, that heritage of an im- 
memorial past, is admirably described in a legend that the heathen Karen make 
use of to explain away the apparent inconsistency of their Animistic practices 
with their belief in an all-powerful Supreme Being. It is given in 'Mr. Smeaton's 
Loyal Karens of Burma. It relates how some children, left by their parents in 
a safe place out of the reach of beasts of prey, were, nevertheless, so frightened 
at the approach of a tiger that, to save themselves, they took some pigs that had 
been placed in the shelter with them and threw them down for the tiger to devour. 
" Their eyes, however (so the -story runs), were fixed, not on the tiger, but on the path 
by which they expected to see their father come. Their hands fed the tiger from fear, but 
their ears were eagerly listening for the twang of their father's bow-string which would send 
the arrow quivering into the tiger's heart. And so, say the Karens, although we have to 
make sacrifices to demons, our hearts are still true to God. We must throw sops to the foul 
demons who afflict us, but our hearts are ever looking for God. ' 

It is doubtful whether the great majority of Burmans would be prepared to 
make a frank as profession of the faith that was in them as Mr. Smeaton's 
Karens. For all that, however, their position as regards their religious beliefs is 
no less anomalous. 

The whole matter has been summed up for us by Mr. Andrew Lang, who 
puts' into words a clearly acknowledged truth when he says in his Custom and 
Myth : " What_ the religious instinct has once grasped it does not, as a rule, aban- 
don but subordinates or disguises when it reaches higher ideas." In Burma, as. 
elsewhere, the existence of spirits, kindly or malevolent, as the case may be, is 
the fact that has from time immemorial been laid hold of and assimilated by the 
religious instinct of the native, and this ingrained conception the Burman has 
refused to cast off with his acceptance of the loftier truths of Buddhism. He has 
disguised it, that is all ; if, in truth, that can be called a disguise which is so unblush- 
ingly transparent: Nor is there any reason why it should be rejected. There is 
here no question of a jealous Jehovah, content with nothing less than whole-heart> 
fed devotion; Though it may not have been to fulfil that Buddha came, it was as- 

* An interesting examp'e is quoted at page 168 of Mr. Baines' General Report on the 1891 Census. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 3^ 

suredly not to destroy. Nothing that does not run directly counter to the few" 
positive precepts of the religion can be said to be proscribed. For the infidel and5 
heretic the. way of peace has no terrors. The Burman has added to his Animism 1 
just so much Buddhism as suits him and with infantile inconsequence draws' ! 
solace from each in turn. I know of no better definition of the religion of the great' 
bulk of the people of the province than that given by Mr. Eales in his 189 1 
Census Report, "a thin veneer of philosophy laid over the main structure of Sha- 
manistic belief." The facts are here exactly expressed. Animism supplies -the 
solid" constituents that hold the faith together, Buddhism the superficial polish. 
Far be it from me to underrate the value of that philosophic veneer. It has done 
all that a polish can do to smooth, to beautify and to brighten, but to the end of time 
it will never be anything more than a polish. In the hour of great heart-search- 
ing? it is profitless as the Apostle's sounding brass. It is then that the Burman 
falls back upon his primaeval beliefs. Let but the veneer be scratched, the crude 
animism that lurks below must out. Let but his inmost vital depths be touched/ 
the Burman stands forth an Animist confessed. As the author of The Soul of a 
People says when commenting on and justifying the outward" aspects of the faith 
of the people of Burma— 

'' For the outsider judges a religion as he judges everything else in the world * * 
* . He looks to acts as proofs of beliefs, to lives as the ultimate effects of thoughts. 
And he finds out very quickly that the sacred books of a people can never be taken as show- ■'. 
ing more than approximately their real beliefs. Always through the embroidery of the new 
creed he will find the foundation of an older faith, of older faiths, perhaps, and, below 
these again, other beliefs that seem to be part of no system but to be the outcome of the 
great fear that is in the world." 

\ 48. Of the population of the province a total of 399,390 persons only returned 
. . themselves as professed adherents of that faith to 

which practically the whole country really owes al- 
legiance. In 1891 the grand -total of Animists was 168,450, but of these only a 
single male represented the population outside the limits of Burma proper. In" 
1.901 the spirit-worshippers of the Shan States and the Chin Hills figured for the 
first time in the returns. They numbered 161,882 and accounted for the greater 
part of the difference between the totals for the two Censuses. Subsidiary Tables' 
Nos. IIIAandHIB would appear to show one thing that the average reader would 
hardly expect ; that is, that there were more than twice as many Animists in Lower 
as in Upper Burma at the recent Census, the totals being 158,552 and 78,956. The' 
Upper Burma Religion total, however, it must be borne in mind, excludes the inhab- 
itants of the estimated tracts, who; we may assume, were spirit-worshippers almost 
to a man. Had religion been returned in these areas we should in all probability have" 
found that the Upper Burma Animsts exceeded a lakh in number ; in other words, 
that they were about two-thirds of the strength of their co-religionists in the South. 
In Lower Burma the proportion of Animists to the total population of ail religions 
1$ steadly dwindling. In 1881 it averaged 384111 every ten thousand souls ; in 189 1 
only 32*0. The average has now fallen to 281. For all that there is not the actual 
decrease in the total of Nat-worshippers in Lower Burma which Mr. Eales anticipated 
in paragraph 59 of his 1891 Report. What dimunition there is is only relative." 
In Burma proper the proportion of Animists has risen since 1891 from 221 to 257 
per ten thousand. This growth, which is more apparent than real, is accounted 
for by the inclusion within the scope of the operations of tracts mainly inhabited" 
by. sp'rit-worshippers which at the previous Census were not enumerated. For the" 
whole of the province, including the Shan States and the Chin Hills, the proportion 
of "Animists is now -385 in every ten thousand of the population. Spirit- worship: 
thusranks numerically second to Buddhism. 

; 49.; In Burma the Animist is ordinarily known as a " Nat-worshipper." The 
.- ... Chinese, with the exception of such as returned them- 

,- Aniwisnr and ancestor wor-shrp. selves definitely as Christians, Buddhists orMus- 

-almaris,. have been included in this category. . The Burmans have no specific 
term for the ancestor worship. which forms the. basis of the Chinese' religions, and 
indeed in their, essence Taoism and Confucianism differ but little from the national 
indeed in their essence Taoism and Confucianism differ but.-little from the. national 
worship of the peolpe of Burma. " The underlying idea of a spirit-world peopled 



36 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



by inhabitants of like passions with ourselves, to be appeased, avoided, deceived 
or, if necessary, played off against one another, is more or less common to all. 
The fact whether the spirits are or are not ancestors is really immaterial. Nay, 
more, if Mr. Grant Allen is to be believed, all spirit-worship was originally ancestor 
worship. 

" Whenever (he says in his Evolution of the idea of God) we go back to very primitive-: 
religions, we find all men's gods are ihe corpses or ghosts ot their ancestors." 

And again — 

'.' Most often we can trace ghosts, spirits and gods to particular human origins. Where 
spirits exist in abundance and pervade all nature, I still fail to understand why they may. 
not be referred to the one known source and spring of all ghostly beings. It is abund- 
antly clear that no distinction of name or rite habitually demarcates those ubiquitous 
and uncertain spirits at large from those domestic gods whose origin is perfectly well re- - 
membered in the family circle. I make bold to believe, therefore, that in every such 
case we have to deal with unknown and generalized ghosts : with ghosts of most varying 
degrees of antiquity. If any one can show me a race of spirit-believers who do not wor- 
ship their own ancestral spirits or can adduce any effective prima differentia between the 
spirit that was once a living man and the spirit that never was human at all, I will gladly hear 
him." 

For my part I can certainly adduce no such effective prima differentia in the 
case of the spirit-worshippers of the province. So far as Burma and its surround- 
ings are concerned, I should say that everything was in support of Mr. Grant 
Allen's theories. 

50. It appears to be a moot point whether, to be precise, there are thirty-seven 
N ■ V in Bur or thirty-four nats duly recognized as such by the 

Burmans. Sir George Scott inclines to the belief that 
there are thirty-seven, though only thirty -four occasions of worship. What is more 
certain is that the spirit known as Thagya Min occupies a peculiar position as 
the ruling monarch of Tawadeintha, the land of the Nats. His annual descent to 
earth marks the commencement of the Burmese New Year. One of the most in- 
teresting of the nats is the Mahagiri Nat Min, in whose honour a cocoanut is to 
this day hung in the house of every self-respecting Burman. Of these and other 
nats a list is given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer, showing their names and origin, 
humble or exalted. I doubt whether it would be possible to say definitely that 
any one of these was never a human being, whose memory was revered by his 
descendants, till after the lapse of years the fact that he had really lived on earth 
was lost sight of. All the professedly animistic races have nats of their own. 
Their name, like that of the devils of old, is legion. The Kachins look upon one 
Chinun Way Shun as the primordial creator of the denizens of the spirit world, 
who, with the assistance of the subordinate nats whom he had called into exist- 
ence, created out of a pumpkin a man-like thing, from' whom the Kachin race is 
descended. Canonization is attended by no particular difficulties in the Kachin 
religion, for apparently it is possible for any one after death to be received into the 
exalted company of nats. The Sawngtiing Karens have the monopoly of a nation- 
al spirit who is known as Lei and who resides on Loi Maw hill in the Shan States. 
A hill (that of Byingyi) is similarly the abode of the arch nat of the Banyang 
tribe of Karens. The Taungthu have both village and house nats who have to be 
constantly propitiated, and there can be no question, I think, that the house nats are 
the shades of early ancestors. The same is the case with the Taungyo. The 
spirit who presides over their harvesting is known as the Saba leip-bya and receives 
suitable offerings at the time of the crop-threshing. Among the Karens of Lower 
Burma the Ceres of the taungya is known as Pee Bee Yaw. There she is not a 
leip-bya, or butterfly, but assumes the more sombre guise of a cricket. Kozin is the 
spirit to whom the Hakas and some of the Southern Chins do reverence, with a 
view solely to averting evil. The Siyin Chins have no such Supreme Being. 
For them there is no world but this, and this world is at best the haunt of number- 
less evil spirits who must at all costs be propitiated. Dwopi, In Mai, Nokpi and 
Nalwun are the names of some of these malignant beings. Each has a particular 
scourge that he" is able to inflict. One is the demon of madness, a second 
controls fever and ague, some can command a drought at will or sweep away the 
crops of a season in a storm of rain. Among the Chins of Lower Burma are 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 37 

found traces of ancestor worship mixed with the ordinary spirit cult. Offerings 
are made by the Southern Chins to the Khun or founders of the various clans 
who are supposed , to have an eye to the welfare of their descendants. These 
Chins, like the Burmans, have a Styx which after death they cross, though by a 
thread and not in a ferry boat. A being named Nga Thein appears to combine 
for them the offices of Charon and Rhadamanthus and a cauldron of boiling 
water is one of theprincipal features of their infernal regions. The Chins' hell has 
certain points in common with that of the Szi, but it is thought probable that the 
Szis' Inferno has been largely borrowed from their Burmese neighbours. The nats 
of the Palaungs are male and female and all of them have their names. The most 
powerful of these beings goes by the name of Ta Kalu. Like the Karen nats he 
favours one particular eminence. 

51. The most practical outcome of the spirit- worship of the wild Was is 
Animism and head-hunting. th u eir head-hunting. In the opinion of the Wa the 

ghost of a dead man goes with his skull and hangs 
about its neighbourhood, and so many skulls posted up outside his village gate 
mean so many watch-dog umbrce attached to the village, jealous of their own 
preserves and intolerant of interlopers from the invisible world. Thus every addi- 
tion to the collection of skulls is an additional safe-guard against ill-affected 
demons and a head-hunting expedition is undertaken not, as was once thought, 
from motives of cannibalism or revenge, but solely to secure the very latest thing 
in charms as a protection against the powers of darkness. It is interesting to note 
that the head-cutting season lasts through March and April, and that it is when 
the Wa hill fields are being got ready for planting that the roads in the vicinity 
become dangerous for the neighbouring Shans. In a word, the little that is known 
of the practice seems to hint at the fact that the victim selected was primarily a 
harvest victim. The whole question of the animistic basis of the ceremony is of 
the greatest interest, but it is impossible to do full justice to it here. I will 
merely quote' a passage from Mr. Grant Allen's Evolution of the Idea of God, 
which, read in connection with Sir George Scott's account of the Was, strikes me 
as highly suggestive — 

"For the present, it must suffice to say that the ceremonial and oracular preservation 
of the head, the part which sees and speaks and eats and drinks and listens, is a common 
feature in all religious usages ; that :t gives rise apparently to the collections of family 
skulls which adorn so many savage huts and oratories ; that it may be answerable ultimately 
for the Roman busts and many other imitative images of the head in which the head alone 
is represented, ar.d that, when transferred to the sacred human or animal victim (himself, 
as we shall hereafter see, a slain gcd) it seems to account for the human heads hung up by 
the Dyaks and other savages about their houses as also for the skulls of oxen and other 
sacred animals habitually displayed on the front of places of worship." 

52. The attitude of the Lower Burma Karens towards nat- worship has been 
„ . . , . r , „ indicated in an earlier portion of this chapter. Thev 

Spint-worship of the Karens. , , , ., , l , . . • 1 . 1 • • 

rave been described as temporizing with the spirits 
of evil till God's promised return. Meanwhile man is not altogether without in- 
visible succour. His guardian spirit, a benevolent being known as his La, ordinarily 
accompanies each Karen, but is liable to be separated from him and has then to 
be coaxed back with offerings of food. 

The following note prepared by the Deputy Commissioner, Amherst, from 
materials contributed by the Subdivisional Officer, Kawkareik, contains informa- 
tion about one of the Karen forms of belief which I believe has not been pub- 
lished before : — 

"It -may not be out of place to give the following narrative relating to a religious sect 
called ' Talakus ' or ' Bapaws,' which is not generally known. ' Talakus ' means ' hermits ' 
and ' Bapaws,' ' worshippers of flowers,' which convey the same meaning, as will be 
seen from the accounts given below. The history or legend of their origin runs thus : 

" About a century and a half ago Bodawthagya, a celestial being, seeing from the upper 
regions that the Karens were without God and religion, sent his grandson ' Saw Yor, ' who 
came down and lived with the Karens at Tawa, a place in Siarn known as Pramklauno-. 
Saw Yor, having forgotten his identity and mission, became as one of them, attending only 
±0 temporal requirements. When his grandsire saw this he came down to earth and re- 

10 



38 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



minded him of his mission, which was to teach them religion and bring them to God. The 
latter thereupon assembled the Karens in a hall and taught them religion. As they were 
simple as the fowls of the air, not being able to worship elaborately or expensively as other 
races, they were enjoined to pray with leaves. On this coming to the ear of a Siamese 
official, that functionary paid him a visit and attempted to capture him on the ground that 
he was planning a rebellion, when he declared his innocence, informing him that what he 
was doing was merely to bring the Karens from ignorance to light and religion, with the 
result that the official was persuaded to return with a present of Rs. 50. Some years after, 
when he had converted many to his faith, another Siamese official came to him and, accusing 
him of trying to subvert the Government, attempted also to secure him. Saw Yor gave him 
the same account of what he was doing and induced him to return with a present of Rs. 
ioo, begging him not to take him away, as, if that was done, the Karens, whom he had taught, 
would sink again to their former condition. Later on, when his converts grew in number 
and strength,, having arrived at a great age, he was on the point of paying the debt of 
nature. He then called his two disciples, a Sgaw-Karen lad and a Pwo-Karen lad, to his 
bedside and asked them to procure wood to make a fire as he wanted to warm himself. 
They complied with his request. The Pwo-Karen lad being the smaller and younger of the 
two brought a smaller wood. When the woods were set fire to one after the other, that 
brought by the Sgaw-Karen lad'being bigger and producing greater heat was more satisfac- 
tory to Saw Yor. He again requested them to light candles. When they were lit the Sgaw 
lad's being larger and brighter he was pleased with it and nominating him his successor, 
passed away. The Pwo lad was wroth at this and vowed that he would not enter the mon- 
astery occupied by him, declaring that he was not his superior intellectually or in accom- 
plishments. Here the Sgaw-Talakus and Pwo-Talakus separated, the former adhering to 
the Sgaw lad, who was afterwards known as Pukyaik, which means 'grandfather god' and 
the latter to the Pwo lad who became their leader. On the death of Pukyaik, Thaukkyaik, 
also a Sgaw, succeeded him. On the. latter's death Saw Pwo, another Sgaw, became 
' Talaku ' and stationed himself at Kyondo within Myapudaing circle. When he died 
Pukso, who is also a Sgaw, succeeded him and is at present at Kyondo. 

" This sect is called Talaku, because the founder was a ' Talaku/ a hermit. It is also 
known as ' Bapaw,' because the members were enjoined to worship with leaves, which in 
their estimation are flowers. According to their belief parents may pray for their children. 
When this is done children are exempted from that religious duty. Before a nat-worship- 
per is received into this sect he has to bring pebbles, one for himself, one for his wife, and 
one for each of his children, wash them properly, place them at the foot of a tree set apart 
for the purpose, and pray. From that time he and his family are recognized as Talakus or 
Bapaws and nat-worship with all its sacrifices has to be forsaken. In this they are different 
from other Karens who, although professing Buddhism, are not prohibited from worship- 
ping nats. They are unlike the nat-worshipping Karens in another respect also. Breed- 
ing fowls, ducks or pigs is prohibited, but they may eat them. There is no such prohi- 
bition with the latter, who may breed and eat them at pleasure. The greatest religious 
festival observed by the Talakus is known as the feast of a ' heap of fire,' which takes place 
yearly on the full-moon of Tabodwe, when, after three days' worship, a heap of wood about 
15 cubits high, brought in by those who attend it, is set fire to until it is reduced to ashes. 
1 his, it is said, has its origin in the warming of the first hermit, Saw Yor, by the fires lit 
by his two disciples. Members of this sect are returned as Buddhists because they profess 
Buddhism also, but they appear to be a distinct sect, whose reliance is much more on 
Talaku, the founder, and his successors. The leaves used by them at worship are, it may 
be noted, eugenia (cocfy) leaves." 

* * # * $ 

The sect professes to be dissociated from Animism, but the Animistic ad- 
juncts to worship, the pebbles, the tree and the fire, and the reliance placed on the 
founder, mark it out as a cult which is more allied to ancestor or spirit-worship 
than to Buddhism in its purest form. The narrative of its origin is picturesque, 
but it is hard even for the most ingenuous to avoid suspecting the hand of the 
plagiarist. The earlier portion dealing with the heavenly offspring sent on a 
mission of regeneration and the fear of rebellion that his teaching arouses finds 
an obvious parallel in New Testament History; while the episode of the two lads 
and the firewood might well, one thinks, have been suggested by the stories not 
only of Cain and Abel but also of Esau and Jacob. Even the douceurs presented 
to the Siamese officials seem a distorted reminiscence of the payment of Caesar's 
tribute. On the whole 1 should not be disposed to regard the traditions of the 
Bapaw sect as at all typical of indigenous thought. 

53- It would be out of place to examine critically here the non-indigenous reli- 
., , , . eions of the province. The principal of these is 

Muhammadansim, which has doubtless been system- 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 39 

atically dealt with in all its aspects in the reports of the other Provincial Super- 
intendents, but which will here be regarded merely from a statistical point of view. 
Within the limits of Burma proper the followers of the Prophet are more in num- 
ber than the spirit-worshippers, even if we admit that practically the whole 
population of the "estimated" areas (where data regarding religion were not 
collected) was — as no doubt it was — Animistic. Subsidiary Tables Nos. 1 1 1- A 
and III-B appended to this Chapter show respectively the general distribution 
of Musalmans in the whole of Burma and in Lower Burma at the last and at 
the preceding Censuses. In Lower Burma the total Moslem population has risen 
during the past decade from 210,649 to 287,187, i.e., by 36 per cent. Of every 
ten thousand souls in Lower Burma 509 are now, on an average, Muhammadans. 
In i88i,and also in 1891, in a similar number of persons 452 Musalmans would 
have been found. In his 1891 Report Mr. Eales, in commenting on the identity of 
the figures for the two earlier years, pointed out that this meant that the increase 
in Musalmans between 1881 and 1891 had kept step exactly with the increase of 
the population of Lower Burma as a whole. The 1901 figures show that the rate 
of progress in the Musalman population has since quickened somewhat. In 
Upper Burma the rate of growth is not so high as in Lower Burma. In Burma 
proper as a whole, the increase in the Musalman population is from 253,031 to 
337,083 ; in other words, the provincial total is now 33 per cent, higher than at the 
last Census. The proportion of Musalmans to every ten thousand persons of all 
religions has risen from 333 to 365. Of the total Muhammadan population, 
49,896, or rather less than one-sixth, were at the 1901 Census enumerated in Upper 
Burma, the remaining five-sixths and over in the Lower Province. The strong- 
hold of the faith is as is to be expected, when regard is had to the proximity of 
Chittagong, the Akyab district, which in itself is responsible for 155,162 or 
nearly half the Musalman population of the entire Province. Nearly one-third 
of the inhabitants of Akyab profess the faith of Muhammad. No other district 
in Burma approaches it in the matter of Musalman residents. Rangoon comes 
next, but far behind, with a total of 43,01 2, a figure which represents a trifle over 
18 per cent, of its total population, and Mandalay district follows with 20,342. 
In all the Muhammadans aggregate 3*7 percent, of the total inhabitants of Burma 
proper whose religions have been returned. If the calculation is made on the 
population of the Province as a whole including the Shan States and the Chin 
Hills the proportion falls to 3*3 per cent,, for outside Burma proper there are 
comparatively few Muhammadans. Taken on these larger figures Muhammadan- 
ism occupies the third place among the religions of the country. 

54. There were 279,975 Hindus in Burma proper at the date of the 1901 Cen- 
sus. Within this particular area, therefore, Hinduism 
lllCU ' outnumbered Animism — even with the concession al- 

luded to in the preceding paragraph — by at least twenty thousand adherents, though, 
when the Shan States and Chin Hills figures are taken into account, this excess is 
^converted into a deficit of rather over alakh. At the 1891 Census the Hindu popula- 
tion of Burma proper — excluding the political areas — totalled 171,577 only. The 
Subsidiary tables appended to this chapter thus show us that in that area the 
Hindus have increased within the past ten years at the rate of no less than 63 
percent., and that of every ten thousand persons inhabiting Burma proper, 303 on 
an average now profess the Hindu faith. The rise of 63 per cent, is lower than that 
which took place during the preceding decade (77 per cent.), and, when compared 
with the 1872-81 figure (140 per cent), dwindles into comparative insignificance. 
As it is, however, itts nearly double the Muhammadan rate of growth during the 
same decade. Everything points to the fact that the Hindus are gradually asserting 
their vast numerical superiority, and that, when their prej udices against sea voyages 
have been overcome, they are bound to outstrip all other competitors. In 1872 
the number of Musalmans in British Burma was nearly three times as great as 
that of Hindus. Year by year during the past thirty years the disparity has been 
reduced ; Census after Census has shown that the Hindus were creeping up. 
They are still behind the Muhammadans in number, and, so far as one can judge 
at this stage, they are not likely to have passed them even at the next decennial 
enumeration, but there seems to be no question that, unless the resources of 



4P REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

the country first give out, they will in the end outnumber them.. -. As in the case of. 
the Musalmans, the bulk of the Hindus enumerated in Burma proper at; the re-i 
cent Census were found in Lower Burma, the Upper Burman Hindus forming only'. 
12 per cent, of the provincial total. Mandalay is the only Upper Burma: district! 
where the Hindus exceed four thousand in number. There are more than twice 
as many Hindus in Rangoon Town alone than in the whole of Upper Burma, and' 
the Hanthawaddy district by itself boasts of a larger Hindu population than all' 
the Upper Burma districts put together. Taken on the population of Burma pro- 
per, Hinduism shows a percentage of 30. Computed on the Provincial total includ- 
ing the Shan States and the Chin Hills, where there were only 5,509 Hindus 
altogether, the percentage falls to 27. It is fourth in numercial strength of the 
religions of the province. 

55. The number of Christians in Burma proper in 189 1 was 120,768. This 

. total has now risen to 145,726, a figure which re- 

iani y- presents an increase of 21 per cent. The growth of 

the Christian population during the decade that is just over is not so marked as it 
was during the preceding decennial period. In 1881 the returns showed 84,219; 
Christians, and the rise from this to the 1891 total meant an accession of strength 
to the extent of 43'4 per cent. The reduction of the British garrison is no doubt a 
fact that has operated to arrest the progress of the growth of the Christian popu- 
lation in the province. What increase there is is proportionately greater in Upper 
than in Lower Burma. In his 1891 Report Mr. Eales said in regard to the Chris- 
tians of Upper Burma— 

" It would be unfair to take Upper Burma into ourcalculations, as it is only after the 
annexation of the Kingdom of Ava that our missionaries have had free opportunities since 
Thebaw Min came to the throne. The six years that have elapsed since the proclamation of 
Lord Dufferin annexing the Upper Province have witnessed a wonderful extension of mission- 
ary work in various districts of the newly annexed province, and everything points to the 
probability that the returns of 1901 will reveal still greater progress." 

Events have shown that Mr. Eales' surmise was correct. The Upper Burma 
Christians in 1891 totalled 8,786. In 1901 they had risen in number to 12,107. 
This increase of 38 per cent, cannot but, in some measure, be attributed to in- 
creased activity in the mission field. In the Province as a whole the Christians 
totalled 147,525. Of these between one-fifth and one-sixth were enumerated in the 
Toungoo District, which, second only to Bassein in 1891 in its aggregate of Chris- 
tians, now shows the highest district total in this particular. 

56. The strength of the various Christian denominations is shown in Imperial 
-. . . . . . TableXVII. Subsidiary Tables Nos. III-C and III-D 

Christian denominations. . ■,. ,,' , '. J , , ,, ,. r , 

indicate the relative growth of the different sects 
during the past in Lower Burma and Burma proper. Before going into details 
denomination by denomination, it may be well to draw attention to the very large 
number of people who are shown in the tables under the head " Denomination not 
returned." Some little time before the date of the Census I issued a letter to Minis- 
ters of religion asking them to assist in the enumeration by instructing the native 
members of their congregations, as far as possible, how to answer the enumerators, 
when, on the night of the census, they asked them to name the sect to which they 
belonged. I also suggested that it would be advantageous if those who could 
write were told how to write the name of their denomination in English or the 
vernacular. I had hoped that this precautionary measure would have resulted "in 
a very small aggregate of entries in which the Christian sect was not shown. In 
this respect I was disappointed, for the number of cases in which column 4 of the 
schedule showed " Christian " only was surprisingly large. Here and there I 
was able to infer from the locality of enumeration what the sect of Native Christians 
probably was and to show the persons concerned accordingly, but in nearly nineteen 
thousand cases the data seemed insufficient to justify any assumption as to the 
sect of the Christians concerned, who in consequence were not placed in any 
specified denomination. Looking at the figures as a whole, it seems clear now that 
the bulk of Christians whose denominations were not returned must have been 
Baptists. The number of Native Baptists is so large that I fear that the pastors 
may have been unable, with the best intentions, to comply with my request in re- 



REPORT- ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 4 *'. 



•s^iectdofcjmoreythdntaiporti'on >onfy-of fcheirfichafges. ,? Toungoo gave the largestf 
number of doubtful cases. Here the Anglicans, the Baptists and the Roman. 
GdthoHcsiarerialHactilv'e^;'! t^M'm oi/^ u :si&' : sUi^li'6:'"^-Jr:^r^fii^d:.::S :il 




less to- theT withdrawal of British; troops here- and there, but a' very substaritiali 
increase anfbhgEurasians and Natives, and, on the whole, the Lower Burma figures^ 
arie ; 93 per cent: higher' and the figures for Burma proper 76per cent, higher than ten' 
years ago. The 'decrease among Europeans is confined to Lower Burma;: > In: 
Upper Burmathe figures under this i: head shdw r a slight advance since the iaSti 
Census; In Burma r proper the comparison of totals cannot be carried back further 
fhan 'the ^1891' Census/ but in Lower Burmait wilMbe seen that the growth among'- 
tbe Anglican cdmmuriity during the past ten years is proportionately far greater; 
than at the preceding two decennia.- The figures given- above do not comprise^ 
thje" 1 totals for the Shan States and the Chin Hills. In- these latter areas, there 
wer'e^^pi members <)f the Church of England onthe 1901 Census night; 

58." Like the Anglicans, the Rbmah Catholics 1 show a decrease under: the"' 
""'■ 1 -, D - >'. ,• head of Europeans '. during the past decade, but an 1 

--- ;- Roman :Catholics. . , i. C . ., ., - -=,-.. K, • i • c 

increase on the . whole ' and notably in the case or 
Native Christians. ?f There is. further (what is not : the case :with the 'Anglicans) a' 
failirigbff amorig'the'Eurasians.' It is, however,: slight, and may in part be account- 
ed for by 'more "correct "classification. The diminution in the European- totals has 
Its" ongi'n', no" doubt, in the" movements of British regiments. As a whole the 
Roman Catholics have increased iri J Burma 1 proper at the'rateof 48 per cent. j since 
the" last Cerisu'Si In Lower -Burma" the rate of increase; for the same period" is 
exactlythe sanie. A' total of 853' Roman Catholics, not included in subsidiary 
Tables Nos. III-C and III-D, were enumerated in the Shan States and the Chin 
Hills in March 1961". 

59. Except in the case of Eurasian females, there would' seem to have been 
g t > a general decline in the strength of the Baptists, the 

;... < """' ''""""" most strongly represented denomination in Burma." 

The diminution among Europeans, which is large, is ho doubt real and is in all 
probability due to the transfer of Baptist soldiers from Burma. The decrease 
among Eurasians, which is small, is less likely to-be an actual falling off in num- 
bers. The drop in the total of Baptist natives is, as I have shown above, un- 
doubtedly apparent only. If we assume, as we may reasonably do," that by far 
the greater number of the natives who omitted to return their sect at the Census 
belonged to the Baptist communion, there seems to be no reason for thinking that 
this denomination has in reality gone down in numbers during the past decennium. 
On the contrary, it is probable that there has been a slight increase since 1891. In 
all 138 Baptists were enumerated in the Shan States and the Chin Hills. The 
members of this sect muster in the greatest force in the Districts of Bassein and 
Toungoo'. 

- 60;- Of the other Christian denomination's the most numerous is the Methodist^ 
f ri fi a ■■'-—■■ which numbers 1,238 adherents, in -Burma proper* 

er . eno : 1?n .' The bulk of the people classified under this; head. dre.^ 

strictly, speakings Wesleyans. The Wesleyans have several missions in Burma 
and 'manage one - of the twoiMandalay leper aSylums. c In Burma proper ;the 
Methodist increase during the past decade has' been one of .1 15' per cent. •.. After 
the'Methbdists in point of numbers^ come the Presbyterians. They number in all 
620, of whom 53 only were enumerated 1 in': -.Upper- Burma-.'? The Lutherans^ and 
Armenians come next. Their totals show that, while the former denomination is 
rapidly gaining ground in Burma proper (399 as compared with 235 in 1891), the 
latter has increased there by only 6 per cent, since the last enumeration. It should 
be pointed out, however, that the Lutheran population, which consists largely of the 
Scandinavian and German sailors on board the ships in the ports of the province, 
is liable to marked fluctuations. The Greek Church numbers only 67 adherents in 
Lower Burma and three in Upper Burma. Of the minor denominations number- 



11 



4 2 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

ing 28 males and 20 females, the Plymouth brethren claim the largest number of 
members. ; 

61. Sikhism was represented in the province on the 1st March 1901 by a total 

of 6,596 persons, 5,723 of whom were males and 873 
b ' h,sm ' females. The Military Police claims the bulk of the 

Sikh population of Burma. The total is 3,236 higher than in 189 1, the females- 
having risen in number during the decade to a greater extent than the males. At 
the last enumeration the Census Superintendent opined that many persons who 
were Sikhs by religion had been included among the Hindus. Experience in the 
abstraction office has shown me that Mr. Eales' view was probably correct. Very 
frequently I have found in the schedules that persons returned as Sikh by caste- 
were entered as Hindus in column 4, and constant care was required to ensure that 
Sikhs were not shown by the posters on the red slips reserved for the Brahmanic 
population. So substantial an increase among the Sikhs is hardly to be looked 
for when regard is had to the reduction in the Military Police that has been effected 
during the past decade, andl think I have warrant for assuming that the rise 
in the strength of the religion is to be accounted for partly by an improved system 
of abstraction. The Sikh elements in the Burma regiments must not, however, be 
lost sight of in a consideration of the matter. The creation of these bodies has 
doubtless largely counterbalanced the dwindling in the Sikh population caused by 
the reduction of the strength of the Military Police force. 

62. After the Sikhs the Jews come next in point of numbers. The growth 

of the latter during the past decade is remarkable. In 
Ju a,sm " 1891 they totalled 351 only. They have now reached 

an aggregate of 685 souls, of whom 417 are males and 268 females. _ As is to be 
expected, the bulk of the Jews (373 males and 253 females) are domiciled in the 
towns of the province, and considerably over half their number reside in' Rangoon. 
They are a small but well-to-do community. 

63. Between the 1881 and the 1891 enumerations the Parsis increased by 
„ . . 1 <. persons only, namely, from 83 to 98. At the 190 1 

Zoroastnanism. /-. ,, ■" J i j ■ • ,, -r 

Census there was a more marked rise in the /.oroas- 
trian population to record. The Parsi community now numbers 245 (160 males 
and 85 females) or more than double what it numbered ten years ago. The 
rise, which must be due largely to immigration, is far greater among the females 
than among the males. The latter have increased during the decade from 84 to 
160, while for the fourteen females returned at the Census of 1891 we now have 
85, or a total just over six times as great. With the weaker sex among the 
Parsis thus strongly reinforced one may look with some confidence for a substantial 
addition to the ranks of the religion before the 191 1 enumeration.. There were a 
total of 80 Parsi males and 46 Parsi females in Rangoon on the 1st March 1901, 
while Mandalay returned 22 of the former sex and 12 of the latter on the same date. 

64. Ninety-three Jains returned themselves as such at the 1901 Census, and 
... of these 50 or rather more than half were enumer- 

ated in the towns of the province. No comparison 
with the figures for the 1891 Census in respect of this religion is possible, as no 
Jains were shown in the returns for that year. There were doubtless Jains in the 
province ten years ago, but there seem good grounds for assuming that they were 
included in the Hindu population. The sects of Jains, like the sects of other 
non-Christian religions, were not returned in Burma at the recent Census, and I 
was therefore unable to comply with a request made by the members of the 
Bharatvarshiya Digarrbar Jain Mahasabha that entries should be made against all 
Jains in the schedules, showing to which of the three Jain sects — the Di^ambara, 
the Swetambara and the Dhondia — each belonged. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



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REPORT.ON-THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



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RRPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. III-C. 



45 



Variation ift strength of principal Christian denominations in 


Lower Burma since 1881. 










Percentage of 


Percentage of 


Percentage of 




Number 


Number 


Number 


variation, in- 


variation, in- 


net variation 




returned. 


returned. 


returned. 


crease (+) 


crease (+) 


increase (+), 
decrease ( — ). 


Sect. 








decrease ( — ). 


decrease ( — ). 




190 1. 


1891. 


1881. 


1891— 1901. 


1881— 1891. 


1881— 1901. 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Baptists ... 


65.237 


79.748 


55.874 


— 18 . 


+ 43 


+ 17 


Roman Catholics - ... 


30,728 


20,828 


16,28 1 


+ 48 


+ 28 


+ 89 


Anglicans 


17.414 


9,041 


10,058 


+ 93 


— 10 


+ 73 


Methodists 


1,071 


523 


238 


+ 105 


+ 120 


+ 35o 


Presbyterians 


567 


329 


655 


+ 72 


— 50 


— 13 


Lutherans 


35i 


234 


346 


+ 50 


— 32 


+ 1 


Armenians 


240 


186 


131 


+ 29 


+ 42 


+ 83 


Greeks 


67 


13 


95 


+ 4i5 


— 86 


— 28 


Others 


17.944 


1,080 


54i 


... 




... 


Total 


133.619 


111,982 


84,219 




+ 33 


+ 59 



Subsidiary Table No. III-D. 



Variations in strength of principal Christian denominations in Burma proper since i8gi 









Percentage of 




Number re- 


Number re- 


variation, in- 




turned. 


turned. 


crease (-)-} de- 


Sect. 






crease ( — ) 




190 1. 


1891. 


1891 — 1901 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Baptists 


66,722 


81,387 


— 18 


Roman Catholics 


36,252 


24,542 


+ 48 


Anglicans 


21,516 


12,202 


+ 76 


Methodists 


1,238 


576 


+ "5 


Presbyterians 


620 


441 


+ 41 


Lutherans 


399 


235 


+ 7° 


Armenians 


256 


242 


+ 6 


Greeks 


70 


15 


.+ 367 


Others 


18,653 


1,128 




Total 


145,726 


120,768 


+ 21 



12 



CENSUS, 1901. 



DIAGRAM. 



Showing proportion borne by the adherents of the principal religions in Burma to each other and to the- 

total population of the Provinces. 



1,000,000 



900,000 



800,000 



700,000 



600,000 



500,000 



4.00,000 



300,000 



200,000 



100,000 




900,000 



800,000 



700,000 



600,000 



500,000 



400,000 



, 300,000 



200,000 



100,000 



Anirnists. Hindus. Musalmans. Christians. Others. 

399,390 285484 339446 147.525 7,647 

Note. — The parallelogram represents the total population of the Province whose religions have been 
recorded. The shaded portions represent the proportion which the populations professing the non-Bud- 
dhist religions bear to each other and to the total population. The unshaded portion of the parallelogram 
represents the Buddhist population. 
No. 6, Supt, Census, 25-7-02—1,210. 



REPORT Of< *HE CENSUS Of BURMA. 47 • 

.-•..".:;i/;:>o 

CHAPTER IV. ""'" :: ' i:rivd 



Age, Sex and Civil Condition. ,, 

65. In the following paragraphs the age, sex and civil condition of the 
. . , c , a a population of the province are discussed. There is no 

Age returns to be first considered. r r . . r ..... . . . . .. , 

more obvious a natural division of the inhabitants of 
a country than into males and females, and, speaking theoretically, the separation 
of the enumerated into sexes should be the first of the matters dealt with in this 
chapter to engage our attention. Following, however, the order prescribed for 
adoption, we will .in the first place consider what are the principal facts to be 
learned from a consideration of the figures of the ages of the people who were 
enumerated in Burma on the ist March igoi. '■'' 

66. The " age " for census purposes was invariably the total number of years 
The ages returned. Definition the " person concerned had completed. Professor 

of- " age " and classification of von Mayr in his Statistik and Gesellschaftslehre has 
ages- shown how no system of age recording can be look- 

ed upon as wholly satisfactory that does not provide for an exact record of the year 
of birth of each person enumerated. In a country like Burma, where horoscopes 
are common, the data relating to dates of birth would in all probability be com- 
paratively trustworthy, but India as a whole has doubtless not yet reached that stage 
of culture that would enable reliable results under this head to be obtained. As in 
1 89 1, the system adopted in the classification of ages at the 1901 census was on 
the whole quinquennial. The first five years of life were, it is true, tabulated 
separately, but from thence onwards the ages were grouped by fives till 59 was 
reached, after which all ages of 60 and over were dealt with together. It is thus 
that ages are shown in Imperial Table VII, the table most intimately connected - 
with the ages of the people. Age-periods are shown also in Table VIII (Edu- 
cation), in Table XII (Infirmities), in Table XIV (Civil condition by age for select- 
ed races) and in Table XVIII (Europeans, &c, by race and age), but it is only in 
the Infirmities table that they are given in as much detail as in Table VII. 

67. Much has been written about the probable want of accuracy in the age- 
, . returns obtained at censuses, of the general ignorance 

o >...., c r. , of their ages displayed by the people, of the tendency 
of the enumerated to return their ages in multiples of five or ten, of the habit of sub- 
stituting the current year of life for the number of completed years and of 
other innocent causes of error, to say nothing of the incentives to wilful misstate- 
ment afforded on the one hand by vanity and on the other by a revenue system 
which gives exemption from certain forms of taxation to persons of below and 
above certain ages. Some of these disturbing factors exist, no doubt, in Burma, 
and it would be vain to look- for anything approaching absolute accuracy in the 
age-figures secured. Still, when everything is taken into consideration, I should 
be disposed to think that the data regarding age extracted from the Burma sched- 
ules were probably a closer approximation to the actual facts than those obtain- 
ed in any other province of the Empire ; in fact, in the matter of accuracy, not far 
behind those of many European countries. 

' ' 68. Subsidiary Table No. IVA appended to this chapter gives the unadjusted; 
U ad' ted ape-retum ages of 100,000 of each sex. ; The figures have been 

-.:;''. " JUS - specially obtained from the schedules of a few repre- 

sentative townships of Upper and Lower Burma. The localities chosen were such 
as did not exhibit an undue preponderance of foreign immigrants, and may, I con- 
sider, be taken as-fairly typical of the province as a whole. It presents no very 
striking divergencies from the figures given in the table printed at page. 109 of the 
1 89 1 report. The same phenomena are apparent throughout in both ; the 
inevitable popularity of the multiples of five and ten, the first decline among males 
from four figures to three at the age of 29, and from three figures to two at the 
age of 69, the high" place, taken by 3 in the first five years of life. It is clear, that 
rough the same causes, have been at work in both tables, When> however, we 



4° REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

compare these figures with the figures for India as a whole given at page 275 of 
Mr. Baines' General Report for 1891, we find very striking differences. What in 
Burma is merely a marked preference for certain ages might in India generally 
almost be called a craze. The following few examples will show how relatively small 
the popularity of the multiples of five and ten adverted to above is in Burma. 
The figures are for every 1 00,000 males : — 

Age. India, 1891. Burma, 1891. Burma, 1901. 

*9 m 835 996 

30 5.850 3.958 3.578 

31 301 879 930 

39 322 . 661 639 

40 5.240 2,665 ?MS 

41 216 667 577 

64 72 273 239 

65 493 484 748 

66 59 205 247 

Whereas in Burma the favoured figures, 30, 40 and 65, are never returned 
as much as five times as frequently as the figures in their close neighbour- 
hood, in India as a whole 30 is given more than twelve times as often as 29 and 
very nearly twenty times as often as 31, while 40 is more than sixteen times as 
popular as 39 and almost twenty-five times; as popular as 41'. It is much the 
same with other ages. To dwell on another point, it may be noted that, to all 
intents and purposes, 18, 28, 38 and 48 have been returned no more frequently in 
Burma than the ages in their immediate vicinity ( 27, 29, 37, 39, &C;) : there is 
hardly any. of that fondness for numbers ending with eight, which is another 
feature of the Imperial figures. The predilection for eight is due, in India no 
doubt, to the habit of counting by fours; possibly also to the influence of colloquial 
expressions. I cannot find that such colloquial expressions as exist in Burma,, such 
as, for instance, " four, five, eight " (ccoscls^S) or 33808 " a quarter, " {i.e., of one 
hundred, or 25) have left any recognizable impression on the ages returned at the 
enumeration. On the whole it seems to me that there is ample justification for 
the belief that Burmans generally have a far better idea of their ages and are far 
more likely to give them correctly to a census enumerator than the majority of 
the inhabitants of the rest of British India. 

69. It would, of course, however, be futile to assume that even the Burma 

age-returns were an approximation to what by rights 

Adjustment of incorrect figures .f~ , , • , 1 - . t> 1 r 11 r . 

returned. they should have been, lobe or any real value for 

statistical purposes the figures require to be adjusted 
or " smoothed," and this delicate process can be efficiently carried out only by an 
actuarial expert. The services of Mr. Hardy have been secured by the Govern- 
ment of India for the purpose of analysing and adjusting the age-returns of the 
census and of preparing from these data life-tables, tables of age distribution and 
birth and death-rates for the various provinces, and he has been supplied with the 
required figures from Burma. It would, as the Census Commissioner has recent- 
ly pointed out, " be useless to attempt to anticipate the results of Mr. Hardy's 
researches by preparing life-tables which would Carry no weight " andj in view 
of what is being done in this regard outside the purely Census offices, I do riot' 
propose to attempt even the approximate adjustment of ages which has been 
suggested by. Mr. Risley to Provincial Superintendents. 

70. The mean age of the two typical sets of 100,000 of each sex whose un- 

Ti.. ™ ni. w adjusted ages are given in Subsidiary Table No. IVA 

The mean age of the population. . J . _ . => . => . - _ J . . , 

is 25* 10 years for males and 25*28 years for females. 
This is slightly higher than the mean age for thei Whole province obtained in 1891 
(24*57 years for males and 24*51 years for females). The figures, based as they 
arfe on unsmoothed data, can at best only be looked upon as approximate, but, 
viewed in the light of the returns for India and Burma at the last Census", they 
may safely be regarded as near enough to the actual facts for the purposes of a 
general comparison. The slightly higher mean f6r females than for males is not. 
what would be expected in a community where -the stronger sex is more largely 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 49- 

Tecruited from without than the weaker, and indicates in all probability that the areas- 
selected were on the whole rather below the provincial average in their sum of able- 
•bod.iedmale immigrants than above it, for there can be no question that it was the 
immigrant element that in 1 891 raised the Burma mean for males above that for 
females. Contrasted with the data furnished by the more civilized nations of the 
West, the Burma means are distinctly low, even lower than those for Italy (35-1 years 
for males and 35*4 years for females), which are a good deal behind those for the 
majority of European countries. In England and Wales the figures are 437 years 
for the stronger and 47*2 years for the weaker sex, and in Europe generally they 
seldom fall below 40 years. 

Calculated on the figures for the Province as a whole, as embodied in Imperial 
Table No. VII, the mean age of the population is 25*04 years for males and 2475 
for females. Judged by a European mean, the figures would appear to be somewhat 
discouraging. The Census Commissioner for India has, however, a word of warning- 
to utter against the drawing of despondent inferences from the age-returns obtain- 
ed at a Census. In a note on the subject of the ages of the people he writes as fol- 
lows ■ — 

" In connection with this as-well as with the general question of the value of the mean age._ 
of the living, the following remarks of a leading German statistician deserve consideration : 
' Great caution is necessary iu drawing far-reaching conclusions from statistics of the mean 
age of the living. Like all large statistical averages, such figures are of value rather for 
the questions which they suggest than for the answers which they supply. In the case of 
mean age this remark applies equally to its variations at different periods. Nothing could 
be more fallacious than to assume, as has been done in France, that a rise in the mean age 
of the living of itself indicates ah increase in the duration of' human life, for it is clear that 
the mean age is affected not only by mortality but also by the course of the birth-rate. If 
the births increase, the numbers in the younger age-groups increase also, and this reduces 
the mean age of the living. On the other hand, if the birth-rate declines, the converse re- 
sult follows. A population which is actually dying out is bound to show a constant rise in 
the mean age of the living.' " 

71. That births in Burma are probably on the increase, the following few 

figures will show. They are a combination of the 

. Proportionate increase or de- tota l s f or t h e two sexes an d the three civil conditions 
crease in age-periods since 1691. . • r i • j • c t -j- 

given against hve typical age-periods in bubsidiary 
Table IVC appended to this Chapter, and show the distribution over those age-- 
periods of every twenty thousand of the population at the last two enumerations. 
- 1901. 1891. 

o— 10 ... ... ... ... 5.3io 5,283 

10—15 ... ... ••• ••• 2,131 .2,34.1 

15—25 ... ... ... ... 3/'S3 3.758 

25 — 40 ... ... ••• ... 4>6°4- 4.342 

. 40 and over ... ... ... ... 4>3 02 4> 2 76 

20,000 20,000 



The rise in the lowest age-period is not very marked, but it is sufficiently 
patent to.warrant an assumption either that the provincial birth-rate is improving,: 
or that better care is taken of infants.than in the past. Probably both factors have 
been at work. For the decrease apparent in the succeeding two age-periods, I 
Would hold the annexation of Upper Burma and the troublous days that followed, 
it- largely responsible. For whatcorresponds generally to Mr. Eales' "reproduc- 
tive-age-period," that extending from 25 to 40 years, the figures are a good deal 
higher than in 1891. Increased immigration is of course one of the main causes—, 
perhaps the main cause— of. the rise. There has been no falling off among, the 
seniors ; the population of 40 years and over is numerically .stronger than it was/ 
ten years ago, and the figures certainly contain no, indication of anything save a. 
diminution in the death-rate of the province. .: ' •'....", 

t 72. Imperial Table No. I shows us that of.the, 1.0,490,624 persons "enumerated 

in the Province on. the night of the 1st. March 1901,; 

j Proportion of the .two -sexes, "5,342,033 were /males, and .5,148,591. females.;, iri, 
other words that -50-9 per- cent..' of the provincial population, was of the. male; 
sex and- 49' 1 per cent, of the female,, or that r fore every .thousand, males; .there* 
were present 962* females. This last figure i&.preci§ely:.the:Jsaroe.,as. the corses- 
ionding figure' for the 1891 -Census.' and it is clear that; none of. .the physiologiM; 

*3 



5° REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

and social forces that have been at work during the past decade have been able to 
materially alter the relative strength of the two sexes. In provinces which labour, 
whether deservedly or not, under the suspicion of female infanticide, it is a matter 
of some moment to be able to assign causes for and to justify any marked dis- 
parity in the sexes which is to the disadvantage of the weaker. In Burma this- 
gruesome factor does not come into play, but it is incumbent on us, nevertheless,, 
to investigate the causes which have operated to bring about what would not, under 
normal conditions, be expected in a province like Burma, namely, a marked pre- 
ponderance of males. I look upon the preponderance as abnormal, because there 
appears to be an almost universal tendency for the proportion between the sexes 
to move in favour of the weaker vessel according as the woman rises higher and 
higher in the social scale. In European countries, almost without exception, the 
censuses show more females than males (in Sweden in 1890 and in Norway in 
1 891 the proportions rose as high as 1,065 and 1,092 females respectively to every 
1,000 males), whereas in Asia it is the exception, not the rule, for the females to 
outnumber the males, and the same is the case in Africa. In his Statistik and 
Gesellschaftslehre, Professor Georg von Mayr gives the following figures for the 
four continents : — 

Continent- FemaIes to . ever y 

1,000 males. 

Europe ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,024 

Asia ... ... ... ... ... ... 958 

Africa ... ... ... ... ... ... 968 

America ... ... ... ... ... ... 973 

The same authority goes so far as to say that, if it were possible wholly to do away 
with the migration factor, one might regard the excess of females over males or 
the reverse as a direct indication of the high or low estimation, as the case might 
be, in which the fair sex was held in the social world. 

"Warees moglich, das Moment der Wanderverschiebungen gaaz auszuschalten, so 
konnte man geradezu die Thatsache vorhandenen oder mangelnden Weiberuberschusses als 
Ausdruck der guten oder schlimmen sozialen Lage der Frau betrachten." 

Nowhere within the limits of British India, perhaps nowhere in Asia, is the social 
position of woman so assured as in Burma, and it is for us to consider why this 
position is not, as it should no doubt be, reflected in the sex figures of the prov- 
ince ; why, in a word, the figure for Burma is as low as 962, when in 1891 in Ben- 
gal and Madras, where women rank far lower in the social scale, it was as high as 
1,006 and 1,022. The reason is that, whatever may be done in other countries the 
migration factor adverted to by Professor von Mayr cannot, in Burma, be set aside 
or ignored. As we have seen in an earlier chapter, about 13 per cent, of the in- 
crease of the population of Lower, and 3-8 per cent, of that of the population 
of Upper Burma is due to foreign immigration and, as the great bulk of the 
immigrants are males, the ratio of males to females is disturbed to a very appreci- 
able extent. 

73. That it is the foreign that is the disturbing element is amply shown by the 

district figures given in Subsidiary Table No IVB 
^District proportions. Lower appended to this chapter. There are 36 districts in 

Burma proper; of these 20 are in Lower Burma, 
where immigration has most markedly affected the population totals, and the re- 
maining 16 in Upper Burma, where the indigenous element is stronger. Of the 
Lower Burma districts all but five (Kyaukpyu, Prome, Henzada, Tavoy and 
Thayetmyo) show an excess of males, while of the Upper Burma districts all but 
four (Mandalay, Bhamo, Myitkyina and the Ruby Mines) exhibit a preponderance 
of females. I must confess that I am unable adequately to account in Lower 
Burma for the excess of males in the districts of Northern Arakan and Salween 
where conditions are such as to lead one to anticipate a numerically superior 
female population. It may in part be due to two causes which have been found 
to operate among wild communities and which are touched upon below. In the 
case of all the other districts of Lower Burma the surplusage of males can nearly 
always be traced back to the presence of Indian or other immigrants. In Prome 
and Thayetmyo any addition to the male population that may have been caused 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 5 l 

by the influx of foreigners has been more than counterbalanced by the exodus o£ 
able-bodied Burmari men as harvesters to the delta, and a similar depletion seems 
to have been taking place in Henzada. In this last-named district, as in Thayetmyo, 
the males were in J891 in excess, but are now in the minority. In Rangoon city 
the disparity between the figures" for the two. sexes reaches its high-water mark. 
There were 165,545 males as against only 69,336 females in the city on the 1st 
March 1901, and the totals for 1891 give no indication that anything approaching 
the normal ratio between the sexes will be established there for many years to 
come. In fact, the proportion of females to males has been dropping uninterrupt- 
edly for the past thirty years. Rangoon is merely typical of the state of things, 
that exists generally throughout Burma, according as there are few or many 
Indian immigrants to affect the sex figures. How many of these immigrants are 
permanent settlers and how many mere industrial birds of passage it is impossible 
for us to say. It is much to be regretted that we have not now the opportunity 
that the Deputy Superintendent had in 1881 of forming a conception of what the 
relative strength of the sexes would have been in Lower Burma at a period of 
the year when milling was over and the harvest had been reaped. Had such 'an 
opportunity been given, we should doubtless have had figures as suggestive as 
those which Mr. Copleston was able to comment on in paragraph no of his. 
Report. 

74. Turning now to Upper Burma we may take it that the preponderance of 

females in 12 out of the 16 districts is the normal 
District proportions, Upper ou t CO me of the physiological forces at work. In the 

other four special causes appear to have operated to 
send down the total of females as compared with that of the males. What they 
are is not always very plain. In Mandalay district and city the excess of males 
-over females is' insignificant, and may be put down entirely to the military and 
foreign Indian elements in the district. Like factors have been at work no doubt 
in Bhamo, Myitkyina, and the Ruby Mines, but I question whether they account 
for the whole of the difference between the sexes. In the Ruby Mines district the 
concourse of ruby miners and the presence of large numbers of Maingtha coolies 
must further have swelled the male total, but it seems as though one must look 
further than this even for the cause of the general disparity. It is not inconceiv- 
able that it may have been due to the wilful omission 

*Z^iE*Z5?£2r ° f fe ™ les from r the "turns. At page 245 of his- 

General Report of 1891, Mr. Barnes, when comment- 
ing on the deficiency of females in several of the provinces of India, says : — 

" The above remarkable discrepancies must represent a state of fact or a state of feel- 
ing. That is, the difference between the two sexes in point of numbers must be real, and 
thus due to some general and widespread cause, natural or social, or else it must exist only 
in the census returns and be due to the estimation in which women are held by their male 
relatives * * * there is the inclination on the part of some classes of householders 
* * * to assume that an enquiry such as the census, instituted by the Government,, 
is very unlikely to be applicable to individuals of so little importance as girls and women, so 
that the latter are simply ignored in making the return without any intent to deceive. Then 
again, there comes the third section of the community who are open to suspicion in this re- 
spect, and that consists of the small settlements of forest tribes in the wilder parts of some- 
of the hill tracts, who deliberately conceal the number of their women, not on either of the 
grounds abovementioned, but from mere ignorant apprehension of what may follow the 
acquisition of this information by persons outside their tribe." 

Mr. Stirling's report on the Census Operations in the Northern Shan States- 
bears direct testimony to the fact that the first at any rate of the above states of 
feeling existed within his charge. Old people who were past work, we are told, 
were not thought by the enumerators worth counting ; pongyis and nuns were 
omitted because they had renounced the World and its allurements ; lunatics and 
cripples " because they are below the level of human beings." There is no special 
reference here to the ignoring of females generally, but the tendency to treat non- 
entities in the body politic as negligeable quantities for enumeration purposes is 
clearly indicated. I can only account for the whole of the deficiency of females 
in the three districts aforesaid, and possibly also in Salween, by the operation among- 
the Kachins and other backward communities in the north and east of the pro* 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



vince of the first, and probably also of the second of the factors alluded to by the 
late Census Commissioner forlndia. I am aware that the figures for some of the 
wilder areas, where a similar state of things might be expected to exist, lend no 
support to this theory. Though in the Arakan Hill Tracts males are in excess, in 
the Chin Hills and in the Shan States generally, there is a surplusage of females, 
and in Katha the fair sex predominates. Much, however, depends upon national 
idiosyncracies. I think it quite conceivable that a course of action suggested in- 
particular circumstances to a Kachin might differ considerably from that occurring 
in like conditions to a Chin or a Karen. Much, too, depends on the manner in which 
the enumerated are approached by the enumerators. Moreover, I hold that it is- 
not impossible that the excess of females in the Shan States and the Chin Hills may 
have been so great that even the working of the causes in question failed to bring 
the total of the weaker sex below that of the stronger. I have been particularly 
struck by a passage in the Census Report of Mr. Wooster, Assistant Political Officer, 
Karenni, printed at pages lxxii to Ixxiv of the Appendices to this volume, in which he 
says that during his census tours through his charge, namely,at a time when he must 
have been more than ordinarily alive to any noticeable features in the population 
as a whole, he "always found a superabundance of females." One would have 
imagined that an excess that was patent enough to force itself upon the Assistant 
Political Officer's attention would have left its impress on the figures : strange to 
say the totals actually are, males, 23,148; females, 22,647; there is a positive 
excess of 501 in the males instead of a deficiency, an excess that swallows up the 
whole of the addition to the population caused by the Military Police and other 
non -indigenous male strangers, and leaves a substantial balance in favour of the men 
to be accounted for. Whatever may have been the case elsewhere, there seems 
to be no question that, some portion of the women and girls whom Mr. Wooster 
saw were never included in the Karenni estimate. There is nothing to show that 
there is a paucity of women among the Kachins. On the contrary, in his North- 
ern Shan States Report, Mr. Stirling tells us that in the estimated areas " Kachin 
families averaged five persons, two males and three females," and wonders whether 
an equally large excess ol females is apparent in the census of Kachins elsewhere. 
If what was the case in North Hsenwi was the case in the neighbouring Kachin 
area in the Ruby Mines (and it is quite possible that it was), the fact would have 
been disclosed by the census figures, unless one or both of the causes above 
referred to had led to the omission of a number of females from the enumeration. 

75. An insight into the normal condition of things in regard to the relative 

strength of the sexes in Burma is afforded us by Im- 
ar^c^orn.^ *"" Pf ial Table No. XI, which gives the birth places of 

the enumerated. From it we learn that of the folk 
who were recorded in the schedules on the night of the 1st March 1901, a total 
of 9,888,124 had been born within the limits of the province, and that of these 
indigenous persons 5,010,872 were females and only 4,877,252 males. The figures 
in this Table are illuminating, not only in so far as they show how decidedly the 
weaker sex preponderates among the home-born, but as proving how much of the 
Burman emigration from Upper to Lower Burma is undertaken by males, and repre- 
sents the search on the part of indigenous men and boys for work in localities more, 
favoured than their own, for the female excess of 133,620, while distributed over- 
fifteen of the sixteen Upper Burma districtSj is confined to six only of the Lower 
Burma areas. In the remaining fourteen Lower Burma districts, there is surplusage 
of males even among the country born. Judged by these figures the migration 
shows signs of being to a considerable extent temporary only. Had it been more 
generally permanent, I believe that more wives would, have come with the men. 

76; Subsidiary Table No. I VB appended to this chapter shows the number 
Present relative strength of sex- of females to every 1,000 males by natural divisions s 
es as compared with strength at districts and cities, as returned at the last four cen j 
previous censuses. suses> p- or Tj pper Burma the comparison can only 

be carried back to the 1891 enumeration, and, on the assumption that the figures 
for: the Upper Chindwin and the districts of what is now the Mandalay division 
were in 1891 defective, there is little of importance to record in connection with 
the variations- between the ■figures, for the two censuses. Wherethe data are fairly 



REPORT ON THE CEftSUg OF BURMA. 53 

reliable they show on the whole an alteration bf the totals invifavOilf- of the fflalS 
sex. Of all districts in Burma the Lower Chindwin has the' largest 'p'foportidn of 
females to males (1,266 to 1,000). This, though far higher than that tot any' Other 
portion of the province, is lower than at the close of the preceding dece'riniuriij wlieri 
it was 1,292. The matter has not been touched upon in the district ^repbrti and I 
presume that there is no special reason for this very large preponderahce-Of females. 
The figures are presumably due to the ordinary causes. A normal excess of females' 
has no doubt been converted into an abnormal one by the emigration of able-bodied 
male harvesters and boat and raft coolies to other districts. In Lower Burma the 
fluctuations since i872 are very marked. In Rangoon and Myaungniya the pro- 
portion of the weaker to the stronger sex has been steadily declining, while - in 
Amherst, Kyaukpyu, Sandoway, Pronie, Thayetmyo and Touhgdd the nidvemerit 
in favour of the females has been uniform through the three decades. In all the 
other districts what increases or decreases are apparent 'have not been maintained 
through the thirty years under review. In Hanthawaddy for instance, iri the in- 
terval between the 1872 and 1881 enumerations, the proportion borne by the 
females to the males fell from above to below three quarters ; by 1891, however, 
the tide had turned in favour of the women, and the figures for the last census show 
that the females have during the past ten years still further re-asserted themselves 
numerically, though not by any means to the same extent as during the preceding 
decennium. Precisely the same " see-saw" phenomena are apparent in the Pegu 
district. In what I may call the "immigration " districts these fluctuations are,, 
of course, to be looked for. .,■;....-..- 

77. As I have shown elsewhere, the collection of vital statistics iri the province 

has not reached a stage that allows of much use being 

Lowef Burma. deathS ^ **" '" made of the returns for census Purposes. _ Taking, 

however, what data there are, we learn that in Lower 
Burma there were registered during the ten years 1891— 1900, the births of 
707,223 males and of 658,052 females. Here the preponderance of male births is 
in accordance with the practically universal rule that in the aggregate more boys 
than girls are born into the world. The excess of male over female births (1,070 
male to every 1,000 female) is slightly in advance of the 1891 figure (1,067) and 
may be said on the whole to range fairly high. It is, however, lower than that 
recorded iri some countries and need not be regarded as in any way exceptional. 
Professor Conrad . in his Grundriss zutn Studium der Politischen Oekonomie 
tells us that in Europe the excess seldom rises above 1,080 male to every 1,000 
female births, and seldom falls below 1,030. Of the deaths registered during 
the same decade 589,558 were those of males and 470,551 those Of females, 
that is to say, for every 1,000 deaths of females registered during the ten years 
iri question there were registered the deaths of no less than 1,252 males. It is a 
well established physiological fact that the stronger suffers from a higher rate of 
mortality than the weaker sex, and therefore an excess of male over female deaths 
is to be looked for. The disparity would not, however, have been nearly so great 
had normal social conditions prevailed in the area in question. As it is, the fact 
that the preponderance is unusually high is due largely, if not solely, to the pre- 
sence in Lower Burma of an exceptionally large number of males, indigenous and 
non-indigenous. This one-sided addition to the population is so disturbing a factor^ 
arid the figures on which the ratios are based are so far from perfect, that it seems 
useless to speculate: on what the proportion between the deaths of the two sexes 
would be in Lower Burma if conditions were normal, but, looking at the birth 
figures, which are not affected by immigration, there seems no reason to think that 
it would be anything out of the common. 

78. No new feature was introduced at the 1901 census into the system of 

classification by civil condition. The three-fold divi- 
Civil condition. s j Qn Q £ the peop i e ; nto marr i e d, unmarried and 

widowed was adhered to. In the spirit ofthe instructions published at the 189 1 
enumeration, orders were issued to the enumerators to treat all divorced persons as 
widowed, not as married or unmarried. The question of how to classify the di- 
vorced is always a somewhat difficult one, but, so far as this province is concerned, 
their treatment as widows or widowers, as the case may be, is quite unexceptionable. 

14 



54 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Remarriage after divorce is extremely common in Burma, and divorce is, in the eyes 
of the people, so far less serious a step than in Europe that there is every reason 
for believing that divorced persons who had a second time ventured on matrimony 
practically always returned themselves as married and not as divorced when ques- 
tioned by the enumerator, so that the totals of widowed shown in the tables prob- 
ably represents very little over and above the population who have actually been 
bereft by death of their wives or husbands. 

79. Volumes might be written about marriage among the inhabitants of 

Burma. It must suffice here to touch upon one single 
Marriage in Burma. point whichj j n view of certa j n ques tions that have been 

put to Provincial Superintendents of Census by the Census Commissioner for India, 
seems to need to be emphasized. That is the absolutely secular nature of the 
marriage ceremony. Religion plays as poor a part in it as does the tender pas- 
sion in the unions of the great bulk of the inhabitants of India proper ; no interval 
separates the ceremony from the date on which conjugal relations commence, so 
that when we are asked in Burma to ascertain and report what seasons are deem- 
ed propitious for marriages, by what considerations these seasons are determined 
in each case, and what periods are regarded as favourable for the commencement of 
married life, our reply must be that the Burman no more selects a special period for 
marrying or for consummating his marriage than he does for drafting a lease or 
filing a law-suit. When the promptings to matrimony come he gets married, and 
is done with it. The questions alluded to possess, no doubt, considerable interest 
if we are to believe that the place in the calendar assigned to the marriage season 
affects the sex of the children born into a given community. It is unfortunate 
that they admit of no reply in Burma. 

80. Below are given, side by side, the proportions borne by the representa- 

Percentage of unmarried, mar- tiveS ° f the t hree civil Conditions in ea ch sex to the 

ried and widowed to total popu- total population whose ages were recorded at the last 
latl0n - two enumerations — 

Male, unmarried 
Female, unmarried 
Male, married 
Female, married 
Male, widowed 
Female, widowed 



Total 



1891 


1901 


percentage. 

28-4 


percentage. 
28-8 


24-8 


25-0 


20'I 


20-0 


186 


187 


2'4 


22 


57 


5"3 


1000 


ioo-o 



The actuals on which these percentages are based are large enough to be of 
considerable statistical value. Looked at as whole, the figures carry on their face 
an indication that marriage is not now quite so freely resorted to as it was a decade 
back, for, in the case of both sexes, the percentage of the unmarried has risen to an 
extent which cannot be wholly accounted for by an improvement in the birth-rate 
during recent years. Among the males this increase is counterbalanced by a 
slight reduction in the married and by a proportionately rather larger fall in the tale 
of the widowers. Among the females on the other hand, wives, like spinsters, are 
more numerous now than in 189 1, and the whole of the relative increase in the case 
of the unmarried and married has to be met by the widows, in whose ranks there 
is a sensible diminution. Leaving out of consideration the fluctuation in the 
birth and death rates, regarding which we have nothing of real utility on record, 
the inference to be drawn from these percentages is that, among the men, re- 
marriage is somewhat commoner than it was ten years ago, but that the increase 
in second marriages is not sufficient to counteract the diminution in the total of 
husbands caused by the greater reluctance of the bachelors of Burma to enter the 
married state ; whereas, among the women, though matrimony is not so readily 
embarked on by spinsters as heretofore, the greater willingness of widows to re- 
marry has prevented the proportion of wives from dropping below the 1891 level. 
81. The working of the above social phenomena is brought out in rather 
r . ., ... , , greater detail by the figures contained in Subsidiary 

pe C,v,l cond** by sex and age- Table No. IVC, which shows the distribution by civil 

condition and main age periods of 10,000 of each 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



55 



sex at the last two enumerations. The increase, in the case of both sexes,' in the 
number of married children of between ten and fifteen years of age is indicative 
merely of the increase in the total of Indian immigrants in the province; For 
the population of between 15 and 25, that is to say, among those persons who 
have arrived at an age at which the majority of first marriages have been con- 
tracted in Burma, there is a marked falling off among the married men and only 
a slight increase among the married women. By the time the 25 — 40 age-period 
has been reached the married males have risen again in number. Here we may 
claim to see the operation of prudential motives, which tend to defer the marriage 
day to a more and ever more mature age, but the very appreciable decrease among 
the widowers in this age-period shows also that a portion of the difference be- 
tween the proportions per 10,000 for the two enumerations must be put down to 
re-marriages. Exactly the same may be said regarding the female figures cover- 
ing this space of 15 years. In the last age-period (40 and over) both widows 
and widowers show a proportionate falling off during the decade that is past, but 
the diminution is not counterbalanced by any increase among the married, for 
wives and husbands too have declining figures to exhibit, while the unmarried 
totals are practically double what they were at the previous census. For this age- 
period we must, therefore, presume that re-marriage has not been able to affect 
the totals, and may look for a possible cause of such diminutions as the figures 
show in a rather higher rate of mortality among those who have entered wedlock 
than among those who have not. In India an increase in the re-marriage of widows, 
such as seems to be disclosed by the above figures, would be a symptom of con- 
siderable significance. In Burma no special interest can be held to attach to the 
data. What is more to the point in this province is the fact, that the age of mar- 
riage appears to have risen to a slight extent. On the whole, so far as they go, 
the percentages may be regarded as satisfactory. 

82. Any table showing the variation of the strength of the three civil condi- 

tions from locality to locality is in Burma of interest 
for D N a t tiral i Divi 3 sion C i Vil condition mainly in so far as that variation is regulated by the 

presence of non-indigenous immigrants whose social 
economy differs from that of the people of the country. Subsidiary Table No. 1VD 
printed at the end of this chapter gives the distribution by civil condition of 19,000 
of each sex for the natural divisions of the province ; and though some of its columns 
tell us nothing, others are a clear though indirect indication of the spread of the 
Indian immigrant pop^ation over the land. In Rangoon city, for instance, the ab- 
normally high proportion of married among children of between ten and fifteen 
years of age (53 in every 10,000 for males and 21 for females) bears indubitable 
testimony to the presence of foreigners among whose institutions infant marriage 
plays a prominent part. Similarly, the higher ratio of males in the prime of life 
in Lower than in Upper Burma speaks to the immigration of able-bodied workers 
from Madras and Upper Burma into the Southern areas of the province. 

83. Imperial Table No. VII, giving, as it does, data for each of the principal 
religions of the province, will furnish the reader with a fairly adequate concep- 
tion of the civil condition of the indigenous population on the one hand and 
of the foreign immigrants on the other. Religion is, however, after all, not 
altogether a reliable test of nationality in Burma, and perhaps the most profitable 
statistics regarding marriage among the people with whom we are most intimately 
concerned, namely,, the natives of the soil, are to be gathered from the columns of 
Imperial Table XIV, which gives the civil condition by age for 50,000 of each 

sex for the principal indigenous races of Burma, the 

enius race!'" 011 by age f<>r ind "" Burmese > the Shans > the chins > the Karens and the 

Kachins. The main object of the table, as originally 

prescribed, was to throw light on the prevalence of infant marriage, the extent of 
the prohibition of widow re-marriage and the prevalence of female infanticide. 
None of these are questions that can be regarded as in any way burning in Burma, 
and at first sight the utility of the figures in this province seemed to me problem- 
atic. The Census Commissioner, however, pointed out that it was a pity to miss 
this opportunity of obtaining in Burma data by which to measure the effect of the 
arbitrary matrimonial systems which prevail in India, and accordingly the table was 



|(5 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

adopted in a somewhat modified form. Subsequent facts have amply demon- 
strated the wisdom of Mr, Risley's suggestion. When discussing the value of the 
table comparatively early in the operation I had not had an opportunity of study- 
ing the question of the extent to which endogamy and exogamy prevailed in Bur- 
mai Since' then, however, I have gone into this interesting subject as fully as thij 
limited time at my disposal has allowed, and have summarized the few facts on the 
subject that I have collected from various sources at the end of Chapter VIII of 
this volume. Briefly put; it appears to be the case that while in the plains endo- 
gamy and exogamy may be said to be non-existent, among the hill tribes, both to 
the east and to the west of Burma proper, custom has placed considerable restric- 
tions on marriage. For an outline of the nature of these restrictions I would refer 
tO the paragraph in question. It will be interesting to consider whether any of 
these matrimonial limitations have left any impress on the figures in Table XIV. 
In the case of the Kachins and the Karens they would certainly seem to have done 
so. It is true that the Karens selected for exhibition in the table were for the most 
part hot of the classes among whom the Upper Burma Gazetteer teaches us endo- 
gamy is more than ordinarily rampant. For them, unfortunately, we have no 
figures relating to civil conditions, as in the main they inhabit the " estimated " areas 
of Karenni. Still I believe that a certain proportion of endogamists have been in- 
cluded in the 100,000 Karen males and females whose age and civil condition have 
been shown in Table XIV. Both in the case of males and females the total of 
married Karens and Kachins in every 50,000 of each sex is very much below the 
corresponding figures returned for the Burmese and Shans respectively, as the 
following figures will show : — 

Males. Females. 

Burmese ... ... ... ... ••■ 21,074 20,900 

Shans ... ... ... ... ... 20,382 20,169 

Karens ... ... ... ... ... 16,868 18,179 

Kachins ... ... ... ... ... 18,310 16,498 

I believe that we have here an actual demonstration of the effect produced by 
their marriage customs on the two first named indigenous races. After a perusal 
of the above figures, and knowing what we do know of our Western Hill tribes, it 
comes more or less as a surprise to learn that the Chin totals (21,764 males and 
23,352 females in 50,000 of each sex) are higher than the Burmese and Shan- 
Taken on a proportion only of the total population, the data cannot of course have 
the same weight as if they had been calculated on the population as a whole. I 
believe, however, that the numbers are large enough to warrant a belief that, as a 
rule, the Chin, unlike the Karen and the Kachin, is not deterred from matrimony 
by any limitation of the area from which he is allowed to select a consort. It is 
somewhat strange that in polygamous races like the Burmans, the Shans and 
the Kachins, the proportion of married females in a lakh of persons selected at 
random should be lower than that of married males. Mr. Eales has, however, in 
his 1 891 Report, already commented on the fact that polygamy can hardly be 
Said to have left any appreciable mark on the census returns, and in communities 
where the marriage tie is so loose and connubial relations are so haphazard as among 
the hill tribes of Burma, it is almost impossible to predicate with any certainty 
the outcome of an enumeration of the married by sexes. One thing that Imperial 
Table No. XIV seems to make clear is that marriages are not as a rule contract- 
ed at. so early an age among the less civilized hill folk as among the Burman 
population proper, and that in respect of immature unions, the Shan figures ap- 
qroximate those for the Chins, Karens and Kachins more closely than they do 
those for the Burmese. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. IVA. 



57 



Unadjusted Age return of 1 00,000 of each sex. 



Age. 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



15 

16 

17 

18 

19 



20 
21 
22 
23 
24' 



25 
26 

27 
28 
29 



3° 
3i 
32 
33 
34 



Male. 



2.357 
2,155 
2.9°3 
3.329 
2.755 

13.499 



3.198 
2,540 
2,645 
2,442 
i,974 

12,799 



3,575 
1,605 

2,473 
2,212 

i,756 
11,621 



2,320- 
i,454 
i,734 
1,725 
1,163 

8,396 



3,210 
i,034 
1,149 
1,360 
1,156. 

7,909 



2,879 
i,358 
1.432 
1,368 
996 

8,033 



3,578 

930 

1,192 

1,206 

941 

7.847 



Female. 



2,625 
2,280 
2,839 

3,257 
2,698 

13,699 



3,i45 
2,365 
2,354 
2,339 
1,857 

12,060 



3,315 
1,639 
i,93i 
1,43° 
1,901 

10,216 



2,357 
1,640 
1,988 
1,597 
1,242 

8,824 



3,426 
1,056 
1,214 
1,439 
984 

8,119 



3,086 
1,238 
1,194 
1,295 
1,078 

7.891 



3443 

805 

1,129 

1,232 

881 

7.490 



Age. 



35 
36 
37 
38 
39 



40 

41 
42 

43 
44 



45 
<6 
47 
48 
49 



5o 
5i 
52 
53 
54 



55 
56 
57 
58 
59 



60 
61 
62 
63 
64 



65 
66 

67 
68 

69 



Male. 



2,622 

1,009 

1,032 

898 

639 

6,200 



2,445 
577 
804 
6S7 
537 

5,050 



2,022 
637 

736 
622 
37o 

4,387 



2,010 
5oi 

552 
473 
297 

3,833 



1,204 
624 
475 
375 
217 

2,895 



1,506 
362 

405 
393 
239 

2,905 



748 

247 

3S8 

200 

76 

1,659 



Female. 



2,446 
961 

936 
824 

554 
5,72i 



2,461 
641 

815 
781 



5,186 



L958 
654 
771 
625 

359 
4,367 



2,360 
534 

576 
491 

356 
4,317 



1,287 
570 
508 
368 

220 

2,953 



1,908 
357 
439 
393 
233 

3,330 



913 

270 

405 
186 

108 

1,882 



Age. 



70 

7i 

72 
73 
74 



75 
76 
77 
78 
79 



80 
81 
82 
83 

84 



85 
86 

S7 
88 
89 



90 
9i 
92 
93 
94 



95 
96 

97 
98 

99 



100 
101 
102 
103 
104 



Male. 



Grand Total 



985 


1,518 


199 


204 


156 


167 


196 


175 


80 


III 



1,616 



709 



445 



71 
21 

13 



117 



53 
3 
4 
3 



63 



14 



Female. 



2,175 



352 


451 


117 


93 


120 


109 


78 


"3 


42 


50 



100,000 



816 



132 


522 


41 


47 


31 


40 


27 


31 


14 


14 



654 
83 

22 
14 
10 

7 
136 



123 
3 
4 
3 
2 

135. 



H 
2 

4 
1 



100,000 



15 



58 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



Subsidiary Table No. IVB. 



General proportion of the sexes, by Natural Divisions, Districts and Cities. 







Females to 1,000 males. 


Natural divisions, districts and cities. 








1872. 




1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


I. Myitkyina ... 


737 


752 


... 


... 


2. Ruby Mines 


819 


613 


... 


... 


3. Bhamo 


915 


500 




... 


4. Upper Chindwin 


1,003 


985 


... 


... 


5. Pakokku Chin Hills ... 


1,003 


*.. 


... 


... 


6. Northern Shan States 


1,006 


• >• 


... 


... 


7- Chin Hills... 


1,020 


... 


... 


... 


8. Southern Shan States.;. 


1,023 


... 


■«. 




9. Katha 


1.037 


938 


... 


... 


Upper Burma, Wet 


987 


828 


... 


... 


1. Mandalay... 


999 


1,034 


... 


... 


2. Yamethin ... 


1,020 


996 






3. Kyaukse ... 


1.037 


1,017 


... 




4. Magwe 


1,071 


1,043 


... 




5. Minbu 


1,088 


1,099 


... 


... 


6. Meiktila ... ... - 


1,119 


1,130 


... 


... 


7. Pak6kku ... 


1,124 


1,123 




... 


8. Sagaing ... 


i.i39 


i,i5« 


... 




9. Shwebo 


1,140 


1,121 


... 


... 


10. Myingyan ... 


i,H3 


M35 


... 




11. Lower Chindwin 


1,266 


1,292 






Upper Burma, Dry 


1,113 


1,111 


... 


... 


1. Akyab 


797 


807 


771 


867 


2. Hanthawaddy 


816 


813 


744 


788 


3. Amherst ... 


831 


822 


727 


716 


4. Thongwa ... 


853 


841 


864 


917 


5. Pegu 


854 


849 


807 


858 


6. Thaton 


906 


903 


'.093 


1,078 


7. Myaungmya 


908 


942 


956 


1,047 


8. Mergui 


918 


901 


929 


934 


9. Bassein 


919 


93 2 


9'3 


933 


10. Salween 


944 


903 


935 


933 


11. North" ern Arakan 


959 


941 


942 


837 


12. Sandoway ... 


978 


978 


954 


952 


13. Tavoy 


1,015 


1,039 


1.034 


1,017 


14. Kyaukpyu... 


1,082 


1,049 


1,005 


974 


Lower Burma, Littoral 


875 


877 


866 


904 


1. Toungoo ... 


944 


93i 


835 


822 


2. Tharrawaddy 


968 


980 


939 


997 


3. Henzada ... 


1,006 


992 


991 


1,058 


4. Thayetmyo 


1,015 


993 


942 


928 


5. Prome 


1.050 


1,032 


996 


983 


Lower Burma, Sub-Deltaic 


997 


990 


95'i 


971 


Burma (rural) 


980 


974 


897 


929 


1. Rangoon City 


ti9 


445 


466 


583 


2. Mandalay City 


964 


1,041 


... 




Burma (whole) 


962 


959 


877 


914 



Subsidiary Table No. IVC. 



Distribution by civil condition and main age-periods of 10,000 of each sex at the last two 

Censuses. 





Males. 


Females. 


Age. 


Unmarried. 


Married- 


Widowed. 


Unmarried. 


Married. 


Widovted. 




1901. 


1 891. 


1901. 


1891. 


1901. 


189 1. 


1901. 


1891. 


1901. 


1891. 


1901. 


1891. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


— 10 ... 
10—15 — 

15—25 ... 
25—40 ... 
40 and over 


2,582 

1,082 

1,297 

500 

185 


2,573 
1,190 

',34° 

376 

98 


" - 6 

444 

i, 8 33 

1,646 


2 

456 

1,814 

1,674 


21 
101 
303 


29 
124 
324 


2,728 

1,028 

953 

235 

157 


2,711 

1,142 

979 

I 5° 

77 


14 
877 

1.745 
1,173 


'"6 

875 
1,669 
1.232 


1 

61 
190 
838 


79 
209 
871 


Total (all ages)... 


5.646 


5.577 


3,929 


3.946 


425 


477 


5.101 


5.059 


3.809 


3,782 


1,090 


M59 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. IVD. 



59 



Distribution by civil condition of iOjOOO of each sex for Natural Divisions. 





Civil condition of 10,000 Females. 




At all ages. 


— 10. 


10—15. 


15—40. 




40 over. 


Natural 


















division. 


-a 






■d 






•d 






•O 






•0 








V 




•0 






•0 


a 




•a 


V 


. 


•d 




• 


■0 










i» 








•a 


QJ 


U 


•O 




u 


•0 


8J 




L. 

e 






T3 


rt 

E 


.Si 
'C 




•0 


rt 
E 


.32 

u 


■s 

•0 


E 





•a 


rt 

E 


.Si 

'u 

u 




•a 




c 
3 




£ 


c 


* - 


£ 


c 
D 


s 


£ 


c 


2 


£ 


c 
D 


s 


£ 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Up?er Bur- 


4,607 


4,048 


i,345 


2,597 






829 


(2 




1,052 


2,796 


33° 


129 


1,240 


1,015 


ma, Wet. 
































Upper Bur- 


5.058 


3,673 


1,269 


2,634 




... 


972 


7 




1,224 


2,353 


245 


'228 


i,3«3 


1,024 


ma, Dry. 
































Lower Bur- 


5.356 


1,818 


826 


2,905 




... 


1,140 


20 


I 


1,185 


2,73° 


211 


126 


1,068 


614 


ma, Litto- 
































ral. 
































Lower Bur- 


5.259 


3,77° 


971 


2,777 


... 


... 


1,112 


12 


... 


1,245 


2,676 


247 


125 


1,082 


724 


ma, Sub- 
































Deltaic. 
































Burma (ru- 


5.>2I 


3,804 


1,075 


2,747 






1,031 


13 


I 


1,185 


2,616 


247 


158 


1,175 


827 


ral). 
































R A N G ON 


4,541 


4,290 


1,169 


2,100 


5 




945 


53 


2 


1,369 


3,219 


293 


127 


1,013 


874 


City. 
































Mand a l a y 


4,428 


3,712 


1,860 


2,138 


... 


... 


927 


16 


2 


',179 


2,467 


420 


184 


1,229 


1,438 


City. 
































B . u r m a 


5,i°i 


3,809 


1,090 


2,728 


... 




1,028 


14 


I 


1,188 


2,622 


251 


157 


W3 


838 


(whole). 



































Civil condition of 10,000 Males. 




At all ages. 


— 10. 


10—15. 


15—40. 


40 and over. 


Natural 
division. 


T3 

m v 
*u 

a 
£ 
c 
D 


T3 

u 
rt 


*d 

& 




■d 
.Si 
"C 

rt 

E 

c 
D 


-d 


QJ 




-d 
.Si 

rt 

E 

c 
O 


•d 
.Si 
"C 

rt 


•d 

4) 



-a 


*d 
.Si 

*n 


E 
c 
D 


•d 
.Si 

*c 

ra 


•d 

a> 



-a 


•ri 
.2 

rt 
E 

c 

D 


•6 
.Si 

ca 


-d 
5> 

•s 

•O 


1 


«7 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


Upper Bur- 
ma, Wet. 

Upper Bur- 
ma, Dry. 

Lower Bur- 
ma, Litto- 
ral. 

Lower Bur- 
ma, Sub- 
Deltaic. 

Burma (ru- 
ral). 

Rangoon 
City. 

Man i) ala y 
City. 

Burma 
(whole). 


5,330 
5,605 
S.880 

5,743 
5,69° 
4,372 
5,58o 
5,646 


4.197 
3,981 
3,703 
3,837 
3,884 
5,312 

3.856 

3,929 


473 
414 

417 
420 
426 
316 
564 
425 


2,510 
2,812 
2,543 
2,739 
2,645 
95 1 
2,015 
2,580 


2 


... 


903 
1,106 
1,128 

1,215 

1,100 

604 

994 
1,083 


4 
4 
7 
5 
5 
21 

5 
6 


... 


1.759 
1,492 
2,002 

1,651 
1,762 
2,602 
2,321 
L798 


2,254 

2,128 

2,237 
2,330 
2,227 

3,793 

2,282 
2,277 


154 
86 

138 
"3 
122 
104 
174 
122 


158 
195 
207 
138 
«8 3 
215 
250 

185 


1.939 
1,849 

1,459 
1,502 
1,652 
1^96 

1,569 
1,646 


319 
328 

279 
307 

304 
212 

39° 
303 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



CHAPTER V. 



61 



Education. 

84. In Chapter VII of .his Report Mr. Eales has dwelt at some length on the 

unsuitability of the educational classification adopted 
cUsX«tton. SyStem ° f educat,onaI at the 1 891 Census, namely, that which divided the 

population into (1) literates, (2) learners and (3) 
illiterates. The anomaly of a system which places the advanced student on a 
lower educational level than the ploughman who has just— but only just — the requi- 
site smattering of the first two of the three R's, and which has produced figures so 
unreliable as those adverted to by Mr. Maclagan in Chapter VII of the Punjab 
Report for 1891, is so obvious that it is hardly surprising that this threefold classi- 
fication should have been discarded in 1901 in favour of one which recognizes 
only two educational classes, the literate and the illiterate, namely, those able and 
those not able to read and write. Even under the simplified system there is still 
boundless scope for difference of opinion as to the precise amount of reading arid 
writing required to place an individual in the category of literates, and it is well 
clearly to recognize that the returns can give at best but a very superficial view 
of the ran^e of education in a province like Burma where, while scholarship is 
uncommon^ absolute ignorance of the alphabet is comparatively rare. Such as it 
is, however, the information contained in the schedules is far more likely to mark 
with accuracy the dividing line between the lettered and the unlettered now that 
it is possible to dismiss entirely from consideration one of the points which in 
1891 left room for variety of treatment. 

85. The alteration in classification, though in itself eminently desirable, de- 

tracts somewhat from the value of a comparison of the 

Impossibility of fully contrasting figures of the recent census with those of the censuses 

oulSusTf the figUreS PreV " preceding it. Generally speaking, there would seem 

to be prima" facie grounds for assuming that those 
returned as ' ' literate " at the recent census must correspond more or less roughly 
with the "literates" and "learners" of the 1891 enumeration, but the experi- 
ence of the past shows us that the assumption may often be a rash one. It may 
be that ten years ago care was, as a rule, taken to include among those under in- 
struction only those who had actually embarked on a course of tuition, but there is 
no warrant that here and there the expression " under instruction " may not have 
been construed as liberally as by some of the enumerators of Kyaukpyu who, in 1881, 
sanguine to a fault, took the will for the deed and treated as learners the offspring of 
parents who " intended at some time or other " to send their children to a school 
or monastery. For the purposes of comparison with other countries where the 
distinction between learners and literates is not preserved, Mr. Eales classed in 
his Report those under instruction with the literates. The Census Commissioner 
for India, however, inclines to the view that persons shown as "learning" at for- 
mer enumerations should not be treated as literate for the purposes of the 1901 
Census. This opinion has been arrived at by him after a perusal of some of the 
returns "for the present enumeration. These would appear to show that as .a rule 
those under tuition have not ordinarily been shown as literate, and Mr. Risley has 
therefore inferred that in 1881 and 189^ when learners were separately dealt with, 
they were still more likely to have been excluded from the ranks of the literate. 
For these reasons I have decided ordinarily to treat the literates of the 1901 
enumeration as corresponding with the literates of the previous censuses. It will, 
however always be safest to judge from the figures themselves how far such a 
classification is justified in a comparison with earlier returns. 

86. There is another matter which militates against a detailed comparison of 

the figures for the two enumerations ; that is the altera- 
Alteration of age periods. t j on ^ thg periods selected for exhibition in the 

table dealing specially with the education of the people as a whole — Imperial 

16 



02 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Table No. VIII. In 1891 the periods selected for exhibition in the education 
table for that Census (Imperial Table No. IX) were three in number, namely, 0—15, 
15 — 25, and 25 and over. The age periods now adopted are four, so selected as 
to divide the younger members of the literate population up into groups corre- 
sponding approximately to primary, secondary and higher education. They are 

o — 10, 10—15, 1 5 — 2 ° and 2 ° and over - The two first oi the I9 ° X age P enods 
combined cover the same ground as the first of the 1891 age periods, but after 
the age of fifteen has been passed a contrast by age periods of the figures for 
the recent and for the previous Census is impracticable. 

87. There is one more point of special importance in connection with the defi- 
nition of literacy, which should be kept in view when 
Treatment of those only able to a comT ast of the returns of the last census with those 
sign then- names. oi previous enumerations is undertaken. In 1891 the 

instructions for filling up column 12 of the Schedule for the enumeration of that 
year concluded with the following passage : — 

"Enter as Illiterate those who are not under instruction and who do not know how 
to both read and write, or who can read but not write, or can sign their name 
but not read." 

The last eight words are those to which I would draw special attention. They 
exclude from the rank of literates all persons whose accomplishments with the pen 
and pencil extend no further than to the scrawling of their name at the foot of a 
petition or a receipt. This class was similarly denied admission into the literate 
category in 1881. The principle underlying this distinction is indicated in one of 
the earlier paragraphs of Chapter VI of the Census Commissioner's General 
Report for India 1891 in the following words : — 

"Then, again, in the present day so many messengers, porters and other menials 
find it to their advantage to be able to sign their names that they acquire 
this amount of literature without ever advancing beyond it ; and it was held 
advisable to specially exclude this class from the category of literate." 

In the 1 90 1 instructions for filling up column 14 of the Schedule (" Literate or 
Illiterate") no reference was made to the treatment of these illiterate signers and 
the questions therefore arise ; were they as a rule included among the literates at 
the recent enumeration and, if they were, are their totals likely to have affected the 
aggregate of literacy to an appreciable extent ? I should on the whole be disposed 
to answer both questions in the affirmative. If it were a question of omitting or 
not omitting from the roll of literates a handful of bill collectors in the few mercan- 
tile centres of the country, it would matter but little whether persons who could sign 
their names and nothing more were treated as literate or not. In Burma, however, 
it is more than a question of a few commercial menials, for a very substantial sec- 
tion of the male indigenous community hovers on the border line between literacy 
and illiteracy and it needs often but a trifle to turn the scale one way or the other. 
High as is the proportion of the educated to the total population of the province, 
it would be vain to suppose that the lettered Burman was removed by many degrees 
from his unlettered countryman. The monastic curriculum is not severe and at best 
the literacy of the bulk of the folk is a plant of shallow growth. A few years neg- 
lect will often suffice to wither it, and it not infrequently happens that the only 
remnant of his early teaching left to a man who would resent off-hand the imputa- 
tion of illiteracy, is found, when the matter is looked into, to be his power of append- 
ing his own signature to a document. With a keen and conscientious enumerator 
such an one would have been treated as an illiterate at the 1881 and 1891 Censuses, 
while there is nothing to show that, provided he could laboriously inscribe the 
letters of his name, he would not at the recent enumeration have been assumed to 
be capable of spelling the result and, on the strength of this performance, have 
been assigned a place in the dignified ranks of the literate. It is far from likely 
that the number added to the literate population of the province by the omission 
from the instructions of the eight words aforesaid is anything very great, but the 
facts that that omission existed and that it probably had an influence of its own 
upon the figures cannot reasonably be ignored. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. &3 

88. Under conditions so different it is obvious that to embark upon a minute 
Al . . ■'. -""?'•' '■-'- and detailed comparison of the i8qi and iqoi edu- 

Actual increase in literacy ob- -• _!.:_■' n u 1 , • t • t ■ i 

scuredby increase of Census area.- catlon figures would be mere waste of ink and paper.; 
; ; :i ' ;x;iL -* There is nothing, .however, to be urged' against our 
learning what we can from a few of the most salient points that strike the eye 
when the data for the two enumerations are placed side-by side. " Compared with 
other provinces and even with some of the countries of Europe " writes Mr. Eales in 
paragraph 1 46 of his. Report " Burma takes a very high place in the returns of those 
able both to read and write." The 190 1 literacy figures for the whole of India 
are not yet available for reference, but such of the provincial data obtained at the 
last enumeration as are to hand give every indication that Burma will, as it did in 
1891, head the list in point of education. The actual total of literates in the 
province on the 1st March 1901 was not much below that returned by the Madras 
Presidency, which has a population more than three times as numerous as Burma. 
In Madras the figure was 2,436,743. In this province it was 2,223^962, and of 
this total 1 ,997,074 were males and 226,888 were females. This means practical- 
ly that on an average in every five persons then living in Burma one individual 
would have been found who was able to read and write. At the 1891 Census there 
were only 1,516,304 literates of the former and 89,393 .of the latter sex. It is true 
that, in addition to these literates, there were 227,498 males and 18,226 females 
under tuition,. but, however we decide to treat these learners of 1891 for the pur- 
poses of comparison, we cannot but acknowledge that there are unmistakeable signs 
of a general advance in culture during the past decade, for if we look upon those 
under tuition as literate, the increase since 1891 is one of 20 per cent., while, if we 
treat them as illiterate, the percentage of increase during the decade mounts up to 
no less than 39. We car. accordingly say in general terms that there are-clear in- 
dications of progress. Unfortunately we cannot go a step further and indicate the 
precise measure of advance, for the extension of the Census area precludes us from 
claiming even the lesser increase of 20 per cent, as a net gain due solely to the 
labours of our local instructors of youth during the interval of ten years. The Shan 
States showed only 1,239 literates and learners in 1891. It by no means follows, 
because in March 1901 there were 41,409 literates in the two Superintendents' 
charges, that anything like 40, 1 70 new literates have been called into existence 
within that area during the decennium that is just over. A considerable proportion 
of the 40,170 persons concerned must have possessed the necessary qualifications 
in 1 891, but, as their owners were not enumerated, these qualifications went un J 
recorded. When we look away from actuals to the proportional figures for edu- 
cation in Burma this fact that allowance has to be made for the extension of the 
Census area becomes more than ever apparent. . The percentage of literates to 
the total population is still high in relation to the rest of British India, but it is by 
no means as high as it was ten years ago. In 1891 the Census Commissioner for 
India pointed out that an examination of a proportional abstract of literacy in India 
as a whole demonstrated the facts, first that " only 58 persons in every thousand 
can read and write or are learning to do so, and secondly that of those 58, 53 are 
males and five of the other sex." Had he then been writing of Burma only instead 
of the whole Indian Empire he would for 58 have substituted 243 ; for 53 he would 
have written 229 and for five, fourteen, and the merest glance at what he did write 
side by side with what he would in the latter event have written will suffice to show 
generally how extraordinarily forward Burma was in the matter of education as 
compared with the- rest of India ten years ago. Had the date of writing been 
shifted oh' a decade, Mr. Baines would have given the proportion of Burma lite- 
rates per thousand as 215, of whom 193 were males and 22 females. The last 
figures would seem to show a falling off, but there is nothing really discouraging 
in them. There is little to surprise us in an apparent diminution of even .28 per 
thousand when it is remembered that the vast tracts included for the first time in 
1 90 1 within the sphere of Census operations were exceptionally backward and 
uncultured, and added to the provincial figures nothing approaching their fair share 
of literates. If we assume that some of the 189 1 "learners" would have failed 
to pass muster as" "literates " had the classification been twofold instead of three? 
fold, we shall see that the falling off is not quite so marked as 28 per thousand, 



6 4 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



still in any case it is beyond question that there are not now as many literate rhates 
in a given number of the population of the province as there were a decade back 
and that the inclusion in the operations of the Shan States and the Chin Hills is 
what has sent the proportion down. It may here be noted that, though the pro- 
portion of male literates has fallen, that of female literates has, in spite of adverse 
circumstances, risen to a higher level than in 1891. This point will be touched 
upon hereafter in connection with the question of female education. 

89. Subsidiary Table No. V-A appended to this chapter gives the education 
, . . of the population by age and sex. As I have remarked 

y age p no .^ an ear ]j er paragraph, the alteration of the education 

age periods renders comparison with the data of the 1891 Census with regard to 
literacy by age a somewhat difficult task. The difficulty is increased by the fact that 
the only periods where exact correspondence of age can be attained (i.e., the 1901 
o — 10 and 10 — 15 age periods as against the o — 15 age period of 1891) are the 
very periods in which there are the largest numbers of learners whose classification 
introduces an element of doubt- The returns show that of every thousand boys of 
under fifteen who were enumerated on the 1st March J 901 117 were literate, and 
that of every thousand girls of a similar age 26 were able to read and write. "In 1891 
the corresponding proportion" in one thousand of each sex was 60 boys and 10 girls. 
But in addition to these literates there were no less than 134 boys and 1 1 girls in 
every thousand of each sex who were shown as learning. How many of these 
v/ere really literate then and how many fell actually short of the required standard it 
is impossible for us now to say. Practically the only fact that we can carry away 
from a consideration of the figures is the significant one that, despite the addition 
to the Census area of the unlettered political charges, the number of literate 
females of under 15 in 1901 was proportionately as well as actually higher than 
ten years previously. The last two columns of Subsidiary Table V-A are instructive 
as testifying to the enormous educational advantages that are being reaped by the 
younger generation of females. For every thousand literate males of 20 years of 
age and over there are only 91 females, or less than ten per cent-; between the 
ages of fifteen and twenty and ten and fifteen there are 167 and 178 literate 
females, respectively, to every thousand literate of the other sex. This is a substan- 
tial advance for the weaker sex, but it is eclipsed by the figures for the earliest age 
period. In the case of literate children of under ten years of age, that is to say, 
among those born since the last Census who have already learnt to read and write, 
there are no less than 368 girls to every thousand boys, or, to put it roughly, there 
is rather more than one of the former to every three of the latter. It may be urged 
that these ratios are based on figures too insignificant in themselves to be of 
any great statistical value. The actuals are, it is true, not enormous, but they 
are quite large enough to generalize upon. They are, for male literates of under ten, 
44,752, for female literates below a similar age 16,489. Such as they are they may 
truly be said to augur well for the prospects of female education in the province. 

90. Not the least surprising fact that was disclosed by the figures of the 
~. „ ■ „ .. t r. X ^9 X Census was that of all the districts in Burma 

District proportion of literacy. .,■* ,. , ., . ouiv.ua m yuiuid., 

the one in which the largest proportion of literate 
males was to be found was the Upper Chindwin. Mr. Eales explained the high 
ratio in that year by pointing out that the Shan States of Kale, Thaungdut and 
Kanti had been excluded from the regular census, and that the operations had in 
consequence embraced only the more cultured portions of the district. The ex- 
perience of .the last enumeration shows, however, that, even had these backward 
areas been comprised ten years ago in the dealings of the department, the result 
would probably have been very much the same as it was with these tracts omitted. 
Subsidiary Table No. V-C appended to this chapter shows that though the Upper 
Chindwin (including Kale and Thaungdut) has now to yield the' first place in the 
matter of male literacy to Minbu^it comes a good second in the list of districts 
with a total of 530 literate males in every thousand of that sex. Minbu is only 
slightly ahead of the Upper Chindwin with 533 literate males in a similar number 
and Shwebo and Magwe follow it— not very closely — with 505 and 501 respectively. 
All these are rural, on the whole, in character. In Mandalay city the proportion 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



<** 



is higher even than in Minbu. It is there 573 per thousand, .but nowhere else in- 
any of the political areas selected for exhibition in Subsidiary Table VrC do we 
find the literate males exceeding the illiterate in number. Lower Burma can show 
nothing higher than 487 literates in every thousand males and elsewhere the odds 
in favour of literacy in any given case are lower still than in Thayetmyo, .whiqh 
returns the Lower Burma maximum. It seems hardly conceivable in this age of 
progress that a remote unfavoured stretch of country like the Upper Chindwjn 
should be able to boast of a higher proportion of literates not only than the more 
accessible areas of Upper Burma but even than Rangoon city. Such, however, 
strange to say, is the case. In Rangoon only 410 of every thousand males were 
returned on the 1st March 1901 as able to read and write. There are as many as 
eight rural areas in Upper Burma capable of showing better figures than this. It 
must not be supposed that the educational standard in these eight districts is any 
thing very imposing. It is probably very much the reverse. Still, as they stand in 
Subsidiary Table V-C, the figures speak volumes for the general diffusion of the 
elements of culture through the length and breadth of the province. The supe- 
riority of Upper over Lower Burma in the matter of literacy is a theme on which 
both Mr. Copleston and Mr. Eales have had something to the point to say and it 
is only right that the Upper Burman fongyi should have received his meed of 
praise for his share in the labours of the past. At the same time it must be borne 
in mind that one of the reasons for the strangely low proportion of literates in 
Rangoon and other parts of Lower Burma is to be found (as my predecessor has 
already pointed out) in the crowds of unlettered immigrants whom the prospect of 
work has attracted from India to these shores. If the foreign element is elimi- 
nated, the Lower Burma figures for education tend to approximate to those for 
Upper Burma. It is not the Indian immigrant alone, however, who reduces the 
average. Education is at its lowest in the Chin Hills, Salween and Northern Ara- 
kan, and in the Shan States the literacy figures are very far from high, so low in- 
deed that it seems likely that more than ten years must elapse before figures as 
high as the 1891 proportions of literacy for the province as a whole can again 
be recorded. 

91. If Rangoon is low in the list in regard to male education it must indu- 

bitably be yielded the palm in the matter of female 
' literacy. Its ratio of 268 literate females per thou- 
sand takes a place far above anything that the other portions of the province can 
.show, and need not shirk comparison with some of the figures for European 
countries, such as, for instance, of Italy, where more than 50 per cent, of 
the females married during 1 898 were illiterate. But even outside Rangoon the 
female figures of proportion are not by any means minute. Mandalay city shows 
1 26 and Hanthawaddy (which, as we know, is wholly rural in character) 1 10 literate 
females in every thousand of that sex while Pegu has a ratio of only a little below 10 
per cent. In the Lower Burma littoral division, which includes uncivilized areas like 
Northern Arakan and Salween, there are 66 Hterates in every thousand females 
and the proportion for Lower Burma is the same as for the coast districts. In the 
province as a whole we find that 45 out of every thousand females are able to 
read and write. When we remember that ten years ago only 24 females in a 
thousand were literate, that the " learning " and " literate " females together then 
only averaged 29 in a thousand and that the proportional increase of at least sixteen 
per thousand has been effected in spite of a vast accession of illiterate folk to the 
population on which the ratios are calculated we may hold out golden hopes for the 
future of female education in Burma. Events have justified the forecast embodied 
by Mr. Eales in paragraph 151 of his report. The "number of literates among 
women " has been " much increased, " possibly to an even greater extent than my 
predecessor anticipated. 

92. The subsidiary table showing the proportional figures of education by 

the main religions (Table V-B) emphasizes a fact 

Education by rel,g.on. indicated above, namely, that the foreign immigrants 

from India have effected the ratio of literacy in the province to a very appreciable 

extent. The Animists are actually the most uneducated of the religious classes 

dealt with, for they can only claim 48 male and 2 female literates in 1,000 of each 

17 



66 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



sex concerned, but the Musalmans are, if allowance is made for the fact that their 
share of adults is disproportionately large, not very much better with their 
total of 194 males and 39 females. The Hindus show a slightly larger proportion 
of literates per thousand than the Muhammadans, and in the matter of female edu- 
cation run the Buddhists very close, but their males are proportionately as well as 
actually far behind the Buddhist males. They can only show 207 literate males 
per thousand against the Buddhists' 410, this latter figure being, it will be observed, 
very nearly double the Hindu ratio. In male literacy the Buddhists are not far 
behind the Christians, who have returned 423 men and boys able to read and 
write in every 1,000 of the stronger sex, but in female literacy they compare but 
poorly with the last-named class. For the Buddhist 44 literate females per 
thousand the Christians are able to exhibit a proportion of 243, the actual figure 
being 16,732. These returns show how large a share in the high figure for female 
literacy is to be ascribed to the Christian population and bear indirect testimony 
to the important part played by the Missionary bodies in the work of education of 
the province. 

93. The above figures give a general idea of how the indigenous compares 

with the foreign population in the matter of education. 
1 eracy y race. Further particulars regarding the literacy of the 

principal races of the country, the Burmese, the Karens, the Kachins, the Shans 
the Chins and the Takings can be gathered from Imperial Table No. IX, and 
Subsidiary Table No. V-D appended to this chapter. In point of education as 
a whole the Burmese outstrip all the other indigenous peoples with 270 literates 
in every thousand of their number. In male education too they are far ahead of 
the other communities. It can almost be said that every second Burman boy or 
man is able to read and write, for the proportion of literates per thousand of the 
sex is no less than 490. On the other hand among girls and women the Talaings 
are able to display the highest proportional figures of literacy, 62 per thousand 
against the Burmese 55 and the Karen 37. In vernacular education the Karens 
make a comparatively poor show, but, when it comes to literacy in English, their 
33 males and 12 females in every ten thousand of each sex show them to have out- 
distanced all the other competitors. In every ten thousand Karens (male and 
female) there are 23 who are able to read and write English, whereas in a similar 
number of Burmans and Talaings the proportion is eleven only. If the figures in 
Subsidiary Table No. V-D are to go for anything the Chin would appear to show 
more aptitude for letters than the Kachin. On this point, however, we shall be 
better in a position to speak authoritatively in 191 2 than now. 

94. In the colums of Imperial Table No. VIII are shown particulars regard- 
T . L . , , ing the languages in which the population enumerated 

Literacy by languages known. ° ,., & ° ™, , r f. . . , . 

were literate. 1 nese may be divided roughly into 
three classes, firstly the vernaculars of the province that have been reduced to 
writing, secondly all other languages except English that have been reduced to 
writing and thirdly English. There being no real administrative need for giving 
full details of all non-indigenous tongues, languages of the second class have been 
lumped together in columns 19 and 20 of the table, and a foot-note has been 
placed at the bottom of each page showing what languages have been included in 
those two columns so far as that page is concerned. The only indigenous languages 
in which literacy is possible are four in number, Burmese, Shan, Karen and Taking. 
The total of literates in each of these has been indicated in columns 11 to 1 8 of 
the table. The last two columns of the table show how many males and females 
were literate in English, the only foreign tongue of sufficient importance to merit 
special treatment. The total number of persons literate in Burmese was 2,061,826 
or J9'8 per cent, of the total population enumerated on the schedules ; those literate 
in Karen reached an aggregate of 15,225 ; while those who could read and write 
Shan and Taking amounted to 2 1 , 1 50 and r 2,024, respectively. A detailed record 
of literacy by language was not attempted at the 1891 enumeration, and so no com- 
parison of the above with the figures of that census is practicable. I would here 
only point out that, for the reasons given by Mr. Christie in his report on the 
operations in the Henzada district, which finds a place in the Appendix to this 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



6 7 



volume, it is probable that the figures for Karen do not give a real indication 
of the extent to which this language is read and written in Burma. The literates in 
English were 32, 165 males and 6,622 females, as compared with 15,554 males and 
3,479 females returned as literate in English in 1891. This means that six males 
and one female in every thousand of each sex in Burma can now read and write 
English. The figures for males are, it will be seen, more than double what they were 
ten years ago, those for females are nearly double. Subsidiary Tables Nos. V-A, 
V-B and V-C give a general idea of the manner in which this knowledge of 
English is distributed over the population. Of religions, Christianity naturally 
claims the highest proportion of those literate in English, 139 out of every thou- 
sand Christians knowing how to read and write the language. Among Hindus, 
14 in every thousand have English qualifications ; the rates for Musalmans 
is only half that of the Hindus (7), while that of Buddhists and Animists is only 
one per thousand. The figures for " Other Religions "—71 per thousand for males 
and 94 per thousand for females — are peculiar, but the totals on which they are 
based are too small to be of any great statistical value. The returns showing 
literacy in English by age-periods contain nothing particularly suggestive. The 
proportion of English scholars in the earliest age period o — 10 is, according to Table 
V-A, one per thousand in the case of each sex. Imperial Table No. VIII tells us 
that the actual figures are 1,383 boys and 794 girls, and that the bulk of these 
youthful literates (who of course have, strictly speaking, barely earned the title) 
are Christians. By the time the age of fifteen has been reached the ratio has 
risen to five per thousand in the case of males and the close of five years more sees 
the men's figure at 9 per thousand. After that there is naturally enough a de- 
cline. 

95. A special attempt was made on the occasion of the 1891 enumeration to 

contrast the returns of literacy obtained by the Census 
No comparison of census with Abstraction office with the figures relating to educa- 

departmental figures. . 11111-1 • r\ 1-1 

tion recorded by the Education Department. 1 neo- 
retically the idea was excellent, but in practice it was found that but little profit 
accrued from the comparison, even when the " learners " were classified apart from 
the literate and the illiterate. Now that the above distinction is no longer drawn 
the whole raison d'etre of the contrast disappears, and it has therefore been 
decided not to undertake it in connection with the 1901 figures. 



68; 



Age period. 



2o and over 



Total 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. V-A. 



Education by Age and Sex. 



Number ik i f ooo. 



literal'. 



S 

o 
H 



48s 



IUHcrati. 



978 



807 



378 



K 9 6 



967 



68s 



Literate In 
Burmese. 



Literate in I 

other Ian- j Literate In English, 
guages. 



Females to 

i.ooo males. 



5 9 



368 



1,038 



178 


' f f 2 64 


■67 


1,89s 


91 


1,901 


114 


1.478 



Subsidiary Table No. V-B. 



Education by Religion. 











Number in 1,000. 








Religion. 




Literate. 


Illiterate. 


Literate tn English. 







V 

"re 

s 


I 

V 


H 



2 


Females. 




H 


"5 

S 



rt 
E 
u 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Buddhist 


224 


410 


44 


776 


590 


956 


1 


2 




Animict 


37 


48 


2 


973 


952 


998 


' 


2 




Hindu 


•70 


207 


42 


821 


793 


958 


14 


17 


3 


Musalman 


139 


194 


39 


861 


806 


961 


7 


11 


I 


Christian 


339 


423 


243 


661 


577 


757 


139 


186 


8s 


Other religions 


40S 


521 


180 


S35 


479 


820 


75 


7« 


94 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



69 



Subsidiary Table No. V-C. 



Education by Districts and Natural Divisions. 


■ 


Number in i.ooo 


District 


Literate. 


Illiterate. 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1 


2 


3 


A 


5 


Upper Chindwin ... ... ... 


53° 


20 


470 


980 


Katha 


399 


20 


601 


980 


Myitkyina 


286 


21 


7M 


979 


Ruby Mines 


285 


25 


715 


975 


Bhamo 


224 


24 


776 


976 


Northern Shan States 


97 


3 


9°3 


997 


Southern Shan States 


69 


3 


93i 


997 


Chin Hills 


23 


1 


977 


999 


Upper Burma, Wet 


174 


9 


826 


991 


Minbu 


533 


35 


467 


965 


Shwebo 


5°5 


19 


495 


981 


Magwe 


5°i 


16 


499 


984 


Sagaing 


482 


3° 


5i8 


970 


Pak6kku 


468 


23 


532 


977 


Myingyan 


45° 


24 


550 


976 


Mandalay (rural) 


422 


27 


578 


973 


Lower Chindwin 


407 


18 


593 


982 


Yamethin 


39i 


20 


609 


980 


Kyauksfe 


354 


23 


646 


977 


Meiktila 


33i 


17 


669 


983 


Upper Burma, Dry 


446 


23 


554 


977 


Mandalay city ... 


573 


126 


427 


874 


Upper Burma 


35i 


22 


649 


978 


Hanthawaddy ... 


483 


110 


5 r 7 


890 


Th6ngwa 


468 


81 


532 


919 ' 


Pegu 


450 


92 


55o 


908 


Myaungmya 


428 


72 


572 


928 


Bassein 


414 


75 


586 


925 


Sandoway ... .... 


343 


32 


657 


968 


Kyaukpyu 


338 


29 


662 


971 


Mergui 


333 


55 


667 


945 


Tavoy 


313 


44 


687 


956 


Akyab 


286 


34 


7H 


966 


Amherst 


261 


56 


739 


944 


That&n ... ... :.. 


235 


4i 


7°5 


959 


Northern Arakan 


55 


5 


945 


995 


Salween 


51 


6 


949 


994 


Lower Burma, Littoral 


373 


66 


627 


934 


Thayetmyo 


487 


38 


5t3 


962 


Tharrawaddy 


484 


62 


5i6 


938 


Henzada 


477 


54 


5 2 3 


946 


Prome 


449 


41 


551 


959 


Toungoo 


356 


50 


644 


95° 


Lower Burma, sub-deltaic 


45S 


SO 


545 


9S0 


Rangoon city ... 


410 


268 


59° 


732 


Lower Burma 


399 


66 


601 


934 


Burma — whole 


378 


45 


622 


- 955 



18 



7 d 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. V-D. 





Literacy of principal indigenous 


races. 










Number in 1,000 


Number in 10,000 


Race. 


Literate. 


Illiterate. 


Literate in English. 




Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Burmese 


270 


490 


55 


73° 


5io 


945 


11 


20 


•& 


Shan 


79 


152 


9 


921 


848 


991 


1 


2 


... - 


Karen 


91 


143 


37 


909 


857 


963 


23 


33 


12 


Chin 


25 


48 


2 


975 


95 2 


998 


1 


1 


... 


Kachin 


8 


14 


2 


992 


986 


998 






... 


Talaing 


211 


357 


62 


789 


643 


938 


11 


19 


3 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 7 ' 



CHAPTER VI. 



The Languages of the Province. 

96. Indubitably the most interesting and suggestive portion of Mr. Eales 
. , , , . Report on the 1891 Census is that which he devotes 

PrIvinc S e! n SUageS to a consideration of the languages of Eastern Asia and 

of the correct method of their classification. The 
special point that he has laid hold of and there emphasizes is the fact that the 
feature of all others -which characterizes the tongues of China and Further India (the 
Indo- Chinese language family) as a whole is their use of tones. So important does 
he consider this distinction to be that he has elected to divide the languages of 
this portion of the Continent, according as they use or do not use tones, under two 
main heads, namely, (a) polytonic and (b) monotonic. To the monotonic class 
he assigns the Aryan, Semitic and Dravidian families • to the polytonic the lan- 
guages of China and those of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula generally. 

The question of tones is not one that appeals ordinarily to the modern philolo- 
gist, who has perforce to deal with all sorts and conditions of tongues that he has 
never heard and is never likely to hear spoken, and it appears to me doubtful whether 
the part played in language by tones will ever be given by theoretical scholars 
the regard to which, in the estimation of those who have made a special study of 
the so-called tonic languages on the spot, it is entitled. This may or may not be the 
case ; the fact remains that tones are a radical characteristic of the languages with 
which we have in Burma to deal, and that, by bringing the fact into special prom- 
inence in his admirable language chapter, Mr. Eales has contributed materially 
to a full and intelligent comprehension of the forms of speech found in the prov- 
ince. There is a great work to be done stili in Burma in the way of classifying 
the vernaculars, and the greater or less degree to which tones enter into their 
composition will in some cases assist in determining the proper place to be as- 
signed to hybrid or doubtful forms. 

Any attempt to accurately define "tone " for the purposes of the above classi- 
fication would entail the examination of a number of exceedingly complex ques- 
tions, and it may be well to premise at the outset that for those purposes the word 
" tone " must be given its widest and most liberal .interpretation. If this is not 
done, it may well be argued that many of the members of the " polytonic " class 
are not " tonic " at all. So far as it is possible to define a tone in Chinese with- 
out actual oral demonstration, this has been done by Sir Thomas Wade in the 
opening chapter of his Tzu Erh Chi. Talking of the yin, or monosyllable, he 
says — 

" Of this yin there are, however, subordinate divisions, the sheng, which we translate 
tones, keys in which the voice is pitched and by which a variety of distinctions is effected, 
so delicate as to be retained only after long and anxious watching by the foreign ear. 

" The term ' tone ' has been so long accepted as the equivalent of the Chinese sheng 
that it may be hardly worth while attempting to disturb the usage. It might be notwith- 
standing rendered with greater propriety 'note' in a musical sense, although no musical 
instrument to my knowledge is capable of exhibiting more than an approximation to the 
sheng. Doctor Hager in his folio on the elementary characters of the Chinese language 
(1801) has tried to give an idea of the sheng as musical notes." 
In another place he writes ; — 
" I write the sheng of the syllable pa, accordingly as follows :— 

pa' pa' pa* pa* . 
'' The sounds of the syllables repeated in the above order form a S6rt of chime, which 
can only be learned'by the ear." 

97. Here the whole conception of tone is indicated in the expression " chime." 
«p' h" d" t s" tones What may almost be called a musical idea underlies 

the whole. This musical or " pitch "tone, unmistak- 
able when once heard, comes at one end of the scale, at the other comes the 
" stress '-' tone, represented in many modern languages by the accent. The ques- 
tion then arises, what is the dividing line between the two ? At what point does the 
bitdh merge into the stress tone ? By what test is one to decide whether in a 



"]i REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

particular language a particular sound is a pitch tone or not ? The answer is that 
there is no test but the ear, and it follows that, when the distinctions are, as they 
very frequently are, extraordinarily subtle, the dividing line must of necessity be 
drawn at different points by different observers. For my own part I am very 
doubtful whether there are in Burmese, Talaing and Kachin any "tones" within 
the meaning of Sir Thomas Wade's definition, though such are indubitably pre- 
sent in Shan and Karen. I am aware that here I am not one with competent 
authorities. Mr. Lonsdale, in his recently published Burmese grammar ,_ has gone 
very fully into the question of Burmese tones. He calls • them the simple, the 
checked, and the heavy, and explains how they differ from accent. I must confess 
that his explanation still leaves me doubting. As I hear the sounds, pitch does 
not enter into their composition. In fact I consider it questionable whether, if 
Chinese, Shan and Karen had been unknown to scholars in Burma, there would 
ever have been any talk of tones in Burmese. The existence of tones in Talaing 
has been so disputed that it seems clear that those that exist are not such as force 
themselves on the ear. I am given to understand too that in Kachin " pitch " 
tones are non-existent. In Chin the number of tones is, according to Mr. 
Houghton, three, but it appears that little or no inconvenience is caused by amal- 
gamating the three into two. Moreover, the difference between these two tones 
seems barely more marked than between the two " oo " sounds in the words " foot " 
and " boot." So far as I can gather, there is here no inflection of the musical 
pitch such as arrests the hearer when listening to Chinese and Shan, and I am in- 
clined to hold that, had there been no Sinitic analogy, the tonal element in Chin 
would flot have been recognized as differing in quality from those variations of 
sounds which are indicated by accents. 

It may be argued of course that " stress " as well as " pitch " tones should be 
allowed into the tone scheme. The question then will be when does the stress tone 
become an accent proper ; if the absence of pitch is no criterion, where do tones 
end and accents begin ? and new matter for argument is created. It is useless 
venturing on this disputable ground. If, as I have already stated, it is understood 
that " tone " is used in its most catholic sense, all the languages with which we 
are concerned can be denominated polytonic and for the purposes of classification 
a comprehensive term of this kind is useful. 

98. Professor Forchhammer, in the Essay on Indo-Chinese languages con- 
tributed by him to the Indian Antiquary, writes as follows of the position which 
in these languages the tonal system assumed towards words borrowed from 
foreign tongues : — 

" The Chinese, we have seen, devised means, by transliterating Sanskrit words with 
Chinese graphic signs and pronouncing them as such, which deprived foreign elements of 
all disturbing influence upon tonal inflection. Talaing, Burmese, and Shan, partly because 
fettered by Indian alphabets, were forced to grant important concessions to intruders. Shan 
assigned to all borrowed words, whether Aryan or Burmese, the deepest, dullest tone, to 
some unaccented syllables, suffixes and affixes, the short jerking fifth tone- * * * 

Thus the Shan limited the destructive influence of foreign .atonal words by apportioning to 
them a fixed position in the tone scale. Talaing and Burmese made no similar provisions 
and this neglect resulted in the decomposition of their tonal system." 

The last sentence would appear to indicate that Talaing and Burmese had 
once been more tonic than they now are, and it would be interesting if it could be 
shown that this were the case. If it were so, the process by which tones were 
discarded would be rightly described as one of recuperation rather than of decom- 
position or disintegration, that is, if the more recent theory in regard to the origin 
of tones is correct. 

99. On this last point the views of. philologists appear to have been modified of 
q h . ( recent years. In his 1 891 report Mr. Eales, elaborat- 
ing an idea thrown out by Mr. Cust, is of opinion that 

the use of tones marks " the radical stage through which all languages have pass- 
ed or in which those that are still tonic have been stereotyped." He says : — ■ 

" To use a simile which exactly conveys our meaning, the savage, having but few sounds, 
was forced to make as many words as he could out of the sounds he possessed by uttering 
the sounds in different tones,- like Paganini, who could play on one string pf hjs violin/' 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 73 

This is practically the position taken up by a far earlier scholar, Logan, who 
in his scholarly Ethnology of the Indo-Pacific Islands (Journal of the Indian 
Archipelago, Volume VI, Singapore, 1852) says: — 

" Language is a natural and necessary attribute of the developed human intellect and 
organism. In its first origin it is imitative. Its sounds are entoned, chanted, varied, com- 
plex, and often harsh, like those of nature." 

It cannot be denied that, with Messrs. Cust and Logan at his back, Mr. 
Eales has a strong case. Further research, however, appears to have led to the 
conclusion that another view is more probably correct. In his Ethnology Pro- 
fessor Keane states that, just as monosyllabism is not a necessary condition of 
primitive speech, so — 

" It is now clear that tone gives no support to the theory of a supposed primitive sing- 
song utterance, but that it is a compensating element, unconsciously introduced to distin- 
guish the numerous homophones resulting from the ravages of phonetic disintegration." 

Professor Keane's conclusion is, so far as he himself is concerned, based 
largely on his observations in regard to Chinese, where a comparison of the 
modern with the primitive tongue exhibits in a marked degree the phonetic decay 
or, as Dr. Grierson has called it, the "phonetic attrition" alluded to. The lan- 
guages of Burma were doubtless never as far removed from what they now are as 
Terrien de La Couperie has shown Chinese in its earliest forms to have been, but 
the principle no doubt holds good in their case. The above theory appears to have 
borne the test of criticism and gained general acceptance. Mr. Houghton is even 
more out-spoken than Professor Keane. He looks upon tones in the Indo-Chinese 
languages as an unmistakable sign of degeneracy, talks of them as a " disease of 
speech " and gives as a probable explanation of their coming into being the soft 
and luxurious nature of the climate in which the chief members of this family found 
themselves. Holding this view, one would logically be bound to regard the re- 
version by means of synonyms and the like to an atonic system as a symptom 
of renewed virility rather than of decay. No doubt, however, a number of factors 
have been at work. 

100. The morphological order in which the languages of the province find a 

place is the " isolating." It must not be forgotten, 
The morphologtcal order. however> that there are f eW; possibly none, of them 

that are entirely free from agglutinative characteristics. Agglutination is in fact 
so prominent a feature of Burmese that, as Mr. Eales has pointed out, Professor 
Max Miiller has classed it, with Shan, among the agglutinative languages. In 
Burmese the relational particles, in so far as they possess the power to be detach- 
ed and shift their places in the combined form, fulfil entirely what Professor Keane 
calls the " true test of agglutination." It seems to me, however, that in the 
languages of this class in Burma the isolating element usually preponderates 
over ' ' 1 1 — -.-1.! - 1 < .1 ■ •- 

have 




tonic). _ 

portion of the term would appear to be redundant. Here, however, Mr. Houghton 
is at issue with Professor Keane, according to whom the Khassi language, though 
isolating, has no tones. This may mean nothing more than that Khassi is no 
more tonic than Burmese, still, all things considered, it will be best, in my judg- 
ment, to qualify the " isolating " in the manner suggested. * 

* Since writing the preceding few paragraphs, I have received from Dr. Grierson a copy of a draft note 
on the Malay and Indo-Chinese families of languages in which conclusions are arrived at differing slightly 
from those expressed above. Dr. Grierson demurs to the use of the term " polytonic " in describing the 
Indo-Chinese forms of speech, first because some Indo-Chinese languages possess only one tone and 
secondly because, where there are more than cne, they are, so to speak, an accidental feature of the lan- 
guage- The grounds for the first of these objections are, no doubt, sound. I have myself questioned the exist- 
ence of tones proper in Burmese, Talaing and Kachin. ^ I have, however, explained above that in dealing 
with the languages of the province, I am using "tone" in what is, perhaps, not its orthodox sense and 
including for convenience of identification, not only tones proper but also those inflections of the voice which 
are not real tones but come almost within the category of rudimentary tones and have come in Burma to be 
spoken of as such. On the understanding, therefore, that the term "polytonic" is used in this Report in a 
special sense, I have decided to leave my previous remarks unaltered. I gather from another portion of Dr. 
Grierson 's note that he considers the languages of Burma to be more agglutinative in form than isolating. I 
understand however, that it is admitted that there are characteristic features of both orders in the tongues in 
ouestion and I conceive, therefore, that but little exception will be taken to my classification, which gives full 
recognition to this fact Dr. Grierson divides the tones of Indo-Chinese languages into "pitch tones" 
and *' time tones." I take it that his " time " practically corresponds to my " stress " tones. 

19 



74 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

ioi. In his Upper Burma Gazetteer Sir George Scott has split up the Ian- 
Grouping of provincial languages, guages of Upper Burma into the following groups :— 

(i) The Tai languages. 

(2) The Chingpaw languages. 

(3) The Zho, Shu or Chin languages. 

(4) The Vii Rumai or Wa Palaung languages. 

(5) The Karen languages. 

(6) The half-bred languages. 

(7) The ungrouped languages. 

This grouping is tentative merely, for, as pointed out by the compiler, until 
M. Pavie's work on the countries lying between Tongking and the Mekong comes 
out, a linguistic classification can only be provisional. Dr. Grierson has divided the 
isolating polytonic languages of the Indo-Chinese family into three sub-families, — 
(a) the Tibeto-Burman, (b) the Siamese-Chinese, and (c) the Mon-Annam. The 
only criticism he offers in connection with the language scheme adopted m the 
Gazetteer is in regard to the doubt therein cast upon the alleged affinity between 
Palaung and Taking. In a letter forwarding a note on the Indo-Chinese and 
Malay languages he says : — 

*' You will see that I include Palaung amongst the M6n-Annam languages. Mr. Scott, in 
the Gazetteer of Upper Burma, denies this relationship. He is quite right in refusing to 
admit any close connexion between Mon and Palaung, but that is consistent with their both 
belonging to the same linguistic family, although they fall within different groups of that 
family." 

I imagine that Sir George Scott will be prepared to bow to the authority of the 
Linguistic Survey in this one particular, on which he seems as yet to have formed 
no very decided opinion. 

With this modification, and with the addition of the Lower Burma languages, 
which have not been specifically referred to in the Upper Burma volume, a combin- 
ation of the two systems exhibits the following provincial table : — 

f (a) The Burmese group. 
f(i) Tibeto-Burman sub-family < (b) The Kachin group. 
I (.(c) The Kuki Chin group. 

A-Indo-Chinese I ( } Siamese . Chinese sub -family \W ™ e J ai f ° U P" n 
family. ) v ' J 1(e) The Karen group. 

((f) The N. Cambodian group. 
^(3) M6n-Annam sub-family < (g) The Upper Middle Mekong or 

(. Wa Palaung group. 

B — Malay family ... ... ... (h) The Selung language. 

This includes all the strictly indigenous tongues. The non-indigenous 
forms of speech will be dealt with in a later portion of this chapter. 



THE INDO-CHINESE FAMILY. 

THE TIBETO-BURMAN SUB-FAMILY. 

102. Burmese was the language ordinarily spoken by 7,006,495 people in the 
„. „ , province on the 1st March 1 Qox. A few of its charac- 

The Burmese language. f . . . , . f , . , . , 

tenstics, its agglutinative tendencies, the tonal ele- 
ment in its composition, and the like, have been touched upon above. I would here 
advert to only one further point Of interest in connection with the language which 
has been brought into prominence of late years. I refer to the very marked pho- 
netic decay it exhibits and the material that exists for gauging the extent of that 
decay. Mr. Houghton has shown us that Tibetan, or Bhotia, on the one hand and 
Arakanese on the other, form two excellent standards for measuring the progress of 
this process of decomposition. A knowledge of Bhotia is, he considers, an abso- 
lutely essential qualification for any one who would get to the bottom of Burmese 
etymology. A very large number of Burmese words are, he has shown us, imme- 
diate lineal descendants of the Tibetan tongue. The vocables that are shared 
between the two languages give a general rough indication of the period when the 
Burman stock broke off from the parent stem ; for instance, the radical identity 
of various words referring to agriculture points, as he justly observes, to the fact 
that before the Burmans separated from the Tibetans, the joint race of which they 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



n 



were a branch, had passed from the nomadic to the agricultural state of society, 
while, on the other hand, the almost complete divergence in words connected with 
weaving proves indirectly that when the severance took place the community as a 
whole, though it had possibly emerged from the skin clothing stage, had made no 
real advance in the textile arts. Mr. Houghton has based his interesting article 
on the assumption that the Burmans originally came from the Tibetan plateau. 
As I have pointed out elsewhere, the view now prevails that the ancestors of the 
Burmese race never lived in Tibet, but that they, with the progenitors of the 
Tibetans and other races, came, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immi- 
gration swarm, from, Western China to the headwaters of the Irrawaddyand then 
separated, some to people Tibet and Assam, the others to press southwards into 
the plains of Burma. This later theory does not, however, affect the merit of Mr. 
Houghton's arguments. 

103. The difference between the Tibetan and the Burman form is often very 
marked. Indeed, were it a matter of pronunciation only, the affinity would often 
be unrecognizable. By writing the Burmese words, however, not as they are 
pronounced, but with each vowel and consonant given its actual original value, 
Mr. Houghton has been able to exhibit some very remarkable resemblances. 
By this device he has as a rule shown how the words he uses were originally pro- 

nounced, that is to say, has exhibited them in that 
" '" archaic form which Arakanese has, in a measure, 

preserved. In fact Arakanese in many cases shows fairly accurately not only 
the extent of phonetic disintegration that had crept into the language at the 
time of the original severance of the Arakanese from the Burmese Kingdom, but 
also the further stages of decomposition that must have taken place between the 
latter date and the present day. It is true that Arakanese in its turn has de- 
generated and, in certain instances, to an even greater extent than Burmese, 
but, taken as a whole, it may be looked upon as an interesting link between the 
Burmese and Bhotia languages. It was the isolation of the Arakanese, cut off 
by the Yomas from the rest of the Burmese-speaking population of the kingdom, 
that enabled them, to some extent, to protect their tongue from the fate that has 
befallen Burmese. Their language, which has been analysed by Mr. Houghton in 
an article in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, is the principal of the so-called 
dialects of Burmese and is the parent of several of what can best be called sub- 
dialects, such as the Tavoyan, the Chaungtha and possibly the Yabein. The 
small number of dialects in Burmese proper is remarkable, considering the inherent 
susceptibility of the tongue to phonetic modifications. Only when exposed to 
the influences of other tongues are the variations in the general form of speech 
noticeable. For the rest, the Burman of Mergui will understand the Burman of 
Myitkyina without the least difficulty, and in his turn as easily make himself 
understood. To the average foreigner the difference between the two forms 
of speech would be indistinguishable. 

104. Mr. Eales was, in 1 891, of the opinion that at the 1901 Census it would 
be best if the enumerators were told to enter Burmese in the language column of the 
schedule, instead of Arakanese or Tavoyan, in the case of those persons who pro- 
fessed to speak one or other of the latter two languages, his reason being that " the 
result of the last two returns has shown that the dialects of Burma are gradually 
being absorbed into Burmese." No specific orders of this kind were, however, 
issued at the recent Census, and, on the whole, quite apart from non-scientific con- 
siderations, it is, perhaps, just as well that the record of dialects was maintained. 
The process of absorption referred to has been going on, but the figures show 
that Arakanese at any rate is, as a separate form of speech, dying hard, and it is a 
question whether the dialects may not conceivably possess a good deal more vitality 
than they have been given credit for. The following figures showing the number 
of people returning Arakanese as their "parent," or "mother " tongue, or as the 
"language ordinarily spoken " by them during the period 1881 — 1901, are a fair 
gauge of this linguistic conservatism : — 

No. 
1881 ... ... ... ... ... ». 358.559 

1891 ... -... ... ... — .« 344.348 

;. 1901 .,- ... ... ... ... »■ 38M"JO 



70 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

It is most improbable that there has been a real increase in the number of 
Arakanese speaking people. I regard the totals as merely reflecting the gradual 
dissipation of all doubts as to the precise name to be given by the Arakanese to 
their special form of speech. Arakanese is bound eventually to disappear, and after 
another decennial Census or two it will probably be possible to calculate fairly ac- 
curately the date by which it will have vanished off the face of Burma, but the 
progress of its absorption will for many years to come form an instructive study, 
for which the periodical Census figures will afford useful data. 

105. According t'o the returns, the Tavoyan form was spoken by only five 

persons at the date of the Census. This is due to 
Tavoyan. the {act that the bulk of the spea kers of the dialect 

have returned it as Burmese. Professor Forchhammer says of this form :— 

" Tavoy can hardly be called a dialect of Burmese ; it is distinguished from the latter 
by peculiar idioms which all belong to the Burmese language treasure, but have become ob- 
solete in some localities/' 

And he goes on to instance a few of these idioms. 

Maung Maung, Akunwun of Tavoy, has sent me an interesting note on the 
Tavoy dialect, which shows that it owes its present form not only to Arakanese set- 
tlers who are said to have immigrated into the Tavoy district on several successive 
occasions during the Christian era and to have left their impress on the speech of 
the people in the shape of an Arakanese " twang," but also, to a slight extent, to Ta- 
laing and Siamese influences. The word Tavoy (Ta-we — coosocS) is said by 
Maung Maung to mean, in Siamese, a cane station. The expressions go (" se ") 
and co (" ta") used by almost every cartman in Tavoy for turning respectively 
to the left and to the right, are, I am assured on the same authority, of Talaing 
origin. The local term for a goat (ob, be) is totally different to the Burmese 
c8o5 (sett) and may be of either Mon or Siamese parentage. The basis of the 
language is, however, neither Arakanese, Talaing nor Siamese, but Burmese, and it 
is an easy matter for a Burman to master the slight dialectical differences. Maung 
Maung has sent me a number of Tavoyan ballads, which unfortunately I am un- 
able to give examples of here. They are reported to be of great antiquity. 

106. The Yaw dialect is spoken by a comparatively small community in the 

Y . Yaw valley tract of the Pakokku district. Sir George 

Scott has placed their tongue among the half-bred 
languages, but, though the Yaws themselves are probably a hybrid race, their speech 
seems to be pure Burmese of an old-fashioned type, and I have therefore classed 
them linguistically with the Burmese. In the Yaw valley the popular theory is 
that the divergence of tongues was due to a long course of the waters of the hill 
streams undergone by the Yaws. It is curious that a similar idea regarding the 
effect of water on the speech of the drinkers is entertained in connection with the 
Danus, who are said to talk slowly in consequence of potations from the streams 
in the valleys. As in the case of Tavoyan it is only outside the Yaw country that 
the existence of Yaw as a separate dialect has been recognized. The five persons 
shown as speaking Yaw were enumerated in the Bassein district. 

107. The Chaungtba language was spoken on the date of the Census by 
Chaun tha ^° ma ' es ana 665 females in the district of Northern 

u Arakan and by nine males and six females elsewhere 

in the rest of the Arakan division. It appears that in 1880, when the British Burma 
Gazetteer was compiled, Chaungthas, when repeating the Burmese alphabet, 
were in the habit of calling some of the letters by different names to those ordina- 
rily given, and that certain provincialisms were to be detected in their speech, but 
that otherwise their tongue was Burmese, or rather Arakanese. It may be pre- 
sumed, I think, that before they began to descend to the plains the Chaungthas, 
if they are not hybrids, spoke one of the tongues of the hill tracts. Since their 
contact with the Arakanese, however, they have lost practically all of their original 
vernacular. 

108. Yabein has not been specifically returned as the language of any portion 

Y , . of the population of the province. In Colonel Spear- 

man's British Burma Gazetteer the dialect has been 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 77 

described as " Burmese with a strong Arakanese accent," and I learn from the 
Report on the Settlement Operations in the Toungoo district (season 1898-99) 
that this strong Arakanese accent still survives as the last of the. relics of this 
race of silkworm rearers, who are found in the Hanthawaddy, Pegu, Tharrawaddy 
and Toungoo districts. 

109. Round about Fort Stedman and elsewhere in the Southern Shan States 

. and Karenni is a community known as the Inthas, who 

speak a dialect of Burmese largely diluted with Shan. 
The current theory is that the Inthas brought their tongue from Tavoy. It is 
said to bear traces of the Arakanese twang referred to in an earlier paragraph of 
this chapter. It was spoken by 5,851 people in the Southern Shan States in 
March 1901. 

1 10. In the borderland between the Shan States and Upper Burma Proper 

are several races which have not yet been afforded 
'" i:> " a definite position in any ethnical group and have 

hitherto been looked upon as hybrids. Two of these are the Taungthus and the 
Taungyos. Sir George Scott treats of them under the same heading in the Upper 
Burma Gazetteer, and to outward appearances they would seem to appertain to 
the same stock. Their languages differ, however, considerably. The Taungthu 
tongue seems almost as much a mixture as the Taungthu race. The Taungyo 
speech on the other hand has an obvious Burman basis that is hardly overlaid by 
any foreign element. There are but few Taungyo words in the vocabulary of two 
hundred words or so given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer that do not bear marks 
of Burman parentage. It is strange too that the Burmese that Taungyo repro- 
duces is often not the modern form but the older tongue which has been in a 
measure crystallized in the Arakanese. Words like anak (red), amrang (high), 
viyak-sai (eye), lang (light), show that the tongue cannot possibly be of recent 
formation. It has been included in the Burmese group. There were in all 10,543 
Taungyo- speaking persons in Burma in March 1901. 

in. The Kadu language is spoken in the western portion of the Kathadis- 
K trict and in portions of the Upper Chindwin district 

abutting on Katha. It, like the people by whom it 
is spoken, has almost lost its identity. The problem of its origin has been referred 
to elsewhere, namely, in the caste, tribe and race chapter and in connection with the 
Sak dialect of the Arakan Yomas (see under the Kuki Chin language group infra). 
Pending further information, Kadu, which will very shortly be an obsolete form of 
speech, has been assigned a place in the Burmese group of languages. On the 
1 st of March 1901 it was the language ordinarily spoken by 16,300 people. 

112. The Mro tongue was the spoken vernacular of 13,414 inhabitants of 

Akyab and the Arakan Hill Tracts at the recent 
census. It has hitherto been looked upon as a variety 
of the Chin language. Dr. Grierson, however, has decided on examination to 
treat it as a member of the Burmese group. He describes it as being in many 
points a deceptive language, for, though it adheres generally to the phonetic 
system of Burmese, it at times shows marked variations from that system. There 
are to be found in it not only forms which indicate a Kuki-Chin origin, but also 
characteristics which would seem to hint at an affinity with the Bodo and Naga 
vernaculars. It is to be regretted that the materials available for the study of 
Mro are but meagre. Till further particulars are procurable, however, Dr. 
Grierson considers it best to class the language provisionally as a very archaic 
form of what has now developed into the Burmese language. 

113. In the extreme north of the province are several communities, some 
_ . T , . , ,, numerically small, some of considerable size, who 

Szi, Lashi and Maru. , . li - j n j • ! , 

closely resemble and are practically merged into the 
non-Burman hill tribes among whom they live, yet whose languages display an 
unmistakeable Burman stamp. Of these, three typical instances are the Szi, the 
Lashi and the Maru on the eastern borders of the Myitkyina and Bhamo dis- 
tricts. Judged by externals, there would seem to be no question that these were 
Kachin tribes. They inhabit the Kachin country, they have affinities with the 

20 



78 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



Chingpaw proper in custom, tradition, and dress. No one would hesitate to set 
them down as Kachins were it not that, though through their remoteness they are 
less exposed to Burmese influences than the Chingpaw-speaking races, their. 
speech is, so to speak, penetrated with Burmese. How this Burmese element 
entered into their tongue is a problem of extraordinary interest. It is touched 
upon by Captain Abbey in his useful little Manual of the Maru language. It has 
been there suggested that these tribes may be " the remnants left by the Burmese 
in their migration from the north into Burma, or possibly tribes of the same origin 
as the Burmese who left Tibet soon after them." I should be disposed to accept 
some theory such as the above. It seems hardly possible that these Burmese 
characteristics can have been the mere result of an outward contact with the 
dwellers of the plains ; they are too deep-seated for that. Moreover, this parti- 
cular feature is not confined to the three comparatively adjacent tribes in question. 
The Szi, the Lashi and the Maru are, as it were, but three links in a chain of 
races stretching eastward and southward from the Kachin hills to beyond the 
Salween and the Mekong (such as the Lisaws, the Lahus and the Lolos), whose 
speech exhibits to a greater or a less degree these same indications of an affinity 
with Burmese. Of these more distant tribes more hereafter. As regards the Szi, 
the Lashi and the Maru they have been classed ethnically as Kachins, but Dr. 
Grierson holds that their languages have enough Burmese in their composition to 
justify their addition to the Burmese group of languages. Szi, Lashi and Maru 
were the languages returned by 756, 84 and 151 persons respectively at the 1901 
Census. 

1 14. The facts are much the same in connection with Hpon. This dialect, 

„ spoken by a small river-faring community in the 

1 neighbourhood of Sinbo in the Myitkyina district, has 

been looked upon by Sir George Scott as a hybrid. It is a question whether 
ethnically the Hpons are more closely allied to the Burmans or to the Shans, and 
it is the same with their speech. Their numerals are said to be a mere jumble of 
Shan-Burmese, and it would be hard to say now which of the two languages fur- 
nished the original basis and which the superstructure. The latter is just as likely 
to have supplied the foundation as the former. There seems to be nothing to 
urge against the classification of Hpon as a dialect of the Burmese group. It 
was not specifically returned by any of its speakers at the recent Census. 

1 15. The precise position to be assigned to Maingtha or Nga Chang, the ver- 

, nacular of the Maingthas or Tarengs, the peripatetic 

cutlers, traders and coolies who during the coid 
weather scatter over the north of the province, is doubtful. The tongue is clearly a 
conglomerate. It strikes one at first almost as a pedlar's jargon, the outcome of 
generations of wanderings. This is possibly an extreme criticism, but I think ic 
conceivable that the dialect may have been coloured by the constant journeyings 
of its speakers. There seem to be indications, however, that some of the Burmese 
in its composition can only be accounted for in somewhat the same way as in the 
case of the Szis, Lashis and Marus, and Dr. Grierson is doubtless justified in in- 
cluding it among the Burmese languages. Captain Davies tells us that about 30 
per cent, of its words appear to be connected with Burmese and 12 per cent, with 
Shan. A portion of the residuum would seem to be Kachin ; indeed we learn that 
the Kachins look upon the Maingthas or Tarengs as remotely connected with 
them. The Tarengs' dress and general appearance, however, point more to a 
Chinese or Chinese-Shan affinity, and Chinese seems to have left its mark on their 
dialect. The question of classification is obscured rather than illuminated by in- 
formation from outside the province. In a note on the Khamtis by Captain Gurdon 
(Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, page '57) reference is made to the 
Turungs or Tairongs of Assam. Tairong, the writer tells us, is nothing more or 
less than Tailong. If, as appears obvious, these are the Tarengs and the deriva- 
tion of the word is correct, a Shan connection is at once established. Unfortu- 
nately, however, the linguistic test that might have settled the question once and 
for all is lost, for, as Captain Gurdon says : — 

" Strange to say these Tairongs themselves spoke Singpho, the explanation of this 
being as follows : The Tairongs, who originally lived somewhere in the direction of the Upper 



'REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 79 

Irrawaddy started for Assam to join some Naras who had preceded them thither. Unfortu- 
nately for them they had to pass through the Singpho country. As they passed through the 
country tfiey were taken captives by the Singphos. They remained as captives for five 
years according to their own account, but probably for longer, as they quite forgot their own 
language and adopted the language of their captors. It is strange that even to this day 
Tairongs talk nothing but Singpho." 

There were 465 Maingtha-speaking folk in Burma on the 1st March 1901. 

116. To return now to the remoter tribes referred to in the paragraph dealing 
t, , . , with the Szi. Lashi and Maru dialects. Dr. Grierson, 

The Lisaw sub-group. ..,.'.,., . . . ' 

in dealing with the languages ol the province, has 
found it necessary to create a special sub-group of certain languages spoken for the 
most part on the eastern borders of the Shan States. He has named it the Lisaw 
sub-group and, as he states its members appear to be connected with Burmese.it 
may be assumed that he intends it to be a sub-group of the Burmese language 
group. Lisaw is spoken in the east of the Myitkyina district, in Mong Mit, 
and throughout the Northern and Southern Shan States by a tribe known to the 
Chinese as Lisaw, whom the Shans call Yawyin. The sub-group consists of the 
following forms : — 

Lisaw or Yawyin. Ako. 

La'hu, Mu-hso, Kwi or Myen. Lisu or Lissu. 

Akha or Kaw. Mosso. 

The La'hu variety is spoken in Kengtung and in the east of the Northern 
Shan States by 16,732 people. It is practically the same as Lisaw which claims 
1,605 speakers. Akha and Ako are the vernaculars of closely allied tribes in the 
hills to the east of Kengtung. The recent operations dealt with 21,175 persons who 
spoke the former and 1,162 who spoke the latter tongue. Lissu is clearly related 
to Lisaw. The Lissus have been studied by Prince Henri d'Orleans and other 
French observers. It seems possible that they are identical with the Lisaws. 
It is also possible that the Mossos, who are spoken of by the French in connection 
with the Lissus, are the Mu-hso of Kengtung. There is nothing in the voca- 
bularies published to militate against such a theory. Neither Lissu nor Mos- 
so is spoken in Burma, but the tongues are referred to on account of their similarity 
with Lisaw and Mu-hso. The Burmese substratum in all these languages (even in 
the Akha and Ako, where it is least marked) is remarkable and, to my mind, can only 
be accounted for by some such explanation as has been hazarded in connection with 
the Szi, Lashi and Maru vernaculars. There can be no question, I think, that 
it is the same Burmese strain that is visible through all these forms. Sir George 
Scott in his Upper Burma Gazetteer points out that Sir Henry Yule agreed with 
Dr. Anderson in thinking that " the similarity of the Lissu and Burmese languages 
was such that it was hardly possible to avoid the conclusion that the two peoples 
had sprung from one and the same stock. " It is easier, however, in this case, 
to detect the strain than to account for it. Lo-lo, another of the trans-frontier 
languages spoken by a number of tribes who have affinities with the La'hu, has 
indications of a relationship with Burmese. It would, no doubt, be possible to add 
still further to the list. 

117. Of the Kachin languages or dialects our knowledge is at present 
„.,_,. ■ limited. The form which is most commonly spoken 

The Ch.ngpaw language group. thrQUgh what ; s knQWn ^ ^ ^^ ^^ F ^ 

Chingpaw, hand-books of which have been written by Messrs. Symington and H. F. 
Hertz. In the preface to his vocabulary Mr. Symington talks of three varieties of 
Kachin — the Chingpaw, the Kauri, spoken by a tribe east of Bhamo, and the Hu- 
kong valley speech. This last is presumably the dialect dealt with in the Outline 
Grammar of the Singpho language published by Mr. Needhamin 1889. A com- 
parison of this form with the Chingpaw form proper exhibits a number of minor 
modifications in a tongue the basis of which is clearly identical. The Hukong 
valley variety is probably the form on which is based the dialect of the Sassans, 
referred to in the Kachin Hills chapter of the Upper Burma Gazetteer. Sir George 
Scott speaks of the Kaori Lepais, who occupy the hills to the east and south-east 
of Bhamo, and who it may be assumed are the speakers of Mr. Symington's Kauri 
dialect, though no mention is made in the Gazetteer of any special Kaori patois. 



8o 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



Sir George Scott has classified with the Kachins, the Szis, the Lashis and the 
Marus. These tribes, however, though outwardly they resemble the Kachins 
proper, speak tongues which Dr. Grierso n refuses to admit into the same category 
as the Chingpaw language. It lslrTsome quarters believed that the Szis, the 
Lashis and the Marus are not Kachins at all, or at best are hybrids. Whether 
this is so or not is not a question that affects the present issue ; the fact remains 
that their forms of speech are, as I have already pointed out, more closely allied 
to Burmese than to Kachin, and have been treated for the purposes of the 
Linguistic Survey as belonging to the Burma group of languages. How their 
languages acquired these Burmese characteristics is a problem for the research 
of the future to solve. No attempt has yet been made to classify the tongues 
of the Khangs, the Kaphawks, the Kaluns, the Khenungs and the Khunnongs, 
scattered tribes whom the Kachins are said to look upon as distant connections. 
Our information regarding these remote communities, who inhabit the extreme 
north of the province, for the most part beyond- our administrative border, is 
slender, but it seems possible that when their dialects come to be subjected to 
the test of critical analysis, one or two of them at any rate will be assigned to the 
Kachin group. Some of these tribes are, however, undoubtedly Mishmis. 

Kachin is an isolating language with a structure closely resembling Burmese ; 
so much so that, as Professor Forchhammer has asserted, " a Kachin sentence 
can generally be transposed into a Burmese sentence, word for word, without dis- 
turbing the collocation of words," but I have it on good authority that it can 
hardly be said to be tonic at all. Mr. Symington in his Kachin Vocabulary 
makes no mention of tones, and Mr. Needham, in his grammar of the language as 
spoken in Assam, is careful to point out that there are only a few monosyllabic 
words which are distinguishable from one another by variations of the vowel sound. 

Over twenty years ago Captain Forbes showed by a comparison of vocabu- 
laries that the Kachin language possessed affinities with the languages of the 
Naga group. The similarity did not escape the eye of an even earlier observer. 
Mr. Logan, in an article of the Journal of the Indian Archipelago, issued close upon 
fifty years ago, when the knowledge of the tongues of the interior was in its 
veriest infancy, commented on the fact that " Singpho " had some peculiar Naga 
and Tibetan characters. The most recent philological enquiries show that the 
connection pointed out by these scholars is real. The ethnic relations subsisting 
between the groups is sketched in the chapter on caste, tribe and race. Dr. 
Grierson has quite recently drawn attention to the fact that Meithei, the language 
of Manipur, forms a connecting link between Kachin and the southern forms of 
speech. Kachin was the language returned by 65,570 people at the census. 

118. Dr. Grierson has recently prepared a most instructive note on the 

The Chin language group. Kuki-Chin languages, from which I give the following 

extracts : — 
''The territory within which these languages are spoken extends from the Naga Hills 
In the north to Sandoway in the south. Their western frontier is, broadly speaking, the 
hills extending from Sylhet in the north through Hill Tipperah, the Chittagong Hill Tracts 
the Arakan Hill Tracts and the Arakan Yomas. Towards the east they do'not extend much 
further than the Kubo and Myittha valleys. Most of the tribes seem to have passed the 
Lushai or Chin Hills on their way to their present homes, where they have settled in rela- 
tively recent times * * * . In the north the Kuki-Chin languages show an affinity 
to the Naga group, while in the south they gradually become more like Burmese. The 
whole group is more closely connected with Burmese than with Tibetan." 

It is not unnatural that towards the south there should be a leaven of Bur- 
mese in the tongues of the Chins. What is more significant is that, even where 
they are far removed from Burmese influences, these languages still present a con- 
siderable identity in structure with Burmese. The identity is apparently not so 
striking as in the case of Kachin, but it is sufficiently close to prove an affinity, 
and, though not so obvious a phenomenon as a similarity in vocabularies is to 
the student really as suggestive. Practically all the following remarks made by 
Dr. Grierson in connection with the Kuki-Chin tongues might equally have been 
made in regard to Burmese : — 

"There is no grammatical gender, and only the natural gender of animate beings is 
distinguished. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA.- 



81 



'' The adjectives are all verbs. They often take the form of relative particles and their 
place is generally after, but often also before, the noun they qualify- Noun and adjective 
form a kind of compound and case suffixes and postpositions are added to the last member 
of this group of words * * * . The root (of verbs) is combined, with postposi- 
tions, in the same way as a noun, in order to denote different relations. J There is -often 
no difference between the present and the past time, and the various suffixes which denote 
the past are certainly all originally independent words. In some cases the signification of 
these suffixes can still be traced as meaning completeness or some such idea (compare the 
Burmese (§«)." 

In common with Burmese the Kuki-Chin languages possess what Dr. Grier- 
son calls "generic particles added to the numerals in order to indicate the kind of 
things which are counted." They are, however, as Mr. Houghton has already 
told us in connection with Southern Chin, prefixed to the numeral instead of, as 
in Burmese, affixed. 

1 19. The Kuki-Chin group has been divided by Dr. Grierson into two prin- 
„ . „.. , cipal sub-groups, the Meithei and the Chin. Meithei 

Kuk.-Ch.n sub-groups. . g the knguage of Manipur and nee d not be considered 

here. The Chin sub-group is subdivided into the following: — 



Northern Chin. 
Central Chin. 



Old Kuki. . 
Southern Chin. 



It may be as well to preface the following remarks regarding the different 
Chin languages by an extract from the Upper Burma Gazetteer : — 

" As to the race identity of the Chin tribes" (says the compiler), " there can be no doubt, 

but there is as great a variation in appearance as there is among the different Kachin 

tribes and the divergencies of speech seem to be even greater. It is only a long day's march 

- from Falam to the heart of the Siyin country, but the two dialects are mutually unintelligible. 

The dialects to the south differ to the same extent or perhaps even more." 

How -far this diversity of tongues is due to the head-hunting practices 
alluded to by Mr. Baines in his paper on " the language Census of India, " it is 
unnecessary to consider here. Suffice it to point out that a fuller acquaintance 
with the Chins is likely to bring to light a considerably larger number of forms of 
speech than have hitherto been identified and recorded. A quaint local legend 
accounting for these variations in speech is given in Chapter VIII. 

1 20. The first of the Northern Chin languages given by Dr. Grierson is Tha- 
_ . do which is said to be spoken in six villages in the 

angud e_. Kanhow territory in the Northern Chin Hills ; the next 

is Sokte, the vernacular of .a tribe of that name, which is found on both banks of the 
Manipur river in the north of the administered tract. The Siyin, the third of 
the Northern Chin forms with which we are concerned, is spoken south of the 
Sokte country. Captain F. M. Rundall is the author of a handy Manual of Siyin. 
There are two other Northern Chin tongues, namely, Ralte and Paite", but they 
do not appear to be spoken within the limits of Burma. They form a link con- 
necting the Northern and Central Chin dialects. 

121. The best known of the Central Chin forms is the Baungshe, Lai or 

. _, . , Haka. Baungshe is merely a Burmese nickname sug- 

Central Chin languages. , , , ■ . «=• , J , . , • , •, & , 

gested by the custom adopted by certain tribes of 

tying their top-knot well forward over the forehead and means simply the man who 
wears his turban cocked.. Major Newland, i.m.S., whose knowledge of the Hakas 
or Lais is unique, has within the last few years published a handbook of nearly 700 
pages dealing with their speech, which is in itself a small encyclopaedia. It is 
quite the fullest and most elaborate work that has yet been published regarding 
any of the languages of the hill tribes of the province. The Lai shows a good deal 
more of Burmese influence than the Siyin form. The Shonshe of Gangaw is a 
dialect of the ordinary Lai language. Tashon is a Central Chin form. It is not 
represented by any vocabulary in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. Comparatively few 
European officers have up to date rendered themselves proficient in it. Yahow or 
Zaho is a dialect of Tashon. The remaining Central Chin forms are spoken outside 
the limits of the Chin Hills. The above Northern and Central Chin forms were 
not separately returned at the 1901 Census. They have been lumped together 
under the general head of Chin and their speakers form part of the total of 1 75,037 
persons returned as using Chin. 

it 



0-4 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

122. Of the old Kuki languages the only one that concerns us in Burma is 
Old Kuki languages. ^yaw, the vernacular of 215 persons in the Arakan 

Hill Tracts on the 1st March 1-901. Very little is 
known about Kyaw, but there seems to be no question as to its being an old Kuki 
form. The original old Kuki tribes are said to have lived originally in the Lushai 
Hills, and to have been expelled from them by the Thados. 

1 23. Further south the Southern Chin tongues begin. Nothing about the first 

Southern Chin 1 <* ^ ve °^ tnese ( tne Chinm?, the Welaung, the Chinbok 

' ' *' the Yindu and the Chinbon) will be found in the 

Imperial Tables, for they are the vernaculars of the tribes of the Pakokku Chin 
Hill Tracts, the population of which was estimated only and did not figure on the 
standard schedules. There are three distinct forms of Chinbok, the Northern, 
spoken from the Maw river to the north bank of the Che river ; the Central, be- 
tween the south bank of the Che and Kyauksit rivers and the Southern, spoken by 
the Kadin and Saw river Chins. It is not clear which of these is the form given 
in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. The Yawdwin dialect given in the Upper Burma 
Gazetteer seems closely related to the Chinbok. I know of no published vocabu- 
lary of the Welaung variety, or of the Yindu, which is said to be an entirely 
distinct language. The Chinme is the patois of a local clan and appears to be 
one of a number of variations from the ordinary speech of the surrounding country. 
There are many other neighbouring forms that are probably as much entitled to 
be termed dialects as it. It is described as the connecting link between the 
Lai tongue and the Southern dialects. The Chinbons claim to be of Burmese origin. 
There is no Chinbon vocabulary in the Upper Burma Gazetteer, and I am there- 
fore not in a position to say whether their speech gives any indication that would 
justify their title to the claim. In the same neighbourhood, but for the most part 
in the Pakokku district, are the Taungthas, who profess to trace their ancestry 
back to emigrants from the Myingyan district. Their dialect, which was spoken 
by 4,578 persons in the regularly censused areas, bears traces of Burmese, but I 
should be inclined to think that the basis was Chin and the Burmese matter overlaid. 
If any classification were to be made of these tribes, I should be disposed to sepa- 
rate the Chinme, the Welaung and the Chinbok, who seem to be more closely 
allied to the Hakas, from the Yindus, the Chinbons and the Taungthas. Dr. Grier- 
son thinks that the Yindus figure among the tribes that on the Arakan frontier 
are known as Shendus. They and the Chinbons appear to have certain affinities 
with the peoples of the Arakan Hill Tracts. The Taungthas appear to be known on 
the Arakan side too. In 1 882 Professor Forchhammer wrote of them as follows : — - 

"The Taungthas are hill tribes of Arakan including several distinct tribes, such as the 
Shandus, Kyaw (Chaw, &c). The language of the Taungthas contains a number of words 
which are almost identical with the Burmese ; however, the main body of the idiom 
belongs to another language group, apparently to the Kuki." 

Our information as to the relation that these tribes bear to one another is 
defective, and, till further data are procurable, a satisfactory classification of these 
languages and dialects will be impossible. 

124. The main tongue of the Arakan Hill Tracts proper is the Kami, which 

was spoken on the ist March 1901 by 24,389 people 
Bu S rma hern Chin ^ '" L<5Wer A vocabulary of it is given in Major Hughes' Hill 

Tracts of Arakan. It varies considerably from the 
dialects specified above, but is obviously Chin in form. Mr. Houghton has in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society written an article on Kami, to which are appended 
vocabularies, with remarks showing analogies in Naga, Miri, Karen, Lushai and 
Manipuri. He believes he has detected in the numerals 20 to 50 certain traces of a 
Mon-Annam influence. The remaining Southern Chin forms of Northern Arakan 
are the Sak, the Anu and the Shendu. The two latter were returned by 775 and 43 
persons respectively. Shendu I have placed provisionally with Yindu. Up till 
now the Mro language of the Hill Tracts has been looked upon as Chin. Dr. 
Grierson, however, now tells us that it has turned out, on examination, to un- 
doubtedly belong to the Burma group. Kun and Pallaing which have been look- 
ed upon as forms of Southern Chin have not at this Census been returned as the 
languages ordinarily spoken by any of the population of the province. Sak or 
Thet, which was spoken by 37 males and 30 females in the Akvab district, is 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



*3 



said to bear a strong resemblance to the as yet unclassified Kadu of the Upper 
Chindwin and Katha districts, which is held to have a Kachin origin. If this 
relationship had been fully established, the Sak language would, as suggested by 
Mr. Houghton, have to be withdrawn from the Chin, and, together with Kadu, 
placed in the Kachin group of languages. Sir George Scott, however, , hesi- 
tates to give unreserved adhesion to this theory, throws out a suggestion that the 
first Kadus were captives from the Arakan side, and thinks it best for the 
present to treat Kadu as a hybrid speech. So far as I can ascertain, Professor 
Forchhammer, who dealt in a note of 1882 with the Sak language, comparing it with 
the Kami, the Mro and the Chin, seems never to have held any other view than that 
Sak was Chin in structure and, as Mr. Houghton admits himself that the Sak 
vocabulary on which his theory was based is incomplete, the matter may be said • 
still to rest in doubt. Kadu has been placed provisionally in the Burma group of 
languages and will probably remain in that category, for whatever it originally was, 
it is now Burmanized almost out of recognition. Pending further enquiry, I have 
left Thet in the Kuki Chin group. Daingnet, which has hitherto been looked upon 
as a Chin form, is spoken in that portion of the Akyab district which adjoins Chit- 
tagong. Some specimens of the language which have been sent me by Mr. 
Saunders, Deputy Commissioner of Akyab, show that it must be excluded from 
the Indo-Chinese family altogether. It seems to be nothing more nor less than a 
corrupt form of Bengali. It claimed 3,105 speakers on the 1st March 1901. 

Through the whole length of the Arakan Yomas, from Northern Arakan down 
to the confines of Bassein, as well as here and there to the East of the Irrawaddy, 
are found hill tribes who are known as Chins. These I have in the Chapter on 
caste, tribe and race designated the Southern Chins, in contradistinction to the 
Northern Chins, administered from Falam, and the Central Chins of the Pakokku 
and Northern Arakan Hills. Dr. Grierson calls their speech Khyang or Sho, 
neither of which terms appears to me altogether suitable. The expression " South- 
ern Chin," though geographically unexceptionable, has, for the purposes of a 
linguistic classification, the disadvantage of giving to a single form the title already 
accorded to the collection of languages of which it is a member. The tongue 
appears to be known locally to the missionaries who labour in this field as Saing- 
baung. Perhaps, however, the best name to give to the speech of these southern 
communities is Yoma Chin, and for want of a better I will make use of it here. 
Mr. Houghton is our main authority concerning this Yoma Chin form. His 
monograph, which Mr. Eales has embodied in his 1891 report, appeared about 
the same time as his Essqy on the language of the Southern Chins and its 
affinities, which comprises a grammar, a collection of sentences and vocabularies 
or the dialect. Since then he has contributed to the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, an article illustrating the differences between the Minbu and the San- 
doway forms, that is to say, between the speech of the eastern and western slopes 
respectively of the Yomas. These differences are, when all things are considered, 
not very marked, and show that the dialect is, from its most northern to its most 
southern limit, fajrly homogeneous. The variety spoken in Bassein and Henzada 
is said to have suffered phonetically from the intercourse its speakers have had with 
the dwellers in the plains, and is not as pure as the Minbu and Sandoway forms. 

The Siamese-Chinese Sub-family. 

125. Whatever may be said of the other languages of the Province, those of 
the Siamese-Chinese sub-family are indubitably polytonic. Of them all, that which 
displays the very striking characteristics of the tonal system to the most marked de- 
gree is Chinese, with which, as an exotic, we have here very little concern. Chinese 
was the language ordinarily spoken by 47,444 persons in Burma at the time of the 
Census. The corresponding figure in 1891 was 31,079. Chinese has not been 
included in the Provincial language scheme, but the following note on the dialects 
spoken in Burma kindly furnished me by Mr. Taw Sein Ko may be of interest : — 

'' The Chinese immigrants in Burma speak different dialects. Those who come from 
Yunnan speak Yunnanese, which is a dialectic variety of Western Mandarin whose head- 
quarters are at Chengtu, the capital of SsQch'wan. The Southern Mandarin is spoken in its 
purest form at Nanking, while Pekingese constitutes the Northern Mandarin. * * * 
Chinamen from Yunnan and Ssfich ' wan, whose dialects are intelligible to each other, are 



84 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA: 



found congregated at Bhamb and Mandalay and in other parts of Upper Burma and the Shan 
States. The Chinese in Lower Burma come mostly from Amoy, Swatow, Canton or 
Hainan. Some of them may have passed through the Straits Settlements or the Malay 
Archipelago. The Amoy Chinese are merchants and petty traders. Their colloquial is 
distinct from their book language. In conversation their name for man is tang, which is 
pronounced tin in reading their books. The dialects spoken by the Chinese of Swatow has 
a distinct resemblance to the Amoy dialect, while Cantonese differs from both. Chinese 
carpenters, contractors and artisans belong to Cauton. The Chinese servants employed in 
clubs, hotels and private houses are natives of Hainan, and speak a different dialect called 
Hainanese. * * * The Chinese speaking different dialects are not intelligi- 

ble to each other, and at Bhamo or Mandalay the natives of Yunnan, Amoy and Canton have 
to make use of the Burmese language as the medium of communication in their conversation. 
The literary symbols are, however, the same throughout the Chinese Empire. It is the 
difference in the pronunciation of the same ideographs that has given rise to the Babel of 
tongues." 

The two groups of the Siamese-Chinese sub-family in which we are mainly 
interested are the Tai and the Karen. 

1 26. The Tai group has, Dr. Grierson tells us, two sub-groups, the Northern 
. and the Southern. The Southern includes Siamese, 

. The Ta. language group. ^ LQ and Hk „ n) the Northern the three forms of 

Shan, namely, Northern Burmese-Shan, Southern Burmese-Shan and Chinese-Shan 

with Khatnti and Ahom. For us in Burma the Southern Tai sub-group possesses 

- . comparatively little interest. Siamese was spoken by 

Southern Tai sub-group. * r . 1 . , • .1 <t> 

I 9>53 1 persons, tor the most part in the lavoy, 
Amherst and Mergui districts. Lao is the speech of but few of the inhabitants of 
this side of the Siamese border. Hkiin and Lii are practically confined to the State 
of Kengtimg. A certain adventitious interest was attached during the Census abs- 
traction operations to the Hkiin form in consequence of the fact that it was used in 
writing up the bulk of the schedules for the Kengtung State, which had to be deci- 
phered in Rangoon by a special staff of clerks sent from the Southern Shan States, 
the ordinary Shan clerks being unable to read it. According to Mr. Stirling the 
Hkiin character is the same as the Lii, and both are nearly identical with the 
Western Lao of Chiengmai, such differences as exist consisting chiefly in the omis- 
sion by the Hkiin and the Lii of letters and marks used by the Lao. Similarly, in 
the spoken language syllables are often clipped by the Hkiin and the Lii which 
are sounded by the Lao. The Hkiin form, it may be observed, appears to have 
been influenced by the speech of the Was, whose seats were at one time far more 
extensive than they now are. In Lii and Hkiin the open and the closed tones are 
indicated by special marks. Hkiin had 42,160 speakers at the Census and Lii 
19,380. 

127. With the Northern Tai sub-group we have more concern. It Comprises 
Northern Tai sub-group. ? e tongues of the first three of the four_ ethnical sec- 
tions into which Sir George Scott, adopting a sugges- 
tion of the late Mr. Pilcher's, has proposed to divide the Tai. Dr. Grierson's North- 
ern Burmese-Shan is spoken by Mr. Pilcher's North-western Shans and by the Shans 
of the Northern Shan States ; his Southern Burmese-Shan is the vernacular of the 
Eastern Shans of the Upper Burma Gazetteer. The Chinese Shan of the Linguis- 
tic Survey is the speech of the second of Mr. Pilcher's sections, to wit, the North- 
eastern. At the present day the Northern Tai sub-group is represented in its 
purest form by Ahom, the language of the ancient Shan conquerors of Assam, 
now known only to a handful of conservative priests, but possessed of a historical 

. literature which is being investigated by the Assamese Government. Ahom exhibits 
much older forms than do the modern Tai tongues. At the same time, though 
its connection with the Northern Tai sub-group is indisputable, it shares several 
marked phonetic features in common with Siamese. Though we are here directly 
concerned neither with Ahom norSiamese, this point is one of interest. Sir George 
Scott indicates much the same fact when he says that Siamese of education, though 
unable to converse with their near neighbours, the Lao, have no extraordinary 
difficulty in understanding their most distant connections, the Khamti Shans. 

1 28. Northern Burmese Shan is practically that form of the language which is 

Northern B ur me, e Shan. s P° k T e T n in the Bhamo Katha, Myitkyina Ruby Mines 

and Upper Chindwin districts of Upper Burma and in 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



85 



the" Northern Shan States. The Khamti of Assam closely rCsembles the* Norths 
em Burmese-Shah spoken in the valley of the Uyu and On the 1 upper reaches of the 
Chindwin. Khamti and Shaft are really one language. Their alphabets differ to 
a certain extent, but, beyond this, except for a few dialectic divergencies, they 
are practically identical in structure. 

1 2pi Southern Burmese-Shan has for its domicile the British Shan States west 
.... „ c ,„ of the Salween, from Laihkaand Mong Nai south- 

Soutnern Burmese-Shan. , r , . . I , , , r .{ i i 

wards. It is in iact the vernacular of the people who, 
as Sir George Scott says, are " most directly known to us as the Shan race." It 
is, like the forms referred to above, isolating and Unmistakeably polytonic. It 
possesses five tones, a mastery of which is a sine qua non if the language is to 
be properly learnt. On this side of the Salween Shan varies but slightly from 
locality to locality. Thanks to Dr. Cushing's works, the tongue can now be ex- 
haustively studied by any student who wishes to master it. In contradistinction 
to the dialects spoken east of the Salween, Southern Burmese-Shan is soriie^ 
times known as Western Shan. The expression is not unexceptionable, for, 
properly speaking, Western Shan should be the form which is spoken west of 
the Irrawaddy. It must be clearly understood that the divergencies between the 
different forms of Shan spoken in the Province are on the whole very slight, and 
that even Khamti cannot be looked upon as a separate language, in fact, in one 
of his notes ort the Tai group Dr. Grierson speaks of it as consisting of two 
languages only, Siamese and Shan. Dr. Cushing says of Northern Tai— 

"The divisions of the Northern group are separated by what are really -dialectic differ- 
ences. They are often not so marked as to prevent persons belonging to one division 
from holding much intercourse with persons belonging to another division. Though their 
alphabets differ, their variations are So small that a person really familiar with the books 
of one division can slowly read those of another division." 

Elswhere he writes : — 

"The scientific classification of the Tai family of languages depends on the study 
of their internal structure. In such study I have found no use for such terms as ' Nor- 
thern Shan' and ' Southern Shan' languages." 

On the whole it seems to me best to sink the difference between the North- 
ern and Southern Burmese Shans forms and to speak of all the Tai forms of 
' speech occurring in Burma and the Shan Sates West of the Salween (except 
Chinese-Shan and Khamtias) Burmese Shan. The aggregate of the Shan-speaking 
people at the Census was 751,759. This total includes a small number who spoke 
Chinese-Shan. 

130. Data regarding Chinese-Shan are comparatively meagre. No illustra- 
tions of the dialect have been given us in the Upper 
Burma Gazetteer, though from that work we learn 
that the written character of the Shan Tayoks possess few of the embarrassing 
features of Chinese. It is hot ideographic, but is probably a distorted version of 
the Burmese-Shan script. The vernacular is the tongue understanded of the people, 
not, so to speak, the language of the aristocracy. The Shan-Chinese Chiefs, it 
would appear, speak Chinese, not Shan. Chinese-Shan is spoken in that portion 
of the country round about Bhamo and the Northern Shan States that abuts on the 
westernmost edge of Yunnan. Sir George Scott appears to consider that the 
speech of the Northern Shan States is more closely allied to Chinese Shan than to 
the Shan of the Southern Shan States, and would classify the Northern Shan $tafes 
dialect with that of the Shan Tayoks. I gather, however, that neither Dr. Grief- 
son nor Dr. Cushing holds with this view, which is, I think, a new one. 

13I. Shan itself is of course closely allied to 

,r.j .i_/-i,- Chinese. In this regard Sir George Seot-t has the 

Connection of Shan with Chinese. , ,, . . ° ° 

^ . following to say : — 

" The relationship of the Tai to the Chinese races seems unmistakeable and appears no 
less clearly from their personal appearance and characteristics than from' their Janguage. 
* * * Mere similarities of words do not prove race descent, but they help towards 
it. It is not enough to say that ma both in Chinese and Shan means " horse, " that tfing arid 
ping mean level * * *, but when we find that, in addition to this, the grammatical 
Structure of sentences in Chinese arid in the Tai languages iff the same and quite different from 

it - 



& 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



that of Burmese and the Tibeto-Burman languages generally, there is strong presumptive 
proof of relationship. The place of the object of the verb and of the possessive in Shan are 
identical with the Chinese instead of being inverted in Burmese. Moreover, the use of com- 
plete words of related meanings used together is characteristic both of the Chinese and the 
Tai languages. * * * When all these points of similarity are taken into account, 
the conclusion that Chinese and Tai are sister languages is irresistible." 

132. The Karen tongue, in its various forms, is spoken more or less along the 
, „ "~ whole eastern frontier of Lower Burma from Mergui to 

aren anguages. Toungoo, in portions of the delta of the Irrawaddy, in 

the south-west corner of the Shan States and in the feudatory States of Karenni. 
The total of the Karen-speaking population on the 1st March 1901 was 711,408. 
The Karens are divided into three main tribes, the Sgau, the Pwo and the 
Bghai, and the three principal dialects of the language follow this division. Rough- 
ly speaking the Sgau and Pwo dialects are confined to Lower Burma, while the 
Bghai is the speech of the northernmost tribes whose habitat is Karenni and the 
Southern Shan States. For convenience of classification I have called the Pwo 
„ , , and the Sgau the Southern Karen and the Bghai the 

Southern Karen sub-group. ivt , i Tm i ^ i t i_ t n 

JNorthern. 1 he nomenclature has not been lormally 
recognized, but it indicates a geographical fact. Sgau and Pwo are both spoken 
in the narrow strip that runs up from the 12th to the 19th degree of latitude: the 
communities that have spread out over the delta west as far as Bassein are for the 
most part Pwos. The fundamental distinction between the three lies in the fact 
that, while the Pwo form has retained its final consonants, the Sgau and he Bghai 
have discarded theirs. Sgau is probably the Karen language of the future. Pwo 
is said to lack vitality and to be iri danger of disintegration. Karen has been re- 
duced to writing by the missionaries, who have adopted a modification of the Bur- 
mese alphabet to express it. Their graphic system includes the indication of 
tones, in which the language is rich, by means of tonal signs. Dr. Cushing de- 
scribes Sgau as having "one of the most perfect systems of phonetic represent- 
ation in the world." Dr. Grierson classes Karen in the Siamese-Chinese sub-family, 
and has found a place for various sub-dialects of Sgau and Pwo, such as Mopgha, 
Wewa, and others in his " Indexes of Languages." Mr. Eales is generally of 
opinion that Karen has suffered in the past from overclassification and is disposed 
to neglect all of these varieties save Taungthu, which is spoken on the western . 
borderland of the Karen country, from Thaton in the Tenasserim division to the 
Myelat. Judging, however, from the example given in the British Burma 
Gazetteer, Mopgha appears to possess an identity of its own, and I should be in- 
clined to treat it as a distinct sub-dialect of Pwo. Taungthu has been regarded 
as a sub-dialect of Pwo, and what Karen there is in it is Pwo, but such is the ad- 
mixture of other linguistic elements in its composition that Sir George Scott 
prefers to look upon it as a half-bred language. I have, however, placed it provi- 
sionally in the Karen group. It was spoken by 160,436 persons in 190 1. I may 
here observe that of the 41,115 persons shown in 1891 as returning Taungthu as 
their mother-tongue, the 5,269 who came from the Pakokku district ought to have 
been shown as speaking Taungtha, not Taungthu. 

1 33. The principal representative of the Bghai dialect is the speech of the Red 
Northern Karen sub-group. Karens of Karenni and their immediate neighbours in 

Karenni and the Southern Shan States. We are in- 
debted to Mr. Houghton for an instructive monograph on this variety. According 
to him the Karenni tongue conserves the Karen language in its original and purest 
form to a greater extent than the " more decrepit " Sgau and Pwo. It is believed 
to have the same five tones that Sgau possesses. It has numeral auxiliaries 
though its numbers from fifty onwards are, Mr. Houghton thinks, a comparatively 
recent introduction. It presumably bears much the same relation to the Pwo and 
the Sgau that Arakanese bears to 'Burmese. Major R. J. R. Brown has recently 
brought out an elementary hand-book of Red Karen. The total of persons using the 
Red Karen dialect outside the estimated areas of Karenni was 1,363. Varieties of 
the Northern Karen sub-group are spoken in the Bre country, in the Padauno- area 
and in the States of Loi-long and Mongpai. Of these varieties a number oApeci- 
mens figure in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. One of them, Mano, is a dialect of the 
Bres or Laku- There are besides four representatives of the speech of the head- 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



■*7 



shaving Sawngtiing or Zayeins, namely, the Sawngtiing, the Padeng, the Banydng 
and the Kawn Sawng. The preservation of some of the main features of the form 
used by the Banyangs is of special interest, as there is no doubt that the speech of 
this, the most select tribe out of a race of distressingly rigid endogamists, will very 
shortly have passed for ever out of the reach of vocabulary makers. The Zayeins of 
the Upper Burma Gazetteer are apparently the Ta-roo mentioned in the 1880 edi- 
tion of the British Burma Gazetteer. Dr. Mason classifies the Ta-roo tongue as 
a Pwo dialect. The Gaikho of the British Burma Gazetteer appear to correspond 
with the Padaung. Their speech Dr. Mason is also inclined to treat as a variety of 
Pwo. I understand, however, that Sir George Scott includes the Zayeins and the 
Padaungs linguistically as well as ethnologically among the Bghai ; and in his 
Karens of the Golden Chersonese Colonel McMahon says that the Gaykho langu- 
age may reasonably be placed in the Bwe family. The Yintale and the Sinhmaw 
Mepauk are two more forms that have been illustrated in the Upper Burma 
Gazetteer. The Yintale variety is spoken in the State of Bawlake. Further dis- 
tinct varieties, of which we at present have no published vocabularies, are the 
Yinbaw, a patois of the Padaungs, and the language of the White Karens of the 
Paunglaung valley of the Loilong State. This latter, like the language of the 
Bres, is- closely allied to the Taungthu. Bre was returned at the 1901 Census 
as the language of 66g speakers outside Karenni and Padaung and Zayein were 
the vernaculars of 9,32 1 and 4,666 persons respectively in the non-estimated 
areas. Taungthu has been referred to above. It is a Burmese-Karen hybrid. 
Taungyo, also spoken in the Myelat, is supposed to closely resemble Taungthu, 
though I can trace very little more than an -archaic form of Burmese in its composi- 
tion, and have placed it in the Burmese group. A third quasi-Kaxen language, 
which has the reputation of exhibiting still more marked Burmese characteristics, 
is the Danu or Danaw, spoken also in the borderland between Burma and the Shan 
States, but generally further north than the Taungthu. Taungthu, Taungyo and 
Danu are all three spoken of together in the Upper Burma Gazetteer, where it 
is said that the Taungthu language is mainly Karen, the Danu mainly Burmese, and 
the Taungyo betwixt and between, with a predominance of Burmese words. For 
my own part I am inclined, for reasons which will be detailed hereafter, to deny 
the existence of a separate Danu tongue, and to classify the Danaw language in the 
Mon-Annam family. 

The M6n-Annam Sub-Family. 

1 34. There are few of the Indo-Chinese language forms on which so much 
„,, .„ , , ., apparently profitless labour has been spent in the past 

The Mon-Annam sub-family. rl ., «/a r . j - iL r ^.i ■ 

as the Mon-Annam, and in the eyes 01 the province 
not the least important of the services rendered by the Linguistic Survey will be 
its presentation to the public of a clear conception of the forms of Mon-Annam 
speech. In the Peguans or Talaings the people of Burma have from time 
immemorial had living in their midst well-known representatives of the ancient 
Mon-Annam people who, in the dim past, must have spread over the greater 
part of Assam, Burma, Siam and Indo-China. The characteristics of their tongue 
have long been well-known, but for many years past attempts to trace its connec- 
tion with other Asiatic languages have failed to carry general conviction. To the 
ethnologist it has seemed absurd that the vast race, of which the Talaings of the 
Kingdom of Pegu were a minor branch, should have left so light a linguistic impress 
on the peoples of the West of Indo-China, and the establishment of a relationship 
between Talaing and other languages in Asia has naturally been a problem full of 
fascination for local scholars. In the fifties Logan pointed out that the Mon had 
'"' a strong linguistic connection, not only with the Kambogian, but with the language 
of some of the ruder mountaineers of the Mekong." What the bond of union was 
he lelt to a later generation to determine. Mr. Houghton, in his excursions into the 
realm of comparative philology, has detected sporadic Mon traces dotted here and 
there over the province, in the Karen Hills to the east, in the language of the Kami 
of the Arakan Hill Tracts to the west, and has even noted obscure Mon influences on 
the Tibetan tongue. For all this, the lack of tangible results so far has been remark- 
able. Of the few definite theories formulated, all have seemed doomed to refutation. 
The view, so strongly held in the past by Mason and others, that a relationship 



88 



REPORT ON THE CfiNSUS OF BURMA. 



existed between the language of the Peguans and that of the Kols of Centfal India, 
was by later students weighed and found wanting (though I would here observe 
that Captain Forbes, while scouting the idea of a " genealogical relationship " 
between the Kolarian and Mon-Annam languages, was forced to admit that certain 
affinities might be traced between them). It was Dr. Forchhammer Who was 
mainly instrumental in demolishing the Mon-Kol or Mon-Munda theory; This 
scholar, in his turn, classified Talaing linguistically with Palaung. Sir George Scott 
has held that linguistic evidence is entirely against this latter connection ; and has 
hinted that, if an affinity is to be looked for, it may possibly be found in the Hmeng 
or Miaotzu of South-western China. In a word the fixing of the precise relation 
that Talaing bears to other languages has so far largely baffled the earnest 
enquirer. Dr. Grierson has now gathered up the threads and given us a con- 
nected and comprehensive conception of the Mon-Annam sub-family, so far as he is 
acquainted with it, which shows that much of the surmise of the past is, after all, 
well founded. The words " Mon " and " Munda" may have no common origin. 
The relationship of Talaing with Palaung may at the first blush seem problematic, 
but Talaing and Palaung are, if the evidence of the Linguistic Survey is to be 
believed, remote members of the same sub-family, and Munda has certain elements 
in common with them. Dr. Grierson tells us that it has now been proved, hot 
only by vocabularies but by the internal structure of the language itself, that the 
Khassi of Assam is a member of the Mon-Annam family. He mentions four 
other groups, which will be referred to more fully hereafter, and then writes as 
follows ; — 

"To sum up the considerations of the Mon-Annam sub-family. There is a remarkable 
agreement between the vocabularies and structures of Khassi, Mon, Khmer, and other less 
important languages of the same sub-family. 

" The resemblances between the Mon-Annam vocabularies and those, on the one hand, of 
the Munda languages and, on the other hand, of Nancowry and the Malacca dialects have 
often been pointed out. These are so remarkable and of such frequent occurrence that a 
connection between all these tongues cannot be doubted. The existence of such a connec- 
tion must be considered as established. At the same time the structures of the two sets of 
speeches differ in important particulars. The Mon-Annam languages are monosyllabic. 
Every word consists of a single syllable. When in Khassi, for instance, we meet an appar- 
ent dissyllable, we find on examination that it is really a compound word. On the other 
hand the Munda, Nancowry arid Malacca languages contain many undoubted polysyllables. 
This is a very important point of difference, for one of the marks by which languages are 
classified is the fact that they are monosyllabic or polysyllabic. Again, if we take the order 
of words in the Munda languages and compare it with that of Khassi and Mon, we find 
another important distinction. The Munda order is subject, object, verb, while in Khassi 
and Mon it is subject, verb, object- The order of words in a sentence follows the order of 
thought of the speaker, so that it follows that the Mundas think in an order of ideas different 
from that of the Khassis and the Mons. 

'' Owing to the existence of these differences, we should not be justified in assuming a 
common origin for the Mon-Annam languages on the one hand and for the Munda, Nancowry 
and Malacca languages on the other. We may, however, safely assume that there is at the 
bottom of all these languages a common substratum, over which there have settled layers of 
the speeches of other peoples differing in different localities- Nevertheless, this substratum 
Was firmly enough established to prevent its being entirely hidden by them, and frequent 
undeniable traces of it are still discernible in languages spoken in widely distant tracts of 
nearer and further India. It will be understood how important this fact is from the point of 
view of ethnology." 

Munda is the language of the Kols. Nancowry is a dialect spoken in the 
Nicobars south of the Andamans. The barest glance at a map will show that the 
discovery of a substratum so widely distributed and at the same time so elusive is 
indubitably of prime importance. 

1 35. To consider now the groups of the Linguis- 
faS UpSOf thC M6n * Annam sub " tic Survey. For convenience of reference I will call 

them— 

(1) the Lower Middle Mekong group, 

(2) the North Cambodian group, 

(3) the Khmer group, 

(4) the Upper Middle Mekong group, and 

(5) the Khassi group. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



8 9 



136. With the first, third and-fffth groups we have nothing to do. The lanv 

m„„. r ... guages and dialects comprised in them are spoken be- 

North Cambodian group. B <?., - , „ r nr.i 1 r i .1 

yond the confines of Burma. Or the second, the north 

Cambodian group, only one is of immediate interest. It is the Mon or Taking. The 

others are spoken in French Indo-China. Mon is more or less geographically 

isolated ; between it and the other members of the group there is a gulf fixed. It 

was cut off from them by the great Tai wave that came down from the north and 

had by the fourteenth century of the Christian era spread out over Siam. Talaing 

was returned on the 1st March 1901 as the language spoken by 155,100 persons, 

for the most part residing in the Pegu, Hanthawaddy, Thaton and Amherst 

districts. The question of its tones has already been discussed. It only remains 

to observe here that it is rougher and more guttural than Burmese; that the "r" 

sound is preserved and has not degenerated into a " y "; that a certain amount of 

Pali has crept into its composition. In the matter of . phonetic development it 

would seem to be at about the same stage as Arakanese. It has been reduced to 

writing, a modified form of the Burmese alphabet having been employed for the 

purpose. 

Upper Middle Mekong or Wa- 137- I give below Dr. Grierson's fourth or Upper 

Palaung group. Middle Mekong group in full. 

Language or dialect. Where spoken. 

(1) Mi ... ... ... Neighbourhood of Kieng Khan. 

(2) Khmu, Khamu, or Kha Muk ... Neighbourhood of Luang Phrabang. There are 

also some in Salween in British territory. 

(3) Lemet ... ... ... Kiang Khong and Pakta. 

(4) Palaung or Rumai ... ... Tawngpeng north-east of Mandalay and all over the 

Shan States. 

(5) Wa or Wii ... ... ... On the upper course of theSalween; alsoin KengtQng 

(6) En ... ... ... ... KengtQng State, between the Salween and the 

Mekong. 

(7) Hsen Hsum ... ... ... KengtQng State, between the Salween and the 

Mekong. 

(8) Mong Lwe ... ... ... KengtQng State between the Salween and the 

Mekong. 

(g) Hka-la or Ang-ku ... ... Mong Yawng in KengtQng. 

(10) S6n ... ... ... KengtQng. 

(ti) Riang ... ... ... Mong Sit State in Upper Burma. 

These correspond almost exactly with Sir George Scott's Wa-Palaung lan- 
guages, and a suitable alternative for the name of the group would be Wa-Palaung. 
Of the languages specified, the first, Mi, is apparently not spoken within the limits 
of Burma or the Shan States. I cannot find any reference to it in the Upper 
Burma Gazetteer, and the only vocabulary I have seen is that given in Garnier's 
Voyage d 'exploration en Indo-Chine. The rest are spoken over the northern 
and eastern portions of the Shan States. The Upper Burma Gazetteer deals with 
the Hka Muks and the Hka Mets (or, as the Shans call them, the Lemets) to- 
gether. According to Garnier there is a real difference between the Hka Muk 
(No. 2) (his Khmous) and the Lemet (No. 3) forms of speech. It is the first of 
the two that has been illustrated in the Gazetteer. Under the name of Khamu this 
form was returned as the parent tongue of eight people in the Salween district 
at the 1 891 Census, It was recognized then as a member of the Mon-Annam 
family. At the 1901 Census it was spoken by 75 persons in all. Closely con- 
nected with the Hka Muk is the dialect spoken in Mong Lwe (No. 8). but there 
is probably almost as much Shan in it as Hka Muk. Two specimens of Riang, 
which is spoken in the north-eastern portion of the Southern Shan States, have 
been given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. They are the Yang Sek and the Yang 
Wan Kun. There is a very close resemblance between the two. The speech of 
the Yang Lam, the third of three tribes into which the Riangs are divided, dif- 
fers little from the first two forms. It seems, however, to have rather more Shan 
in its composition. Riang was the language ordinarily spoken by 4,490 persons at 
the 1901 Census. 

Of the remaining dialects, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10 are dialects of Wa. The 
guttural nature of these languages is one of their chief characteristics. It is 

23 



90 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



similarly one of the distinctive features of Palaung (No. 4). The Wa tongues 
are spoken down almost the whole length of the eastern portion of the trans-Sal- 
ween Shan States. Mr. Stirling is responsible for the majority of the Wa 
vocabularies given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. His Wa, as spoken in Keng- 
tung, differs to a marked degree from that given elsewhere in the Gazetteer, which 
is presumably a more northern variety. Two forms of Wa were returned at the 
Census, Wa proper spoken by 7,667 persons, and the vernacular of the Tai L01 
(12,762 speakers). Vocabularies of three varieties of Palaung have been printed in 
that work, namely, (a) that spoken in the Shan States, {b) that spoken in the 
neighbourhood of Manton, and (c) the variety known as Nam Hsan ; but Sir George 
Scott has no very exalted opinion of their utility, seeing that our knowledge of the 
language has filtered to us through a Burmese or Shan medium, and has " inevi- 
tably been coloured in the process." The speakers of Palaung numbered 5°j5°4 
on the 1 st March 190 1. 

138. I have already observed above that I should be inclined to treat the 
D tongue of the Danus or Danaws as a Mon-Annam lan- 

guage. The Danus and Danaws have been looked 
upon by some authorities as one and the same race. For my own part I am inclined 
to think that this is not the case. The Danus, who inhabit the borderland between 
the Shan States and Upper Burma, seem to have lost their speech and have de- 
generated into a hybrid Shan-Burmese compound. This is the case in the neigh- 
bourhood of Maymyo, where the last Danu-speaking elders are said to have died 
three years ago. Among the Danaws however, a separate language still survives. 
It is said to be a mixture of Burmese and Karen, in which the Burmese preponder- 
ates, and has been placed in much the same category as Taungthu. The vocabu- 
lary of Danaw given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer does not, to my mind, bear out 
this description. I can find little in it that denotes either a Burmese or a Karen con- 
nection. On the other hand, the tongue seems to contain a very considerable num- 
ber of words which mark it as related to Wa, Palaung and other members of the 
Upper Middle Mekong group of languages. A few of the most striking of these 
are given below. The Taungthu word is in each case given as well as the Danaw, 
and will show how slight the reputed connection between the two is compared 
with that existing between Danaw and the Mon-Annam varieties : — 



English. 


Danaw. 


Hka Muk. 


Riang. 


Palaung. 


Wa. 


Taungthu. 


Tongue 


Tak 


Tak 


Tak 


Sata — Kata... 


Tak 


Pfi. 


Water 


Om 


Om 


Om 


Em — Om ... 


Rom 


Ti. 


Bird 


Sim 


Hsim 


Sim 


Hsim 


Sun, Hsi m 


Wa. 


Leaf 


La 


La 


La-ke 


Hla 


La, 'Nla ... 


Ala. 


River [ 


Parong 
Om-laung ... 


f Hrawngom 


Om-rawng ... 


Um-rawng ... 




Ti-krawng. 


Wind 


Kun 


, 


Kur 


Hkun 


Ko-a 


Tali. 


Spear 


Plit 


Plek 


Plas 




• •« 


Bang. 


Sword 


Wik 


... 


Wait 


... 


W£(k)-wai 


Na. 


One hundred... 


Epaya 




Spria 


Upaiya 


... 


Tasya. 


1 


O 




E or O 


Ao 


*•• 


Kwe. 


We 


E 


• •• 


E 


Ye 


E 


Kwe. 


Thou 


Mer 




Mu or Mi ... 


Mai 


• <• 


Na. 


You 


Per 




Pe 


Pe 


Pe 


Na. 


Leg 


Pli-sung 


Plo 


Pli-chawng ... 


Plo 


Pari chawng 


Kang-Iawng. 


Hand 


Ti 


Ti 


Ti 


Ti or Tai 


Te or Tai... 


c ■ 
ou. 


Blood 


Ngam 


■•■ 


Nam 


Hnam 


Nam 


Athwi. 


Dog 


So 


u f Saw 
Hsaw < r, „ 
(_ Hsao 


] So 


Hsaw 


Twi. 



Vocabularies are notoriously deceptive, but the above shows, I consider, an affinity 
that cannot be dismissed as fortuitous. If the resemblance were confined to a 
single language, one might be disposed to think that Danaw had been coloured by 
a mere geographical contact with a neighbouring Mon-Annam form of speech. As 
it is, however, the closest similarity is now with one and now with another of the 
languages in question and raises a very reasonable assumption that Danaw has a 
common origin with them. Only those Danaw words have been selected which 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. S^ 

have their counterpart in more than one of the M6n-Annam languages. There 
are many others, however, which find an echo in only one of these tongues. It is 
curious that more often than not the single parallel is found in the Wa language. 
Instances of this phenomenon are — House — Danaw, nya; Wa, nyai or nya: Roof 
— Danaw, plang; Wa, lop-plawng : to make — Danaw, yawk, Wa,jfli. Now and 
then, as in the case of the word for ' moon ' (kato) there is no similar word in any 
of the languages of the Wa-Palaung group, but an exact counterpart in Taking. 
How the Danaw acquired their tongue is, and will be till our knowledge is much 
enlarged, to a certain degree a matter of conjecture. In all 18,994 persons were 
shown as ordinarily speaking Danaw at the 190 1 Census. 

1 39. Appended to this chapter is a synopsis of the principal languages and 

dialects of the Indo-Chinese family spoken in the pro- 
guag n es PS ' S ° a "" yir.ce. It is not exhaustive. It does not for instance 

include Chinese or any of the trans-frontier forms 
spoken by temporary residents and foreign settlers except Siamese, Lao, Hka Muk 
and Lemet, which have been introduced and shown in brackets on the strength of 
the knowledge that we possess as to the precise position that is to be assigned to 
them. No attempt has been made to distinguish between languages and dialects. 
It is probable that before the next census the list will have been considerably ampli- 
fied. 

The Malay Family. 

140. Of the languages of the Malay family only two, Cham (or Tiam) and 
s . Selon (or Selung), are vernaculars of the mainland of 

Asia. Cham is spoken by the aborigines of Cambodia 
and does not here immediately concern us. Selung is the speech of the sea gypsies 
of the Mergui district, and may be looked upon as one of the indigenous tongues of 
British India. It, in common with Cham, has a few points in common with the 
language of the Phillipines and, though exhibiting traces of contact with Malay 
and other neighbouring languages, possesses several marked original characteris- 
tics. Its speakers numbered 1,318 on the istMarch 1901. Dr. Grierson tells us 
that both Cham and Selon are probably the residuum of a tongue spoken at "an 
extremely remote period by a prehistoric race on the Continent of Further India. 
It maybe of interest to note what Logan said of Selon in 1851. The following 
is an extract from an article by that indefatigable scholar in the Journal of the 
Indian Archipelago of that year : — 

" The language of the Silong of the Mergui Archipelago is mainly dissyllabic, but with, 
a strong monosyllabic tendency. Its phonology, like that of the Simang, is a compound of 
Earlier West Indonesian and Ultra-Indian. It possesses several non-Indonesian combin- 
ations of consonants, such as nh, mn, pn, dn, in, km, gm, Im, pi, kb, kg, tk. Some of these, 
however, are found in the more consonantal of the West Indonesian dialects, particularly in 
- some Malayan and Borneon ones. Like these too, it affects long and compound vowels, ui, 
at, ae, &c. Its finals are West Indonesian and with a higher proportion of consonants or 
about 70 per cent, which is the same as in the most primitive and consonantal of the North 
Indonesian, Micronesian and Melanesian languages." 

141. Of the remaining vernaculars of India there is but little of special import- 

. , .. ance to record- They will have received ample treat- 

Other vernaculars of lnd,a. ^^ ^ ^ ^^ rf ^ ^^ Superintenden t s f 

Census. I cannot flatter myself that the figures in Burma are likely to be of much 
more value than those relating to castes- It was not to be expected that any ap- 
preciable number of the indigenous enumerators of the province would know the 
names of more than one or two of the many languages of India they might be called 
upon to record, and without some such knowledge it would have been unreasonable 
to reckon on anything approaching accuracy. Dr. Grierson tells us in the preface 
to his " Indexes of languages " that an uneducated Native rarely knows the name of 
his own dialect. I would go further and say that, when dealing with foreigners 
who are unable, so to speak, to give him a lead, he would often appear to be ig- 
norant not only of the name of the. dialect of the language he speaks, but of that of 
Ihe language itself. A substantial percentage of the Indian immigrants into Burma 
are uneducated and, as at the census the enumerator in nine cases out of ten was 
omable to help his man out, it is not surprising that a distressingly large number oj 



9^ REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA, 

the entries recorded against natives of India in column 13 of the schedule (Langu- 
age ordinarily used) were practically worthless. There was no expectation that a 
record of Indian dialects would be obtained, but it was hoped that where the lan- 
guage given was one of the well-known vernaculars such as Hindi, Bengali, Tamil 
or Telugu, it would be definitely shown as such in the schedule. I cannot say 
that even this hope was fully realized. I was at pains to issue to supervisors in 
those areas where there was a large number of native of India residents addi- 
tional instructions in regard to these foreigners, among which figured a speci- 
fic injunction to the effect that the words " Musalman " or " Hindu " were not to be 
shown in column 13, as they were not the names of languages. I cannot, however, 
say that I was much surprised to find when the schedule came in that the num- 
ber of cases in which the words " Musalman " and " Hindu " had been entered in 
column 13 was enormous. Hindu frequently meant Hindustani, but as frequently 
probably Hindi and too often it was obvious from the context that it stood for neither 
of these but for either Tamil, Telugu or Bengali. "Musalman" was as a rule no 
guide at all. There were other entries that militated against a correct classifi- 
cation. "Kala saga " (cxjcodsocods) " the foreigner's tongue," was the last resource 
of many a desperate enumerator, while " Bingala " (ooScods) " Bengali "was a term 
applied indiscriminately to the speech of persons from every portion of the Empire. 
The Madrasi coolies of the province are locally known as Coringhis and the fact 
that there was no Coringhi language seemed as difficult for enumerators to grasp 
as that the Chetties, the Sudras and some other castes were not the proud posses- 
sors of vernaculars of their own. On the whole the birthplace column gave a gen- 
neral idea of how to show doubtful languages and no pains were spared to gather 
from their surroundings what, in questionable cases, the correct entries should be, 
but it must be confessed that the net result was not wholly inspiriting. I trust that 
the enumeration of the above few difficulties out of the many that were encounter- 
ed at this stage of the work of abstraction will enable my successor to anticipate 
and grapple with the most serious of them forearmed at the census of 191 1. 

Below is given a list of the principal Indian vernaculars and of the total 
number of persons shown as speaking them : — 



Hindustani 95,122. 
Hindi 28,689. 



Bengali 204,973. 1 Tamil 99,576". 
Punjabi 15,803. J Telugu 96,601. 

142. Of the vernaculars of Asiatic countries beyond India the only four of 
, . importance are Naipali, Chinese, Siamese and Malay. 

The strength of the population in whose mouths they 
were the " languages ordinarily used " were as follows : — 

Naipali 5,463. | Chinese 47,444. | Siamese 19,531. j Malay 2,425. 
Of European languages, English heads the list with 12,237 male and 6,263 
female speakers. Portuguese shows 267 male and 23 female. Spanish was 
spoken by 106 males, mostly Manilla half castes engaged in the pearl fishery of 
Mergui, German by 104 males and 22 females and French by 63 of the former 
and 19 of the latter sex. 

143. Subsidiary Table No. VI-B appended to this chapter shows the number 

., , ... .. of books published in the vernaculars of the province 

Vernacular publications. ■ . ,, r _ . , , " 

during the ten years 1891 — 1900. It has been pre- 
pared with a view to giving a general idea of the progress or otherwise of vernacu 1 
lar literature during the decade under review and to throwing light upon the 
movement in favour of its revival. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that the figures exhibited in the table are not wholly the result of indigenous 
literary effort. Foreign missionaries are reponsible for a portion of the publica' 
tions enumerated, and the totals include every work published in the selected ver- 
naculars, whether alone or in combination with English. Burmese, it will be seen, 
heads the list with 701 publications. A large proportion of the Burmese publica- 
tions are religious treatises. Next to Burmese comes Karen, with 42 publican 
tions. As might be expected, the Sgau-Karen books are far ahead of the Pwo in 
point of numbers. Kachin follows with eleven works, all published since the 
close of 1894. These are religious and educational and all from the pen of the 
Rev. O. Hanson of the American Baptist Mission. Among the eight Shan 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 93 

works is included Dr. Cushing's Shan Bible, published in September 1892. The 
subordinate place occupied by Talaing is an unmistakable sign of the decay of 
that language, which no doubt in time will be a .tongue of the past. The Chin 
work referred to in the table is a translation of the opening chapters of St. John's 
Gospel by Saya Pyizo, The Chin in question is apparently Yoma Chin or, as it 
is locally called, Saingbaung Chin. So far as they go, the figures tend to show 
that the low-water mark in vernacular literature during the past decennium was 
reached in 1894, an ^ that since then there has been on the whole an increasing 
output of indigenous publications. 



94 



REPORT ON 1 HE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. VI-A. 



Synopsis of the Principal Indo-Chinese forms Spoken in Burma. 



fTibeto-Burman 

sub-family. 



Indo-Chinese 

FAMILY. 



Burmese. 
Arakanese. 
Tavoyan. 
Yaw. 

Chaungtha. 
Yabein. 
Intha. 
Taungyo. 
Kadu. 
("Burmese group...-) Mro. 
Szi. 
Laslii. 
Maru. 
Hpon. 
Maingtha. 
Lisaw 
Lahu 
Akha 
LAko 

SChingpaw. 
Singpho (Hukong 
Valley). 
Kauri 



) 



Lisaw sub-group. 



LKuki Chin group- 



,Tai group 



Siamese-Chinese ■ 
sub-family. 



.Karen group 



,M6n-Annam sub- 
family. 



f North C a m b o • 
dian group. 



Wa-Palaung 
, group. 



fThado 

Sokte 

Siyin 

Tashon 

Lai 

Shonshe 

Kyaw 

Chinme 

Welaung 

Chinbok 

Yawdwin 

Yindu or Shendu ., 

Chinbon 

Taungtha 

Kami 

Anu 
. Sak or Thet 
IJYoma Chin 

("(Siamese) 
I (Lao) 
I Hkun 
i Lii 

Burmese Shan 
Khamti 
.Chinese Shan 

'Sgau 

Pwo 

Mopgha 

Taungthu 

Karen ni 

Bre 

Mano 

Sawngtiing 

Padeng Zayein .. 

Banyang Zayein .. 

Kawnsawng 

Yintale 

Sinhmaw Mepauk 

Yinbaw 
.White Karen 

Talaing. 

(Hka Muk.) 
(Lemet.) 
Palaung. 
Wa. 
Tai Loi. 
En. 

Hsen Sum. 
Mong Lwe. 
Hka La. 
Son. 
Riang. 
.Danaw. 



.. > Northern Chin. 

.. ^-Central Chin. 

.'.' OldKuki. 
■ 1 



■Southern Chin. 



\ Southern Tai sub- 
; ) group. 

1 

• J Northern Tai sub- 
•J group. 

! Southern Karen sub- 
group. 



■ Northern Karen or 
Bghai sub-group. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. VI-B. 



95 



Number of Books published in the main Provincial Vernaculars during 
the ten years 1891 — 1900. 



Language. 


1 891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


i895- 


1896. 


1897. 


1898 


1899. 


1900. 


Total. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 . 


12 


Burmese and. Pali-Bur- 
mese. 
Pwo-Karen 
Sgau-Karen 
Karen (unspecified) 
Shan 
Talaing 
Chin 
Kachin 


162 

1 

4 


Si 

3 
4 
2 
1 


40 
3 


22 

1 


53 

"V 
1 

2 


Si 

1 

4 

1 
1 

1 

2 


45 

1 
3 

2 


81 

2 

1 
1 
1 
3 


104 

1 
2 

2 

1 

2 


92 
' S 


701 

7 

3' 

4 

8 

3 

1 

11 


Total 


167 


61 


43 


23 


62 


61 


51 


89 


112 


97 


766 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 97 



CHAPTER VII. 



Infirmities. 

144. The infirmities recorded at the recent Census were the same as at the 
Definition of infinities. preceding three enumerations, namely, insanity, deaf- 

mutism, blindness and leprosy. 10 qualify for entry 
in column i6of the schedule it was necessary for the deaf-mute to have been deaf 
and dumb from birth, for the blind man to be totally blind, not blind of one eye 
only, and for the leper to be suffering from true leprosy, not white leprosy or 
leucoderma. Instructions with a view to securing correct entries in the case of the 
last three infirmities were included among the rules for enumerators printed in 
the inside cover of the enumeration book. No attempt was made in these rules 
to define what was and was not an insane for the purposes of the enumeration. 
The term " insane " was, as Mr. Baines points out in the opening paragraph of 
Chapter VII of his General Report, intended to include both the imbecile and 
lunatic, but, as the Burmese word employed in the schedule, 33^s (ayu), a madman, 
is used indiscriminately for all classes of persons of unsound mind, no difficulty 
was caused in this province by the absence of a specific definition. 

145. One- of the features of the returns of the 1891 Census under the head of 

infirmities was the extraordinarily large number of 
i8^! gh UpPer Burma fiS " re in Upper Burmans shown as afflicted with insanity, blind- 
ness and leprosy. The following is a comparison of 
the 1891 average per 100,000 of each sex afflicted for Lower Burma, Upper Burma, 
Burma and India as a whole : — 

Insane. Deaf-mutes. Blind. Lepers. 



( 1 1 > 1 * 1 \ 

Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. 

Lower Burma 83 51 42 34 89 99 92 31 

Upper Burma 124 127 79 66 317 416 160 81 

Burma ... 98 82 56 47 178 229 117 52 

India ... 33 21 90 59 164 171 68 23 

The above figures show for all infirmities except deaf-mutism, that while 
Lower Burma was sometimes above, it was also sometimes below the Imperial 
average, whereas the Upper Burma figures were invariably above, and in only one 
case less than twice as high as the Indian figures. In one case they were more 
than six, and in two more than three times as high. The hot dry climate of Up- 
per Burma accounts possibly for some of the discrepancy between the Upper and 
Lower Burma figures in respect of blindness, but in the case of leprosy and in- 
sanity it can hardly be urged that climatic factors can have caused any appreci- 
able portion of the difference between the upper and lower sections of the prov- 
ince, or have placed the average so far above that for the Empire as a whole. 
There is, moreover, no apparent reason why glare should affect the eyes of women 
more than men, as would seem to have been the case in Upper Burma. Looked 
at in the light of the Lower Burma figures on the one hand and the Imperial 
figures on the other hand, there seems to be no question that an unduly liberal 
interpretation was in 1891 placed upon the terms "insanity," "blindness" and 
"leprosy" in Upper Burma. This fact was recognized in 1891 by Mr. Eales, 
who, in the concluding paragraph of Chapter VI of his Report, says : — 

"Judging from the figures of previous enumerations, we may expect a large decrease 
in the returns of all four infirmities in the Upper Province and especially in the returns of 
the blind and of lepers-" 

This expectation has been abundantly justified : it may even be said to have 
been more than justified, for not only have the Upper Burma figures been very 
substantially reduced, but those for Lower Burma have diminished also. 

25 



9§ REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

146. The following are the 1901 figures per 100,000 of each sex afflicted in 

Upper and Lower Burma and Burma proper, exclud- 

General decrease in infirmities in 1901. j ng the Shan Stateg &nd the Ch ; n H m s> as compared 

with the figures for India as a whole in 1891 : — 

Insane. Deaf-mutes: Blind. Lepers. 

, " , t " \ t * > 1 * * 

Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. 

Lower Burma 55 28 21 13 57 55 49 17 

Upper Burma 73 67 50 34 198 222 82 40 

Burma ... 62 44 32 22 109 124 61 ,27 

India ( 1 891) 33 21 90 59 164 171 68 23 

If the returns of the recent census are to be relied on, we may take it that in 
Burma proper leprosy approximates very closely to the mean for India as a whole ; 
that insanity is a good deal more prevalent than in most of the other portions of the 
Empire, that in blindness the province falls slightly, and in deaf -mutism very con- 
siderably, below the Imperial average. Now, in themselves the 1901 figures seem 
to be more likely to be correct than those of 1891, but, if the facts are truly 
stated, we find ourselves confronted by a general decrease in infirmities so notable, 
that a full examination of the causes that produced it seems called for. It is 
obvious to the meanest capacity that matters cannot actually have altered so 
much for the better during the past ten years as the data would appear to show. 
The extension of vaccination and a greater readiness to have recourse to hospital 
treatment have, we may trust, reduced the scourge of blindness, while segrega- 
tion has without doubt arrested the spread of leprosy somewhat, but it cannot be 
urged that vaccination and segregation are responsible for more than a fraction 
of the difference in the totals for the two enumerations. In a word, the decline 
must be more apparent than real, and it remains to consider what causes can have 
operated to produce such vastly different returns, and to decide whether on the 
whole it is more probable that the figures were unduly inflated in 1891 or that 
there were improper omissions ten years later. In so far as there is a marked 
falling off in the figures for the later enumeration, the onus probandi clearly rests on 
the shoulders of the 1901 Superintendent ; for, while the temptation wilfully to make 
incorrect entries is practically nil, the danger of overlooking the infirmities' column 
(column 16) is ever present both in the cases of enumeration and abstraction. 
As regards abstraction, for which I, and I alone, am responsible, I am not prepared 
to say that some portion of the decrease may not be due to the posters having 
missed entries in column 16. Placed, as that column is, at the edge of the schedule 
and almost hidden on the left-hand page when the book is doubled, it was inevit- 
able that here and there an entry should evade even the most vigilant eye. In 
the administrative volume I am, in offering suggestions for improving abstraction 
at the next census, suggesting that the infirmities' column, which is but seldom 
filled up and is thus apt to be forgotten and overlooked, should be placed in a 
more conspicuous position in the schedule. If this suggestion is adopted an 
occasion for possible error will certainly be removed. When first comparing the 
infirmities' figures for 190 1 with those for the preceding census, I was inclined, 
seeing what I had seen, to think that omissions had occurred on a very large scale 
in abstraction. A more careful scrutiny of the figures, however, coupled with an 
independent test of the totals for selected areas, convinced me that improper 
omissions constituted but a small portion of the decrease as a whole, and that the 
marked divergence between the returns of infirmities for the two enumerations 
actually existed before the enumeration books reached the Abstraction office. To 
ascertain what the motives were that prompted the people to return fewer infirmi- 
ties at the recent than at the preceding census, one has but to turn to the 1891. 
Report, where they will be found fully indicated by Mr. Eales in connection with 
the marked difference between the Upper and Lower Burma figures for that year. 
He writes as follows : — 

" In Upper Burma lunatic asylums are as yet unknown, hence there is less inclination to 
screen the imbecile from the view of the Government official. 

***** 
" The returns of Upper Burma, where no census was held before, show that in all prob- 
ability persons but partially blind were entered as blind. 

***** 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 99 

" Leucoderma, or " Kayu Thin, " is known by a separate name from true leprosy ( which is 
known'as " nu na, " and more careful instructions in successive enumerations have produced 
more accurate returns in Lower Burma." 

and again, in connection with the returns of blindness : 

" * * and when the people understand there is no connection between the 

enumeration and taxation, we may hope for more accurate returns." 

To put it shortly the falling off in infirmities shows that the " more careful 
instructions in successive enumerations " have produced the same effect in Upper 
as they have in Lower Burma. The Upper Burman has, during the decade under 
review, grown less unsophisticated, more intelligent, and more like the Lower 
Burman in the matter of the record of infirmities, while the Lower Burman has 
been more careful in his returns than at the previous census. This growth in 
intelligence was what was to be expected. Even as it is the check exercised in 
the Abstraction office has proved that some of the infirm who figured in the sched- 
ules ought not to have been shown there. In their zeal'many enumerators enter- 
ed the lame in column 16; the word ooS^sg? (wet-yu-pyan, epilepsy) was not un- 
known, and here and there the frank admission was made that the blind person 
shown as such was blind of one eye only. Entries such as these entailed a 
careful examination and constant weeding out, and there can be no doubt that, but 
for the scrutiny brought to bear when posting was in progress, the number of 
infirm shown in Imperial Table XII would have been much higher than it was. 

To sum up : there was a surprisingly large diminution in the 1901 figures for 
infirmities as compared with those for 1891. A portion of the decrease may have 
been due to omissions in the 1901 Abstraction office and to the extension of vacci- 
nation and medical treatment, but the bulk was the result of causes similar to 
those which produced so singular a divergence between the returns for Upper 
and Lower Burma at the 1891 Census, the principal of which was more careful 
enumeration in the latter area. In 1891 the Upper Burma figures were admittedly 
abnormally high, and a large decrease at the succeeding enumeration was then 
anticipated. The decrease is probably even larger than was expected, but, as the 
figures as they now stand are, except in the case of deaf-mutes, either higher 
or only slightly lower than the 1891 figures for India as a whole, there seems to be 
no reason for doubting that they are fully as reliable as those returned at the 1891 
enumeration, and give a fairly clear idea of the actual state of facts as regards the 
prevalence of the " scheduled" infirmities in Burma. 

147. Inclusive of the afflicted in the Shan States and the Chin Hills there 
were 5,5 1 7 insanes in Burma on the night of the 1 st March 
" u " r 1901. Despite the decrease adverted to above, the 

average is still high when judged by Indian standards, and the prevalence of mad- 
ness has no doubt been rightly put down to the excitability and self-indulgence of 
the people of the country. As in 1891, more males were returned as mad at the 
recent census than females ; the figures for the whole of the province are 3,209 
and 2,308 respectively. This excess of males over females was common to both 
sections of the province. There was no preponderance of female over male insanes 
in Upper Burma, such as puzzled Mr. Eales in 1891. Subsidiary Table No. VIIA 
appended to this chapter gives a general indication of the distribution of insanity 
over the several political and natural divisions of the province. The Chin Hills 
take the highest place in the list with a percentage of 364 male and 336 female 
insanes in every 100,000 of each sex. Next to the Chin Hills come the Ara- 
kan Hill Tracts with 246 and 148 respectively. The extraordinarily large pro- 
portion of persons of unsound mind in the latter district attracted some little 
comment in the 1 891 report, but any doubt that may then have existed as to the cor- 
rectness of the figures for that year may now be said to have been set at rest by the 
190 1 returns. Rangoon comes next with 227 males and 97 females in every hun- 
dred thousand of each sex, but here, with a lunatic asylum, conditions are admit- 
tedly abnormal. What is really significant, however, is that after the above three 
districts come the Upper Chindwin and Pakokku, that is to say, the other two dis- 
tricts of Burma besides Northern Arakan that border on the Chin Hills. If any 
inference is to be drawn from, these figures it is that insanity is more than ordi- 
narily rife in the uplands that separate Burma from Assam, Manipur and Bengal. 



100 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

In his report on the 1891 Census in the Punjab Mr. Maclagan, the Provincial 
Superintendent, writes as follows in connection with insanity : — 

"The distribution of this infirmity no doubt follows to some extent the distribution of 
goitre. The form of idiocy known as cretinism is constantly accompanied by goitre, and 
in parts of Ambala below the hills, the same word (jaggar) is said to be applied to an imbe- 
cile and to a person afflicted with goitre. Goitre is found mainly in the hills and in the 
south-west * * *." 

We have it on the authority of Messrs. Carey and Tuck that goitre is prevalent 
in the Chin Hills, though confined to certain tracts, and that in some of the villages 
cretins are found " who go on all fours, mix with the pigs in the muck and are in- 
capable of speech." We may therefore assume with some measure of confidence 
that the connection between goitre and insanity adverted to by Mr. Maclagan in 
1 89 1 exists in Burma also, and that it is cretinism that is responsible for the excess 
in the Chin Hills and in the adjoining areas over the average of persons of un- 
sound mind. If any support to the above figures is required it is amply lent by 
the data contained in subsidiary Table No. VIIC which exhibits the average num- 
ber of afflicted per 10,000 of each sex among the principal indigenous races of 
Burma. The insanity figure for the Chins (23 males and 20 females in every 
10,000 of each sex) is far in advance of that for any other of the Burma-born peoples. 
The distribution of insanity in Burma is indicated in the maps appended to this 
chapter. A glance at these will show how much more madness prevails in Upper 
than in Lower Burma and in the west than in the east of the province. Proximity 
to the Chin country would seem inevitably to raise the proportion of persons of 
unsound mind. Outside the sphere of Chin influence the average of lunatics is, 
with one or two exceptions, low. 

148. On the whole the data regarding insanity by age-periods, as exhibited 
I n't b " d ' n l m P er ial Table No. XII, present much the same 

features as they did ten years ago. Unsoundness of 
mind is in Burma but seldom sufficiently pronounced in children of tender years 
to justify their classification as imbeciles. We thus find that, in a population of 
nearly ten millions and a half, there are only 67 children of less than five years of 
age who have been returned as insane. From five years onwards the totals increase 
rapidly till the 30 — 35 age-period is reached. After that, the general decline 
in numbers shows that the total of individuals whose insanity first declares itself 
in the riper years of life is comparatively small. We must not, however, over- 
look the fact that, though there is a diminution on the whole, the 40 — 45 age-period 
shows in the case of females a higher proportion of insanes than the quinquennium 
immediately preceding it. I doubt whether any cause can be assigned for this 
temporary rise other than that indicated in paragraph 1 23 of the 1891 report, namely, 
what is known as the " change in life." 

Subsidiary Table No. VI IB appended to this chapter shows the proportion 
of female to male insane at each age-period. In nearly every period and in the 
aggregate the males predominate. In the 2 — 3 age-period alone do the females 
exceed the males to any marked extent. The totals, however, are far too minute 
to allow of any inferences being drawn from them. They are for the age-period 
in question two only for the stronger and six for the weaker sex. It is only when 
expressed in the terms of this table that they can be said to attract attention. 

149. In the whole of the province 2,843 deaf-mutes were returned as such at 

the 1 90 1 enumeration. This aggregate is lower even 
than the 1891 total (3,904), which was not considered 
by any means high. As has been pointed out in the 1891 report, the figures for 
this infirmity have been steadily declining for many years past. In 1872 the 
proportion of deaf and dumb to every 100,000 of each sex was 160 in the case of 
males and 100 in the case of females. By 1881 this ratio had fallen by more 
than half, namely, to 70 and 50 respectively. In 189 1 the proportion again de- 
creased to 55 and 47, and the recent enumeration has witnessed a still further re- 
duction to 33 and 22 deaf-mutes respectively in 100,000 of each sex. In the 
past it has been claimed that the successive diminutions were the result of more 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. * ° ' 

scrupulous enumeration. Though, as I have remarked in an earlier paragraph 
of this chapter, I think it possible that some slight portion of the latest falling 
off may have been occasioned by omissions in the Abstraction office due to 
the overlooking of entries in column 16, I see no reason for refusing to give the 
enumerators credit for the exercise of a somewhat keener critical faculty in con- 
nection with the entry of deaf-mutes in the schedule than was displayed at the 
census of 1891. In fact, I consider that the figures on the whole are probably a 
very fairly accurate picture of the facts as they actually exist. They at any rate 
bear no signs of the handiwork of any zealot like the enumerator of 1 881, who in- 
cluded or attempted to. include in the category of deaf-mutes all infants who were 
too young to speak. In this infirmity the males exceed the females to an even 
greater extent, it may be noted, at the last than at the preceding enumeration. In 
1891 the totals were 2,150 males and 1,754 females ; they are now 1,731 males and 
1,1 12 females. It is worthy of remark that, after Bhamo, deaf-mutism is com- 
monest in those areas of Upper Burma which we have seen suffer most from insanity, 
namely, the Chin Hills, Pakokku and the Upper Chindwin district. We may 
take it, I think, that a portion of the deaf-mutism existing in the province can be 
traced back to the cretinism which has swelled the number of insanes on the 
western border. Possibly the high figures for Bhamo (142 males and 100 females 
to every hundred thousand of each sex) may be accounted for in somewhat 
the same manner. Of Lower Burma districts Northern Arakan has (as would be 
expected if the above assumption were correct) the largest proportion of deaf- 
mutes. Here the ratio is 47 and 69 for every hundred thousand of the male and 
the female sex respectively, but, as I shall show in a later paragraph, the total 
population of this district is so insignificant that it would be dangerous to theorize 
on the infirmity figures it has returned. There are rather a large number of deaf- 
mutes in the Northern Shan States, whereas the Southern Shan States are, or 
seem to be, comparatively free from this infirmity. The local census reports, 
however, tend to throw some discredit on the figures for the latter region. 
Mr. Stirling tells us that there was in his charge a tendency to omit the afflicted 
generally from the schedules. No doubt it was the discovery of this tendency 
and the measures taken to counteract it that have sent up the Northern Shan 
States ratio. That deaf-mutism is generally more prevalent in the north than in 
the south of the province, I do not doubt. I cannot, however, believe that the 
figures for the Southern Shan States are in reality as much lower than those for 
the Northern Shan States as the returns would appear to show. In Lower Burma 
the difference is, of course, partly due to the large immigrant able-bodied population. 
Of indigenous races the Kachins show the highest proportion of deaf-mutes — 
1 1 males and 8 females in every 10,000 of each sex. This in itself is sufficient to 
explain the position Bhamo holds in the list of districts. 

156. The only feature of importance in the age-period figures under the head 

of deaf-mutism is the comparatively high age at which 
ea -mutism yage-per.t., the maximum of afflicted is reached. After the first 

year of life among the males there is a steady, increase in the totals of deaf and 
dumb till after the 15 — 20 age-period has been attained. Among the females 
the highest figure is reached rather earlier, namely, at the 10 — 15 age-period. 
Much the same phenomenon presented itself in 1891, when Mr. Eales justly 
pointed out that, in the case of a congenital affection like deaf-mutism, the maximum 
should of right be found in the earliest quinquennium, and gave as an explanation 
for the meagre returns for the early years of life the fact that, with some deaf and 
dumb children, it was not till their infancy was over that the existence of their 
infirmity was fully established. This cannot, however, be urged when the total is 
seen to be still rising during the second and third quinquennia of age. There 
certainly would appear to be something amiss in the figures, for it seems hardly 
conceiveable that any doubt should exist as to the faculties of a child who has 
reached the age of 15. There can be no question, I think, that, in the earlier 
age-periods, all who should have been returned as deaf and dumb have not been 
shown as such in the schedules. There is, however, no very marked difference 
between the returns for the 10 — 15 and the 15 — 20 age-periods in the case of 
males, and I doubt whether the number of omissions is anything very great. It 



102 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



is in any case satisfactory to note that there is no rise in the latter age-periods, 
such as that which was apparent in the Indian figures for 1891, and which Mr. 
Baines then put down to the inclusion among the deaf and dumb from birth of those 
who had actually lost their hearing during the closing years of life. As in the case 
of insanity, the males among the deaf-mutes exceed the females in very nearly all 
of the age-periods. In this regard subsidiary Table No. VI IB presents no fea- 
tures of special interest. 

151. There appear to be two main causes of blindness in Burma : the first of 
c these is the glare of the sun, the second is small-pox. 

As regards the former Mr. Baines has, in his General 
Report for 1891, pointed out that the axiom that drought and glare bear a direct 
relation to eye affections does not always find support in India as a whole. For 
all that, however, the conclusion that he arrives at after a careful weighing of the 
matter is that," on the whole the statistics for different parts of the same province 
" * * * seem to indicate that blindness is more prevalent, as a 
" rule, in hot and dry tracts and less prevalent in mountain air and within the in- 
" fluence of the heavier rain currents." The soundness of this conclusion would 
seem to be amply borne out by the statistics of blindness provided by the recent 
enumeration. On no other assumption can we explain why the ratios per hundred 
thousand of each sex in the Upper Burma dry division should be 205 for males 
and 230 for females, while in the Upper Burma wet division they are 109 and 108, 
and in the Lower Burma littoral division 46 and 39 respectively. A perusal of 
Subsidiary Table No. VILA will show that ordinarily the dryer the district the 
larger the tale of blind. For the provincial maxima we have, as a rule, to go to arid 
districts like Pakokku, Myingyan and the Lower Chindwin, while moist areas, such 
as Salween, Thaton and Amherst, furnish the minima. I say " as a rule" in re- 
gard to the maxima because, as a matter of fact, Northern Arakan, a wet area, 
supplies the very highest figures for the province — 426 blind males and 326 
blind females per 100,000 of each sex. The data for this district are at first 
sight almost alarming. It must be borne in mind, however, that they are calculated 
on so small a population that they are no adequate test of the extent of the afflic- 
tion. When it comes to examining the actuals, the figures give no cause for ap- 
prehension. A total of 45 male and 33 female blind in a district numbering 20,682 
souls all told is, on the face of it, almost as little a matter for concern as for con- 
gratulation, even though when worked out proportionally it assumes the dimensions 
referred to. After Northern Arakan and Thayetmyo (where conditions prevail 
similar to those obtaining in the dry zone) the highest proportion of blind in any 
Lower Burma district is in Prome, and this takes us to the second of the main 
causes of blindness adverted to above. For many years prior to the 1891 enumer- 
ation Prome enjoyed a somewhat unenviable reputation for small-pox, and I think 
that it can be hardly doubted that the large proportion of blind in this district is a 
legacy of successive epidemics in the past. Vaccinaction has done wonders dur- 
ing the last decade in reducing the virulence of the disease in the Prome dis- 
trict, and next census should see a substantial diminution in the total of blind. 
Small-pox is doubtless responsible for a good deal of the blindness returned in 
the other damp areas of the province. Reading subsidiary Table No. VIIC in the 
light of the above remarks, there is nothing to surprise us in the fact that the Bur- 
mans are more liable to blindness than any of the other indigenous races, and that 
the Shan show the next highest figure in regard to the average of afflicted. 

The figures contained in subsidiary Table No. VIIB show that, on the whole, 
and especially in the latter years of life, females were in 1891 more liable to blind- 
ness than males. The cause for this greater susceptibility of the weaker sex. 
which was apparent also at the preceding enumeration, has been touched upon in 
the 1 89 1 report, but Mr. Eales does not appear to have found any of the theories 
that have been adduced to account for it particularly convincing. In view of the 
fact that in 1881 the male blind exceeded the female blind in British Burma, the 
proportion being 107 of the former to every 100 of the latter, it seems probable 
that the. factors, physiological or otherwise, that determine the relative extent of 
blindness in each sex have yet to be traced. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. .) I °3 

152. Unlike the figures for the other infirmities which show a continued fall- 
Bii d s b a e- e ' a m & °^ a ^ ter a certam a g e nas been reached, the ratios 

r ! of the blind to the total population maintain an almost 

uninterrupted rise up to the last. This does not mean, as it would in the "case of 
deaf -mutism have meant, that the blind die off more slowly than, those who 
have not lost their sight, but merely that each year the ranks of the blind receive 
reinforcements from those who have not up till then lost their eyesight at a rate 
more rapid than that at which they are depleted by death. We thus find that, of 
the total of blind in the province on the 1st March 1901, that is to say, out of 5,556 
males and 5,966 females, no less than 1 ,87 1 males and 2,855 females are of the age 
of 60 and over. In 1891, it may be noted, the proportion borne by these aged 
blind to the total afflicted was even larger, being 39' 1 and 52*3 per cent, as com- 
pared with 33"6 and 479 in 190 1. The high percentage of the afflicted among 
the females seems a further indication of the fact that a very large portion of the 
blindness in the province is to be classed as senile, and the divergencies in the 
totals of blind women of 60 years and above at the last and at the preceding 
enumeration (2,855 against 4,477) are significant of the scope that exists for differ- 
ence of opinion as to whether this or the other dim-eyed crone should properly 
be treated as blind or not. To me the figures show conclusively that the test 
applied at the recent census was stricter than that applied ten years earlier. 

153. According to the returns there were 2,940 male and 1,250 female 
. lepers in Burma on the 1st March 1 90 1. Here, as in 

the case of the other " scheduled " infirmities, there is 
a notable decrease on the figures for the previous census, when the totals were 4,543 
and 1,921 for the two sexes. It is rather early in the day to ascribe much of this 
decrease to the benefits of segregation effected by the leper asylums, of which 
there are two in Mandalay and one in Rangoon. The difference is, I believe, 
mainly due to more careful enumeration, but I should hesitate to say that we 
should not be justified in according the excellent institutions referred to some 
small portion of the credit for the improvement in the figures. By the next 
census it is to be hoped that they will have made their influence indisputably felt. 
The map showing the distribution of leprosy appended to this chapter shows that 
this disease, like insanity, appears to prevail more in the west than in the east, and 
to flourish more in the dry than in the wet areas of the province, though it is 
Northern Arakan that shows the highest percentage of lepers to total population. 
For the reasons assigned above in the case of blindness, I should not be disposed 
to attach any great importance to the . Northern Arakan figures. There seems, 
however, to be no direct relation between rainfall and leprosy ; for though the 
Upper Burma dry division shows by far the highest figures (82 males and 39 
females per 1 00,000 of the population), the Lower Burma littoral figures are higher 
on the whole than those for the Upper Burma wet division. In every district in the 
province except one (Myitkyina) the male exceed the female lepers in number, in 
most cases very largely. The Myitkyina figures are small, far smaller than the 
average, and are possibly slightly defective. For the province as a whole the ratio 
is 56 males and 25 females in every 100,000 of the sex concerned. Subsidiary 
Table No. VI IC tells us that the ravages of leprosy are more marked among the 
Chins than among any other of the indigenous races of the province. 

1 54. Turning to the figures for leprosy by age-periods we find that, up to the 

age of 10 there is comparative immunity from the 

Leprosy by age-period* dJsease . ^ thg facf . ^ the tota]s foj . ^ second qu j n _ 

quennium are lower than those for the first, strikes one as an indication that, of the 
few children that are attacked in early life, a fairly large proportion are liable to 
succumb before very long to disease in some form or other. With the entry into 
the third quinquennium the proportion of lepers rises very considerably— the in- 
crease being more marked among the males than the females — and continues to 
rise on the whole till the 30—35 age-period is reached. After this death carries 
away more from the total than disease adds to it, so that, from 426 males and 1 50 
female lepers in 100,000 of each sex, the proportion dwindles down to 126 and 56, 
respectively, at the 55 — 60 age-period. The data show what is manifestly clear from 
independent evidence, namely, that lepers are a short-lived race. The age-period 



io4 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



proportions given in subsidiary Table No. VI IB would appear to point to the 
inference that, on the whole, the symptoms of the disease declare themselves a 
trifle earlier in the case of female than in the case of male children. As in the 
case of the insanity figures adverted to earlier, however, the actuals are far too 
microscopic to afford a basis for anything in the shape of generalities. In the later 
age-periods the totals are, perhaps, just large enough to afford reasonable grounds 
for the view that female lepers are slightly longer lived than male. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table No. VIIA. 



i°5 



Average number of afflicted per 100,000 of each sex by Districts and Natural Divisions' 





Insane. 


Deaf-mutes. 


Blind. 


Lepers. 


Districts and natural divisions. 




















Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


1. Bhamo 


43"3 


42-1 


142-0 


IOO'O 


69-8 


8r6 


7-2 


5-2 


2. Myitkyina 


33"° 


5I-S 


22-0 


38-6 


52'2 


93"3 


27 


6-4 


3. Katha 


59"9 


557 


46-0 


27-8 


165-9 


1 86- 1 


57'6 


33'4 


4. Ruby Mines 


33*1 


I5-I 


33-1 


22-7 


126-5 


91-1 


8-2 


2'5 


5. Upper Chindwin 


124-4 


157-6 


i'S'3 


64-6 


163-3 


182-1 


66-i 


37'4 


6. Northern Shan States 


S'l 


59"9 


88-o 


59'i 


198-1 


20T2 


34 - o 


25-1 


7. Southern Shan States 


27*2 


26-8 


>9"3 


"■5 


63-6 


53' i 


17-8 


8-9 


8. Chin Hills 


3637 


336-1 


9<J - 3 


38-6 


44-0 


36-3 


67-1 


22-7 


Upper Burma, Wet 


62*4 


65-3 


53'2 


33-i 


109-0 


1080 


30-1 


17-1 


1. Pak6kku 


ior8 


94-5 


93'5 


563 


272-9 


318-0 


66-7 


35'6 


2. Minbu 


92-2 


79"° 


57'3 


35'3 


187-2 


217-2 


104-8 


54-3 


3. Magwe 


8y9 


8i-5 


61:3 


49'3 


209-8 


245-3 


99-8 


52/5 


4. Mandalay (rural) 


62-3 


5°'5 


* 278 


20-4 


163-7 


148-5 


67-9 


26-9 


5. Shwebo 


566 


457 


40-2 


17-0 


164-8 


156-3 


469 


26-1 


6. Sagaing 


84-0 


777 


33'3 


22-5 


2in 


2ii"2 


103-7 


531 


7. Lower Chindwin 


63- 1 


49'8 


45-i 


22 - 


246-0 


284-9 


93'4 


356 


8. Kvaukse 


7S'° 


44'4 


24'5 


306 


209-1 


186-3 


41-8 


278 


9. Meiktila 


39'4 


45'o 


21-8 


20'2 


ioi - 6 


148-5 


46-2 


277 


10. Yamethin 


53'2 


52'9 


28-2 


2I"9 


124-6 


i5i'4 


39-o 


20-3 


H. Myingyan 


8o-i. 


74-i 


53-8 


407 


242-1 


3°4 - 9 


150-0 


539 


Upper Burma, Dry 


73-3 


65-5 


47-2 


31-7 


204-6 


230-3 


817 


38-8 


1. Akyab 


5o-3 


34-1 


27-9 


I4-0 


28-3 


20-1 


IO'O 


8-4 


■1. Northern Arakan 


246-2 


148-4 


47"4 


69-1 


426-2 


325-9 


388-3 


227*1 


3. Kyaukpyu 


66-6 


36"4 


20-g 


»'3 


41-9 


31'9 


17-2 


"'3 


4. Sandoway 


S6"5 


33'3 


21-7 


8-8 


32-6 


•5-5 


io-8 


2'2 


5. Hanthawaddy 


35'9 


2i'5 


19-1 


W5 


767 


66-5 


63-6 


2IT 


6. Pegu 


20 - I 


'3'4 


i8-5 


8-3 


50-2 


49-2 


43'i 


159 


7. Bassein 


3 8-2 


18-1 


23'5 


9-0 


27-4 


20-8 


62' 2 


19-7 


8. Myaungmya 


43'4 


18-7 


27-0 


13-8 


52-8 


54-o 


94*3 


3i'i 


9. Th6ngwa 


547 


21-9 


22"I 


165 


58-9 


68-6 


64-6 


I9'2 


10. Salween 


IO'2 


to-8 


2O-5 


5'4 


I0 - 2 


27-2 


I5-4 


... 


11. Thaton 


i5'5 


I2 - 2 


I4-4 


85 


29-9 


7-3 


18-3 


97 


12. Amherst 


317 


I5'4 


12-8 


I2'4 


24-4 


17-6 


24-4 


5-8 


13. Tavoy 


23-8 


25-2 


7'3 


I2'6 


47-6 


324 


90 


3'6 


14. Mergui 


3 2 "4 
39-8 


1 6-4 


I7'2 


7-0 


367 


2l - I 


8-6 


2 - 3 


Lower Burma, Littoral ... 


22-1 


20-7 


119 


46-2 


39-4 


44-5 


16-1 


1. Tharrawaddy 


477 


23-I 


179 


12-3 


62"! 


79' 1 


427 


"'3 


2. Prome 


67-0 


37 "o 


20-6 


16-4 


H89 


92-6 


77'° 


21-7 


3. Henzada 


637 


34-5 


31-8 


168 


80-7 


667 


8 1-5 


29-2 


4. Tour.goo 


38-2 


25-8 


27-8 


'55 


77 - 9 


70-0 


30-6 


6-6 


5, Thayetmyo 


647 


56-3 


144 


14-0 


99-2 


1333 


47'9 


28-1 


Lower Burma Sub-Deltaic 


56-8 


34*2 


23-4 


15-2 


86-3 


847 


59-0 


20-0 


Burma Rural 


55-6 


44 "9 


33-8 


22-1 


106-4 


"7"5 


54-6 


23-9 


1. Rangoon town 


226*5 


966 


13*8 


14-4 


35-° 


62-0 


52-5 


28-8 


2. Mandalay town 


427 


33'2 


9-6 


12*1 


i57-o 


152-9 


II2-I 


565 


Upper Burma (with Shan 


















States, &c). 


68-0 


64-3 


47-8 


3i-4 


167-4 


185-4 


63-9 


32-0 


Lower Burma 


5S-i 


28-1 


2I-I 


13-0 


57-4 


550 


493 


17-8 


Total Province 


607 


45*4 


327 


21-8 


105*1 


117-4 


55-6 


24-6 



27 



io6 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



Subsidiary Table No. VIIB. 



Proportion of Females afflicted to 1,000 Males at each age-period. 



Age-period, 


Total 

population 

(females 

afflicted to 

1,000 

males 

afflicted). 


Insane. 


Deaf- 
mutes. 


Blind. 


Lepers. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


— 1 
i — 2 

2—3 
3-4 
4—5 


725 

95^ 

1,000 

656 

640 


364 

333 
3,000 
1,100 

727 


824 
1,000 

143 
900 

545 


714 

1,000 

1.333 
514 
676 


1,000 
1.333 

444 
625 


Total 0—5 


„ 73° 


811 


661 


746 j 697 


5—10 
10—15 
15—20 
20—25 
25—30 

30—35 
35—40 
40—45 

45—50 
50—55 
55—60 
60 and over ... 


634 
659 
617 
588 
560 
596 
592 
696 
691 
853 
93i 
1.343 


727 
821 
728 
568 

56S 
632 
621 
699 
746 

1,046 
793 

1.073 


642 
683 
508 

537 
622 

585 
567 
819 

635 

648 

1,278 

766 


575 

569 

667 

771 

. 848 

879 

77o 

967 

865 

1,006 

1,107 

1,526 


833 

554 
5i9 
453 
328 

352 
398 
344 
364 
462 

444 
617 


Total 


792 


719 


642 


1,074 


425 



Subsidiary Table No. VIIC. 



Average number of afflicted per 10,000 of each sex among the principal indigenous races 

of Burma. 



Race. 


Insane. 


Deaf-mutes. 


Blind. 


Lepers. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Arakanese 

Burmese 

Chin 

Kachin 

Karen 

Shan 

Talaing 

Taungthu 


7 
7 
23 
3 
3 
4 
3 
3 


4 
5 
20 
2 
i 

4 

1 
2 


3 
4 
7 
11 
1 

5 
2 

2 


1 
2 

4 
8 

3 
1 
1 


3 
14 
9 
2 
2 
13 
3 
2 


2 
15 
9 
5 
2 
12 
2 
2 


1 

7 
11 
1 
3 
3 
3 
1 


1 
3 
4 

1 
2 

1 


Total 


6 


5 


3 


2 


11 


12 


6 


3 



LOWER BURMA 

SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF INSANITY. 
Scale of miles, 




Proportion of insane in 
every 100,000 of the popu- • 
lation. 



£¥= 



*9 



UPPER BURMA 
SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF INSANITY. 

SCAI E OF MILES. 



In n i 1 1 rrr- 




REFERENCES. 

0-19 per 100,000 .... 

20-39 „ „ 
Proportion of insane in 
every 100,000 of the popu-< 40-59 „ ,, 
lation. 

6, >99 „ ,. 
,, 100 and over 



/ / 



- 



N2 t.,31 




.<P4F 



ap 



or 



UPPER BURMA 
SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF LEPROSY. 



Scale of miles. 

[ i ll ll llll 1 1 



150 

=1 




Proportion of lepers in 
every 100,000 of the popu- 
lation. 



REFERENCES. 

0-9 per 100,000 

10-39 „ „ 

3°-49 ., ,. 
5°'99 11 ■> 
100 and over 



• •*• 


=1 




m 



m 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. I0 7 



CHAPTER VIII. 



Caste, Tribe and Race. 

155. In paragraph 8 of Home Department Resolution No. 30-32, dated the 

2nd April 1900, which deals generally with several im- 
Caste in Burma. portant questions connected with the Census, the 

following passage occurs : — 

" In order to simplify the final tables and expedite the publication of the results, Mr. 
Baines has proposed that the heading for caste should be omitted (from the 1901 schedule) 
and the returns of 1891 made use of ' as a standard until 1911.' The balance of opinion, 
however, is strongly in favour of retaining that heading, and the Governor-General in 
Council accepts that view both on the general ground taken by Sir K. Seshadri Iyer that 
' the .whole social fabric of India rests upon caste,' and for the special reason that flie 
caste statistics afford the best clue to the progress of the movement which Sir Alfred Lyall 
describes as ' the gradual Brahmanizing of the aboriginal, non-Aryan or casteless tribes ' 
and to the changes in respect of widow and infant marriage, which are known to be 
going on." 

Infant marriage, the re-marriage of widows and the Brahmanizing of aboriginals 
are not matters with which the rulers of Burma have any direct official concern, 
and Mr. Baines's proposal would no doubt have been welcomed in this province, for, 
as in 1890 so in 1900, it was represented unofficially that, so far as caste was 
concerned, the returns for Burma would be of very little value. Uniformity had, 
however, to be preserved ; and as, for the reasons indicated above, the caste column 
was prescribed for the rest of India, it was necessary for Burma to follow suit, 
doing the best with the material available that circumstances allowed of. 

156. In paragraph 225 of his 1891 Report Mr. Eales thought it more than prob- 
able that the recording of caste would not be again attempted at another Census, 
and was, for that reason, of opinion that it was just as well that the experiment of 
returning it had been made then. In his opinion the result of the attempt made in 
1 89 1 was not altogether discouraging, for the enumeration books showed that the 
fulness and accuracy of the returns had exceeded every expectation. As regards 
fulness, the same might be said of the data furnished at the present Census, for 
in practically every case column 8 has been filled up in some fashion or the other 
for Hindus. Whether the entries are really an approximation to accuraoy is, 
however, another matter. Having regard to the intellectual equipment of the 
average Burman enumerator, the point seems open to the very gravest doubt. It 
must be borne in mind first and foremost that the Burman has, save with very rare 

exceptions, no idea whatever of the precise meaning 
thence ' " S CaSte '" of the word " caste." He has no corresponding ex- 

pression in his own vernacular. Indeed, being, as 
the author of The Soul of a People tells us, "so absolutely enamoured of freedom 
that he cannot abide the bonds that caste demands," the need for an indigenous 
word has never been felt by him. " Zat " is the term he has learnt to use when 
occasion arises, though what exactly he means by " Zat " he would, in nineteen 
cases out of twenty, be at a loss to say. Of religions he has no doubt Some idea. 
There is the Buddhist religion, he will tell you ; the religion of the Nat worshippers, 
as well as those of the Christians and of the " kalas " (his name for the Native of 
India). This would, as a rule, complete his list, though, if further questioned, he 
might even go to the length of specifying two " kala " religions, the Hindu and 
the Musalman, to which, on reflection, he might conceivably add a third, the 
Muhammadan. Of the meaning of sect he has a glimmering, and, if pressed for 
a definition, might throw out a suggestion that "Zat" and sect were synonyms, 
but the probability is that he would eventually be found to describe " caste " by 
." Amyo " 33<§s (race) or some other expression that wholly ignored its Social charac- 
teristics. Hence, when it came to preparing instructions for the guidance .qf .the 
lower grades of Census officers, there were from the very outset difficulties to be 



io8 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA 



overcome- To attempt to compress into- a ten or even a twenty -lined paragraph 
a definition of caste that would be sufficiently lucid for a Burman enumerator of 
ordinary attainments, would have been an absolutely hopeless task. On the other 
hand, to hint that caste was more or less connected with a traditional occupation, 
would have been to court disaster. The connection would have been misinter- 
preted, the social aspect would again have been overlooked, and the enumerators 
would inevitably have ended by showing occupation instead of caste. All that 
could be done in this regard for the guidance of Census officers was to give 
supervisors examples of a few of the commonest castes and to leave them to 
watch over and control their enumerators in this portion of their work as best 
they could. 

157. It could be urged, of course, that it was perfectly immaterial whether the 

enumerator knew what caste meant, provided he was 

Misleading answers and errors in , , , ,, . r r j - j u ±. !_• 

transliteration. able to ask the native of India concerned what his 

" Zat " or caste was, and to put down the answer, 
as given, in black and white in the schedule. This no doubt is so, and, all 
things considered, it is surprising how often it has been possible for the first of the 
above conditions to be fulfilled. By means of that mysterious sympathy — the 
despair of the average European — which enables Asiatics of all kinds to communi- 
cate with one another with apparent freedom on the veriest minimum of a common 
vocabulary, the Burman enumerator has doubtless, despite his ignorance of the 
alien's tongue, generally succeeded in making his native of India understand that 
what he wished to ascertain was his "Zat" or caste. It is here that the real 
difficulty begins. If the person questioned were inclined to set any store by his 
caste, it would be to his interest to see that an intelligible answer was given. He 
might, no doubt, give himself what Mr. Eales has aptly called " brevet rank," but 
that some caste or other was shown and that a caste that was not lower than the cor- 
rect one would be a point on which he would insist. Unfortunately the Hindu, whom 
the average Burman enumerator encounters in the execution of his duties, is not 
usually of the class which has any social position to establish. He is apt, either 
through ignorance, false shame or sheer perversity ,to put the enquirer off with a reply 
which, if not actually untrue, is equivocal or misleading, and which the enume- 
rator's ignorance does not allow of his criticizing. From personal experience I know 
that in Burma a low-caste man, when asked his caste will, in the first instance, very 
frequently reply " Hindu." A little further questioning will generally result in the 
caste being given, but to the Burman the idea of further questioning does not sug- 
gest itself. For him " Hindu " is quite sufficient. The word is familiar. Has it 
not already figured in column 4 ? Is it not mentioned in the heading of column 8 ? 
It is clearly an authorized expression; down it goes in the latter column, and in 
tabulation the caste has to be shown as " Not returned." Of the 58,073 entries 
of castes " Not returned," the majority are due to circumstances such as the above. 
Assuming, however, that the Hindu actually names his caste, the difficulty of 
transliteration comes in. The name is as often as not heard indistinctly in the 
first instance ; unfamiliar sounds are Burmanized now in one way, now in another 
and the result is often heart-breaking. When it is borne in mind that the only final 
consonant sounds that Burmese possesses are practically four {k, t, n and ng), 
that the two first are almost undistinguishable, that all four exist only in combina- 
tion with certain vowel sounds, that, except- in Arakanese, there is no "r" sound 
at all, and that the alphabet lacks both "f " and "v," it is obvious that the scope 
for variety in the rendering of words like Pariah, Rangrez, Bhumij and Vannan 
(to take a few of many instances) is enormous. "It is true that the number of 
castes is so great that it is very nearly always possible to discover in an entry 
an apparent identity with some one or other of the caste names, but the known 
distribution of castes cannot be wholly ignored. A gang of Madras born Telugu- 
speaking coolies cannot be shown as Ahirs, even though the word into which the 
enumerator has metamorphosed the caste name they have given is a nearer ap- 
proach to Ahir than to any other word. Thus the choice is more or less restricted 
and, even when the requirements of locality have been satisfied, it is as often as 
not doubtful which of two names that are somewhat similar is the correct one. The 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. *09 

following are some instances taken at random from the schedules. They refer in 
practically every case to Madrasi coolies and labourers : — 

Pule. I Paliya.: j -Paliyachi. 

Pali. I Padiya. | Pariyachi. 

It seems at first sight an easy enough matter to assign these to their proper 
castes. ^ When, however, it actually comes to allocating the entries, the matter is 
not so simple as it would at first sight appear. Pule may be either Pillai or Palli ; 
in all probability the former, which is not a caste name. Pali strikes the abstractor 
as being obviously Palli till it commences to figure on several pages side by side 
with Paliya and Padiya, when it begins to dawn upon him that Paliya and Padiya 
are nothing more or less than Paria (" I " and " y " — which is " r " in Arakanese— 
being interchangeable) and that it is possible that Pali is only Paliya heard wrong 
or carelessly written down. He makes his choice, treats Paliyas and Padiyas as 
Parias, and possibly all goes smoothly till he comes upon a " Paliyachi " wedged 
in among a number of Paliyas. This gives him pause, and when, later on, he 
comes upon a column of Paliyachis and Pariyachis he is forced to the conclusion 
that at some stage or other the Pallis or Parias have been converted into Padiya- 
chis. Difficulties like the above can be multiplied indefinitely. 

I may seem to have dwelt at somewhat undue length on this aspect of the. 
caste returns in Burma. No one, it may be said, is likely to place any great re- 
liance on the caste figures collected in Burma. That this has been the case in the 
past is, no doubt, true. I submit, however, that since the 1891 Census the body 
of caste folk in the province has increased so largely and has now reached so sub- 
stantial a figure, that, unless some disclaimer such as the above is made, the 
public may be moved to think that the familiarity with and knowledge of caste has 
grown to an extent proportionate to the growth of the Hindu population, and to 
treat the data with the same respect as that with which they treat the returns com- 
piled for castes in their locality of origin. " With the assurance that if they do so 
they are doomed to disappointment, I pass on to the consideration of the castes 
that are found in Burma. 

158. They are, of course, all non-indigenous. The Yabeins, the Ponnas and 
... . n the pagoda slaves referred to in paragraph 226 of Mr. 

No real castes in Burma. ^ , r ,*Vi . , <■ ■ , , i i 

bales Report are survivals . or what must have been 
in bygone days a near approach to "functional" castes, but the Burmese nature 
is so essentially democratic and regardless of social distinctions, that the Indian 
caste system has never been able to gain a foothold here. It is ture that in his 
report on the operations during the season 1893 — 97, the Settlement Officer, 
Minbu, has referred to a class known as the Thuganngs, the landed proprietors of 
the Salin subdivision, who intermarry among themselves, live in groups of fami- 
lies in superior houses, and have gradually come to consider themselves and to 
be looked upon by the people as a separate class ; but though the creation of this 
rural aristocracy is interesting in so far as it illustrates a tendency that has hitherto 
been looked upon as wholly foreign to the character of the Burman, these very 
select landlords cannot be said to exhibit the really essential features of a caste. 
There appear to have been at one time among the Chins 36 professional clans 
whose occupations were hereditary. The Pazan Lo was the priestly clan, and 
there were goldsmith and cutlar clans. These have, however, all disappeared by 
now, and it is doubtful whether at any time they really resembled castes. 

159. The Indian castes have been described so fully elsewhere, that at first 
.. sight it would appear superfluous to treat of them in 

detail. Numerically, however, the strangers within 
our gates have become so important an element of the population, that I hardly 
think that a description of a few of the castes most strongly represented in the 
province would be out of place. For the following particulars I am indebted for 
the most part to the interesting and scholarly account of castes contained in the 
1 89 1 Madras Census Report by Mr. Stuart. 

160. The Paraiyan or Pariah caste is numerically one of the strongest of the 

castes of Madras. In 1891 there were in the pre- 
ara,yan * sidency over two million Paraiyans. In Burma therfr 

28 



no 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



were in 1891 a total of 20,453. This total had risen in 190 1 to 25,601^ It is the 
most numerous Indian caste in Burma. The majority of the Madrasi domestic 
servants employed in the province are recruited from it. The Paraiyans are a 
Tamil-speaking caste. Mr. Stuart says of them — 

" The Paraiyans have been but little affected by Brahmanical doctrines and customs, 
though in respect to ceremonies they have not escaped their influence. Paraiyans are nomi- 
nally Saivites, but in reality they are Demon-worshippers- The Valluvas are their priests. 
The marriage of girls before puberty is very rare, divorce is easy; a husband can send away 
his wife at will, and she, on -her part, can dissolve the marriage tie by simply returning the 
tali. In such cases the husband takes the children or contributes for their maintenance! 
Widow marriage is freely allowed. I have found no traces of polyandry among thiscaste." 

Originally the Paraiyans were field labourers and weavers. The caste is very 
low in the social scale, but, despite the idea of degradation that has come to be 
attached to the term " Pariah," there seems to be no reason for looking upon it as 
on the same level with the professional sweeper castes. A very large proportion 
oi the Native Christians of India are Paraiyans. 

161. The Mala is the Telugu Paraiyan caste. The majority of the Malasin 

Burma are coolies. There were altogether 18,522 

in the province on the 1st March 1901. It is not 

clear from the figures how many there were in 1891. They appear to have been 

shown under some other head in that year. The following particulars regarding 

them are taken from the Madras Census Report for 1891 : — 

" Malas, like the Paraiyans, are said to have been weavers at one time, but very 
few are engaged in this occupation at the present day. Most of them are now labourers! 
Like the Telugu people generally, the majority of the Malas are nominally Vaishnavites, but 
their real allegiance is given to the demons and village deities. They have priests of their 
own called Mala Dasaris. There is no rule prescribing early marriage, but the statistics 
show that marriage before puberty is common. Divorce is free. * * * Malas eat 
flesh, including beef, and have no caste restrictions regarding the consumption of liquor." 

162. The Kapus were in 1891 the largest caste in the Madras Presidency, 

and numbered nearly two million and a half members. 
apuor e '' A total of 2,826 Kapus and 1,069 Reddis figure in 

the Burma Census returns for that year. At the recent Census the totals were 
1 1,214 and 3,396 

" The Kapus or Reddis " says Mr. Stuart, "appear to have been a powerful Dravidian 
tribe in the early centuries of the Christian era * * *. The number of subdivisions is 
840 * * *. Each subdivision is divided into a number of tegas, and marriage can take 
place only between members of the same tega. There is no universal rule as to the age at 
which girls should be married * * *. The remarriage of widows is not generally allowed." 

Their marriage ceremonies appear to be peculiar. Among other noticeable 
features are " the worship of a number of pots specially made for the purpose and 
filled with water in the feigned anger of the bridegroom's party on the fourth day 
of the ceremony." 

Paiii. 163. Mr. Stuart says of the Pallis — 

" The Pallis, Vanniyans or Padaiyachis are found in all the Tamil districts. * * 

* Vanniyan is derived from the Sanskrit Vahni, fire and the Pallis claim to belong 
to the. Agnikulam or Fire Race. * * * Padaiyachi means a soldier. * * 

* After the fall of the Pallava dynasty the Pallis became agricultural servants under 
the Vellalas, and it is only singe the advent of British rule that they have begun to assert 
their claims to a higher position. 

A total of 13,250 persons were returned as Pallis in Burma at the recent 
Census, while the Vanniyans and the Padaiyachis numbered 1,008 and 5,817 re- 
spectively. 

164. The following are the totals for some of the remaining caste of impor- 
tance : — 

Brahman ... 15)922 j Bania ... 3,393 

Chetti ... 6,508 I Chatri ... 13,454 

Kayasth ... 3,368 

A total of 41,663 males and 7,758 females were shown as Sudras. It'is prbo- 

able that the bulk of these belonged properly to the Madras castes cited above. 

1.'.' 165. The principal Musalman tribes represented in the province are the 

Shaikhs, the Saiyyads, the Mughals and the Pathans. 
Musalman tribes. The Zairbadis and the Choliars have also been treated 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. Y 1. 1. 

for the purposes of this chapter as tribes. The last named have been fully de-r 
scribed by the Right Rev. Dr. Strachan in a~ noteprinted in the 1 891 Census Reports 
They numbered in all 2,956 at the Census of 1901. The most numerous tribe is that 
ef the Shaikhs. The total of 269,042 represents 80 per cent, of the Musalman 
population of Burma. The Saiyyads and Pathans are far behind, with aggregates 
of 8,970 and 9,224. " Zairbadi " is the name ordinarily given in the province to the 
offspring of a Muhammadan native of India by a Burmese wife. It is not, however, 
always employed in this its narrowest sense. The Burmans have various terms for 
the Zairbadi; among others " Pathi " and " Myedu Kala " may be mentioned. 
The Zairbadi of Lower Burma is as often as not a Chittagonian-Burmese hybrid. 
The issue of a union of this nature is not altogether satisfactory. The Zairbadis 
of the coast ports are not to be numbered among the most respectable of the in- 
habitants of the province. In Upper Burma the Musalman strain is at times of 
greater antiquity ; the component parts have had time to assimilate gradually, and : 
the product is generally more of a success than in the south. The following note, 
on the Zairbadis of the Mandalay district is a contribution by Mr. E. P. Cloney, 
Subdivisional Officer of Amarapura : — 

"Zairbadis. — This is a name which is supposed to be derived from go>q (Pali for 
niiddle or centre — Burmese j»coo5) and cco§ (Pali for (SSoogS, to be). The whole word 
is 33cocSgSoocS meaning neither of the father's or mother's race. 

" Aother meaning is given, Zer below or lower, abadi ....... flourished. "Having 

■come up from below. (or the Lower Province) have taken root and flourished here (Upper 
Province)." 

" This name is the same as Bandat or Kabya, but while Bandat and Kabya are ap- 
plied to the issue of all other races that have intermarried with Burmese, the term Zai r- 
badi is applied Burmo-Musalmans only. 

; " " There are supposed to be three classes of Zairbadi in this subdivision — 
- (1) The issue of Muhammadan immigrants from Northern India. 

C (2) Muhammadan prisoners fetched from Arakan. 

-_ . (3) Muhammadan prisoners brought by the victorious Burmese army from 

Manipur. 

" (1) It would appear that a body of about 3,700 Muhammadans from Northern India 
■came during the reign of King Alaungpra and offered their services, which were accepted ; 
but as the king feared to keep so large a body of foreigners together, he gave them lands 
in the north of Shwebo (Myedu, Tantabin subdivision), Yamethin and Yindaw. 

" These immigrants were required to render services for the lands granted to them by 
placing 10 per cent, of the males at the capital as The-nat-akmudan (musketeers). 

''The contingent left on guard had to be supported by their respective villages with 
food, clothes, &c. 

"(2) The Muhammadan prisoners fetched from Arakan were simlarly separated and 
allowed lands to support themselves with, on conditions similar to those of the immigrants. 

" These Arakan Muhammadans were not musketeers, but the contingent they supplied 
had to do any kind of work assigned to them by the ministers and officers of the palace. 

" It was only after King Mindon had rebelled against, and ousted his brother Pagan 
Min, that the Arakan Muhammadan prisoners' descendants got the title of " amyauk " (gun- 
ners). 

" The two flourishing villages of B6n-oand Taungmyin are the principal villages in this 
s ubdivision where the Arakan Muhammadan prisoners' descendants are now found. 

" (3) The Muhammadan prisoners' from Manipur were also separated and allowed to 
settle in the following villages : — 



(1) Kyimyindaing, 

(2) Manawyaman, 

(3) Ach6k, 



(4) Sagymwa, 

(5) Odaw, and 

(6) Paleik. 



" These prisoners and their descendants rendered services for their lands as tailors and. 
weavers only, and got the title " achok." 

"The Zairbadis as a rule are law-abiding. They, on the whole, are a flourishing and 
well-to-do community with too'many interests at stake to be disloyal. They are, however, 
litigious and fanatical, but not so bad as their co-religionists of India proper. 

'' While sticking faithfully to their religion and following its precepts, the Zairbadih&s 
adopted the dress of the Burman. Most of the Zairbadis know Burmese only, but some are 
acquainted with Hindustani and Arabic as well as Burmese. Some of the captives were 
sent to Mong Nai (Mone) ; the rest were allowed to settle at Ava, Amarapura, in the south- 
ern parts of the Kyaukse districts, and at Mog6k. At first the captives supported them-; 
pelves by daily labour of all kinds. Gradually their children and grandchildren learnt 



112 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

weaving, spinning, &c, and they now support themselves mostly by silk spinning, weaving,. 
&c. Some are cultivators." 

166. Let us now turn from the castes and tribes to the races inhabiting Burma, 

and specially to the indigenous races, whose heritage 
Methods of studymg the people the c £ untry '^ of whonij j f we are to administer them 

aright, we cannot have too full, intimate and particular a knowledge. We have 
been told thai the proper study of mankind is man. It would need a greater than 
Pope to condense into an epigram the proper methods of that study, but it is 
obvious that for our purposes they may be divided roughly into the scientific and 
the non-scientific. With the latter we have, of course, here no concern. With 
the former we have. The following extract from Professor Sergi's Mediterranean 
Race (Edition 190 1) gives as comprehensive an epitome as I have yet seen of 
the standpoints from which the human race, may be regarded by the man of 
science : — 

" It may first, however, be well to refer to a recent dogmatic attempt to solve this pro- 
blem, which shows how necessary it is that all the scientific methods — ethnographical,, 
archaeological, anthropological, linguistic as well as geographical — should converge in the 
solution of the problem of the origin and diffusion of Mediterranean civilization." 

This is not epigrammatic, but the list it gives may be said to be fairly ex- 
haustive, and nothing could exceed the truth of the proposition it enunciates. It 
only remains to substitute for the last two words the words "the peoples of Burma " 
to adapt the text to our present requirements. 

167. I do not think that I am far wrong in saying that, of the scientific me- 
Application of the scientific thods enumerated above, only the first and the two last 

methods. have hitherto been brought to bear with anything, 

approaching thoroughness on the study of the peoples of the province. Cer- 
tain it is that, till all have been applied, our knowledge of these peoples 
must of necessity be defective. To the linguists must be given the credit 
of having been longest in the field. For the last half century scholars have 
been busy examining the vernaculars of Burma and establishing affinities. The 
Linguistic Survey is now almost completed, and, despite the assertion that its oper- 
ations do not extend to Burma, I can with gratitude record that it has thrown a good 
deal of light into some of the dark corners of the province. How important a 
part language plays in Burma in the classification of the people, may be learnt 
from Sir George Scott's instructive Gazetteer of Upper Burma. His ethnology 
chapter is nothing more nor less than a marshalling of tongues. If the speech of 
a particular community cannot be assigned to a particular group, that community Is, 
ipso facto, isolated, whatever similarity its customs, dress and physical traits may 
jfrave. with the customs, dress and physical traits of any other community, neigh- 
bqurjing_orLOtherwise. It is not that ethnography has been neglected in Sir George- 
Scott's publication. The first volume of the first part of the Gazetteer is a 
veritable store-house of facts relating to indigenous usages, dress and the like, 
but in the end practically everything in the way of classification hinges on vocabu- 
laries. To the student of the peoples of India the importance attached to the 
language test may seem unjustified : to the resident of Burma nothing is more 
natural. Where caste is unknown and religion indicates but little, it is the most 
obvious and surest criterion of difference. As regards the remaining scientific 
methods, it may be noted that good and useful archaeological work has been done 
in the province, but that, as scarcely anything in the shape of prehistoric human 
remains have as yet been recovered, it has been directed for the most part to the 
deciphering of old inscriptions and the examination of ancient buildings. History 
too, and, where necessary, geography, have in their turn been duly laid under 
tribute, but they do not carry us very far. It is the realm of an anthropology that 7 
still remains to be explored in Burma. It is hoped that due honour will very 
shortly be given to this neglected branch. At the instance of the British Associa- 
tion for the advancement of Science, the Government of India have ordered an 
ethnographic survey, which will include not only ethnography proper, that is to 
say, the systematic description of the history, literature, traditions and religious, 
and social usages of the various races, tribes and castes in India, but also 
anthropometry, or measurements directed to determining the physical types 
characteristic of particular groups. Under the latter head it is possible that exceed* 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. J 1 3 

ingly interesting results may be obtained in Burma. As I have already mention- 
ed, we have in our Gazetteers a mine of valuable facts regarding usages and 
customs. It is true that there is a mass of information still to be recorded, but 
the nucleus is there. On the other hand, our anthropometrical data are so far 
practically nil. The science of anthropometry has been applied. hitherto to the 
least reputable of His Majesty's subjects in the province, and in their case for the 
furtherance of ends not " scientific and minor." The next few years will, it is 
hoped, see it raised out of the atmosphere of the police court into more dignified 
surroundings. 

I have ventured on these few remarks in order to show why in this report no 
attempt has been made to undertake a classification of the races of the province 
similar to that which I have essayed in the case of its languages. Original research 
is outside the sphere of a Census Superintendent's labours. He can merely 
indicate as best he can the net result of the toil of those who have borne 
the burden and heat of the decade under review. In the language chapter I have . 
been able to show in a connected, and, I hope systematic, form the conclusions to 
which the labours of these " actual workers " seem at present to point. As regards 
race, though the data are largely there, the scientific method has not yet been 
applied, and, while I hope that my successor in 191 1 will have materials for a de- 
tailed, if not final, ethnographical grouping, I must content myself with a bald enu- 
meration of the tribes and races of Burma. 

168. Concerning the past of the Burmese race the future has still much to tell 

us. 'Philology has already breathed a certain amount 
of the life into the dry bones. The affinities of 
the Burmese with the Himalayan languages are unmistakeable, and, though 
the evidence on the point is almost wholly linguistic, the theory that the Tibetan 
and the Burmese races have a common origin has now obtained universal ac- 
ceptance. The theory till recently held has been that Tibet was the early 
habitat of the Eurman's forefathers. From a note on the Indo-Chinese language 
family which I have received from Dr. Grierson, however, I learn that the more 
correct view is that put forward by Professor E. Kuhn of Munich in his Ueber 
die Herkunft und Sprache der transgangetischen Volker, namely, that Wes- 
tern China, between the upper courses of the Yang-tse-kiang and the Hoang-ho, 
was the original home of the Indo-Chinese race, and that this region and not Tibet 
was the starting point of the Burman's migrations. According to Professor Kuhn's 
theory the Tibeto-Burman race moved westwards from this starting point at a 
comparatively recent era towards the headwaters of the Irrawaddy and the Chin- 
dwin, and there divided up into separate branches, some of which maintained their 
westerly course, to find an ultimate resting-place in Tibet and portions of Assam, 
while the others either worked southwards into what is now Burma or remained to 
people the country in the neighbourhood of this parting of the ways. The Bur- 
mans were one of the branches which made for the southern plains. This varia- 
tion of the earlier theory is, so far as I am aware, not inconsistent with the facts on 
which that theory rested, though it is possible that it may not find favour with those 
who have hitherto argued on the assumption that the Tibetan plateau was the 
fountain head of the second of the prehistoric streams that swept down over the 
face of the land from the north. In any case, from whatever source it proceeded, 
we shall be safe in laying down that the Burmese race came in the first instance 
into the country from the north, and that its general movement has been towards 
the south. With this much we may rest content, solacing ourselves with the reflec- 
tion that, as ethnologists in Europe have so far failed to achieve unanimity in their 
findings concerning the origin of races as near home and with as notable an ancestry 
as the peoples of the Mediterranean, it will be no great reproach if some of the 
Tibeto-Burman race problems remain finally unsolved for some time to come. 

169. It may not be out of place, while touching on the question of the Bur- 
man race problem, to refer to a rather novel theory 

Dr. Macnamaras theory. recent i y advanced by Dr. Macnamara in his Origin 

and Character of the British People. In this work, published in 1900, the writer 
has been at pains to establish an ethnical connection between the Burmese and 
the Irish. 

?9 



1 ' 4 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

" In the province of Ulster, " he says.. " and in the city of Dublin and its neighbourhood, 
a considerable number of the inhabitants are descended from either English or Scotch 
ancestors, but the remainder of Ireland is populated by an Iberio-Mongolian people 
* * * the presence of the Celtic Aryan in Ireland has not materially altered the racial 
character of a large proportion of its inhabitants. In the north-west of Ireland the de- 
• scendants of the Northern Mongolian stock are in evidence, and throughout the west and 
south the prehistoric Southern Mongoloid type is unmistakable, although they have inter- 
married largely with the aboriginal Iberian population. These mixed people form the lazy, 
rollicking merry Irishman of the caricaturist. * * * As before stated, the Burmese 
have been described by an Irishman who knew them well as ' the Irish of the East,' and we 
seem to comprehend the reason why this should be the case, for we conceive that these peo- 
ple were in far distant ages, to a large extent, derived from the same Mongolian stock." 

The Mongolian element in Ireland and elsewhere Dr. Macnamara accounts 
for by the presence in Europe during the bronze age of itinerant bronze workers 
and sellers from South-Eastern Asia, who, moving gradually westwards, encouraged 
by the discovery of alluvial deposits of tin in England, Ireland and on parts of the 
continent itself, settled down in these western seats where they found they could 
ply their trade profitably, and eventually formed an integral portion of the popula- 
tion of occidental Europe. 

As to the presence of a Mongoloid element in Ireland, I have nothing to say. 
Assuming that its existence is assured, I have no criticism to offer on the sug- 
gestions that it was introduced in prehistoric times by Mongolian bronze workers, 
or that those bronze workers came from South-Eastern Asia. (Professor Sergi 
holds, in fact, that though bronze was introduced from Asia, it was by a non-Aryan 
race.) All I would here remark is that the alleged resemblance in character 
between the Irish and Burmese cannot be looked upon as affording any support 
whatever to Dr. Macnamara's theory- His prehistoric Mongolians were to a 
large extent first attracted into South-Eastern Asia by the tin deposits of Burma, 
Siam, Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula. This tin area was the starting 
point of the migrations that extended to the British Isles. According to his 
own showing these migrations took place during the bronze age. Now it is prac- 
tically certain that the Burmans did not arrive in Burma till after they had ac- 
quired a knowledge of iron, i.e., not till a good deal later than the bronze age ; 
therefore, these Mongolian bronze workers cannot have been Burmans, nor, un- 
less the expression is given an exceedingly elastic meaning, can they have been 
derived from the same Mongolian stock. They may have been the prehistoric 
precursors of the Talaings or Mons, but, whatever they were, thay can have ex- 
hibited then but few of the features that are now regarded as typically Burmese. 
The mere fact of their winning their way across Asia and Europe to the ultimate 
inhospitable West to push their wares in the market, shows that they possessed de- 
termination, a spirit of enterprise and sound business capacity, — qualities that place 
them and the typical Burman wide as the poles asunder. The Burman, as we 
know him, is essentially a non-migratory, unbusiness-like, irresponsible creature 
perfectly incapable of sustained effort, content with what can be gained by a 
minimum of toil. The fact that his free-and-easy, jovial disposition has been 
reproduced on the further side of St. George's Channel is the purest chance. It 
must have been centuries after the Mongolian connection (if any) with Ireland 
had been severed that the Burman descended into the plains and began, amid 
voluptuous, ease-giving surroundings, to assume his role of the " Irishman of the 
East." 

1 70. Of the characteristics of the Burmese as a nation, it is needless for 

Burmese characteristics. Jf t0 ^5 in this P k f ". J° atte ™Pt JO recapitulate 

the mam features of their history would be merely to 
repeat a task which -my predecessor performed with great thoroughness ten years 
ago. Abler pens than mine have portrayed the outward life and aspects of this 
fascinating and yet disappointing people. It is sufficient among the more recent 
publications to name Sir George Scott's The Burman, his life and notions, of 
which a new edition has recently appeared ; Mr. Hall's (H. Fielding's) Soul of a 
People, and the sumptuously illustrated Burma of Mr. Ferrars and Mrs. Lewis to 
show that there is princely store of matter for the needs of all those who are anxi- 
ous to know what there is to be known of the Burman as he is. The total of 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. II 5 

Burmans at the 1901 Census was 6,508,682, of whom 3,191,469 were males and 

3.3 1 7, 21 3 were females. 

171. Less than one hundred and twenty years ago there was a kingdom of 
The AraVanese. Arakan, independent of that of Pagan, and the separ- 

Th* 5 y!£°y ans " ation of the Burmese and Arakanese people dates 

The Yaws." back to before the beginnings of history. We have 

The Chaungthas. what is really very strong linguistic proof, however, 

The inthas. ^ of the {ac( . that the Arakanese are a branch of the 

Burmese race, though how long it is since they were separated from the original 
stem is very doubtful. Apart from language, moreover, the character, features and 
physique of the two stocks proclaim a close ethnical affinity. Save for a few Indian 
usages assimilated from his Chittagonian neighbours and a trifle of Aryan ballast 
acquired from the same source, the Magh or Arakanese is, to all intents and purpos- 
es, a Burman, but a Burman, be it said, bereft of much of his charm. The Arakan 
division, which extends down the western flank of the province from the borders 
of Chittagong almost as far as Cape Negrais, is more or less conterminous with 
the ancient kingdom of Arakan, and is the home of the present day Arakanese. 
A total of 405,143 persons returned themselves as Arakanese in 1901. In 189 1 the 
race numbered 354,3 19 representatives. The Tavoyans of the Tenasserim division 
profess to be the descendants of Arakanese who, from time to time left their native 
coasts and settled down in the south. The latest of these emigrations is said to have 
taken place during the reign of King Bodawpaya of Ava, i.e., at the close of the 
eighteenth century. The speech of the Tavoyans, which is discussed elsewhere in 
the language chapter, would appear to. entitle them to the descent they claim. 
The Tavoyans in the Tavoy district itself have for the most part returned them- 
selves as Burmans. The total of Tavoyans returned as such at the Census 
was 948 only. The Yabeins, the erstwhile silk-worm breeders of the Hanthawaddy, 
Pegu and Tharrawaddy districts, are probably Burmans by race. Though the so- 
called Yabein dialect of Burmese has died out, there were at the 1901 Census 2,252 
people who returned themselves as Yabeins, as compared with 2,197 at the pre- 
ceding enumeration. The Chaungthas are a community inhabiting the district 
of Akyab and the Hill Tracts of Arakan, who speak a language which has been 
classed with Burmese. Further research may show whether the Chaungthas 
(who numbered 1,349), have more Burman or more Chin blood in their composition, 
and whether there is any truth in the legend that some of them are of Talaing 
descent. East of the Chaungthas, on the further side of the Arakan Yomas, is the 
Yaw valley, the home of the Yaws. If linguistic evidence is worth anything, the 
Yaws are of Burman lineage, for they talk what is practically Burmese and have 
little in common with their Chin neighbours. There were only 18 Yaws entered 
as such in the schedules. The majority appear to have given Burmese as their 
race to the enumerators. The ancestors of the Inthas, or lake dwellers, who reside 
in the vicinity of the Yawng Hwe lake in the Southern Shan States, appear to have 
come from Lower Burma. Tradition has it that Tavoy was their original home, 
but we have still to learn whether they were carried away thence as captives in the 
train of some conquering Shan general or whether they migrated north of their 
own free will. Their dress is no guide to their origin. Of their customs, the only 
two that single them out from their neighbours, appear to have been acquired since 
they came to their present seats. I refer to the practice they have of building their 
huts out in the water, at times at a very considerable distance from the shore of the 
lake, and to their curious habit of standing up when rowing and using their legs to 
assist them to propel their boats through the water. Their number in 1901 was 

5°>47 8 - 

1 72. A total of 32 1,898 persons returned themselves as Takings in 1901. So 

much has been written of the Takings in the past, 
e aamgs. ^^ j t j s neet u e ss for me to say more here than that 

' they are the remnant of the Peguan race, which for long strove with the Burmans 
for the ascendancy in what is now Burma. It is difficult to realize now that less 
than a century and a half ago the Peguans, who now number about the total of a fair- 
sized district, were masters of the country from the Gulf of Martabah to far to the 
north of Mandalay and capable of putting an army of sixty thousand men into the 



Il6 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA 

field. Such was, however, the case, and it is not too much to say that, but for the 
resolution and skill of an obscure shikari from the jungles of Shwebo, Burma 
might well have become the kingdom of the Mons and Talaing now the prevailing 
tongue in the country from the borders of Assam to the Malacca frontier. At 
present the confessedly Talaing population of the province is practically confined 
to the Tenasserim and Pegu divisions of Lower Burma. 

The Takings are, historically, the most important" representatives in Burma 
of the Mon-Annam race. It is now recognized as highly probable that the an- 
cestors of the Mon-Annams formed the first of the Indo-Chinese waves that swept 
over the south-eastern portion of the continent of Asia, displacing the even earlier 
aborigines, concerning whom little definite is known, but who, there is reason to be- 
lieve, were related to the ancestors of the Munda race which subsequently peopled 
a considerable portion of Central India, and possibly of some of the tribes which are 
now found on the Australian continent. It is impossible now to do more than in- 
dicate generally what the regions inhabited by the Mon-Annam people were, but, 
judging from the extent of the area in which they have left unmistakeable deposits 
of their speech— an area stretching from the Khassia Hills in Assam, to beyond the 
Gulf of Siam— they must have been a populous and widespread nation. Here they 
are mainly interesting from a philological point of view, for, save in the case of the 
Talaings, it is outside Burma that one must look for anything in the shape of 
relics of their political greatness. 

In regard to the origin of the word " Talaing " Mr. Eales remarks as 
follows in his 1891 report : — 

" It was supposed that Talafng and Telingana were the same words, and on the ground 
of this coincidence of sound and of a supposed agreement of the roots of vocables with the 
roots of the aboriginal Kolarian language spoken by the Kols in India, it was supposed 
that the Talaings brought their language over from India. Captain Forbes and Dr. Forch- 
hammer have disposed of this theory once for all. The refutation of the theory, however, 
lay in the name Talaing itself, which is never used by the Talaings to distinguish them- 
selves. They always called themselves Mons. Talaing was a term of reproach forced 
upon them by the conquering Burmans." 

The research of the past ten years has shown us more clearly than ever that 
the Peguans did not get their language from Central India, but apparently the 
second view referred to by Mr. Eales, namely, that " Talaing " is a corruption of 
" Telingana," has not yet finally been abandoned by scholars. I observe that 
Professor Keane still favours the theory. In his Man Past and Present, publish- 
ed in 1899, he says: — 

" During the historic period a few Hinduized Dravidians, especially Telingas (Telugus) 
of the Coromandel coast have from time to time emigrated to Indo-China (Pegu), where the 
name survives amongst the " Talaings," that is, the Mons, by whom they were absorbed 
just as the Mons themselves are now being absorbed by the Burmese. Others of the same 
connection have gained a footing here and there in Malaysia, especially the Malacca coast 
lands, where they are called Klings, i.e.j Telings, Telingas." 

The fact that the Mons did not use the word Talaing to distinguish themselves 
does not, it seems to me, prove much. It is not likely that the descendants of 
the original Dravidian immigrants (if such immigrants there were) were ever in- 
ordinately proud of their dark-skinned forbears, and it is highly probable that, as 
the process of absorption went on, the " first among men " were just as anxious 
to forget their foreign ancestry as their candid Burmese neighbours were desirous 
of keeping it constantly before their eyes. That the word " Talaing " was a term 
of reproach does not, it seems to me, detract from its historical value. At the 
same time there is no denying that much may be urged against the alleged deri- 
vation from Telinga. Mr. Eales contends — no doubt correctly — that the name 
" Kling"is simply, a Chinese distortion of the word " Coringhi," so that the 
additional fraction of evidence from the Malacca coast must be held to be irrele- 
vant. _ On the whole it seems to me that the last word in the matter has yet to 
be said. 

1 73. From a numerical point of view the most important of the races inhabit- 

TheChingpaworKachina. ' m M ^ &t P° r ?°?l ° f U PP er Bur £ ma W . hic , h li jL S . n °, rth 

01 24 north latitude and east of longitude 96 is that 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. .117 

of the Chingpaw or Kachins. It is strongly represented south of this area also, 
but it is only above the parallel of latitude indicated that it forms the bulk of the 
population. .Fifty years ago, we are told, the southern limit of the Kachins was 
a matter of two hundred miles further north than it is now. Since then the race 
has been drifting steadily southward, a vast aggregate of small independent 
clans united by no common Government, but all obeying a common impulse to 
move outwards from their original seats along the line of least resistance. Mr. 
Cholmeley, Deputy Commissioner of Bhamo, referring to the golden days of the 
Shan dominion, " when the towns, whose moats and walls one comes upon moulder- 
ing in the dense forests, each held its petty Sawbwa and its busy populace," writes 
as follows of the ever-encroaching Chingpaw : — 

" At that time the warlike and destructive Kachin had not yet appeared on the scene, 
his advent only dating back some 230 years, and the peaceful Palaung still_occupied the hills 
from which the gradual southward flow of the Kachin presently drove him forth. When we 
arrived on the scene the Palaung was making a last determined stand in the uplands in the 
Kodaungoi Mong Mit, but the crest-of the wave of Kachin immigration was rising very high 
behind the Shweli, and in no long time M6ng Mit and the Ruby Mines must have fallen 
before his advance. As it is, the movement has been checked, and the result is that the 
southern part of the hilly portion of the district is badly congested." 

Mr. Stirling in the Northern Shan States Census Report refers in the follow- 
ing words to the trend of the wanderings of the Chingpaw : — 

"The southward movement of the Kachin tribes continues. Here and there they have 
been checked, but on the whole they spread a little farther each year. Kachin villages 
are found in South Hsenwi, in Tawngpeng and in the Mong Long sub-State of Hsipaw. 
They have settled on the fringe of the Wa country and in Mang Lon, and have begun to 
get a footing in Kengtung. . * * * It is a serious matter for the Shan population. The 
more far-sighted recognize it as such and all keenly resent it. But the Shans have neither' 
the numbers nor the fighting qualities to check the tide." 

The most recent philological enquiries show that it is probable that the pro- 
genitors of the Kachins were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of 
history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their 
home in Western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and 
China converge, and that the Chingpaw were the residue left round the headwaters 
of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches which were destined to 
become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins had filtered 
away westwards and southwards. In these remote uplands they appear to have 
been content to remain till a comparatively recent date, when pressure from above, 
over-population or some obscure migratory instinct began to drive them slowly but 
surely southwards. In the north of the province they have been brought up by 
the opposing front of British domination, and the stream, instead of flowing down 
the hill ranges of Burma, has been diverted eastwards, and, skirting the edge of 
the province, shows signs of emptying itself down the other great waterways of 
Indo-China. Whatever the ultimate trend of their wanderings may be, the Kachins 
are now with us, on this side of, as well as upon and beyond, our marches, and 
will long be a force to be reckoned with by our frontier administrators, for they are a 
pugnacious, vindictive, stiff-necked generation, and, when beyond our administrative 
border, are still apt to be turbulent and unreasonable. Mr. George's monograph 
on the Kachins, published as an appendix to the 1891 Census Report, is still 
our main source of information regarding the customs and practices of this people. 
It forms a substantial portion of the article on the Kachin Hills and the Chingpaw 
in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. There were 64,405 Kachins enumerated at the 
Census. Had the inhabitants of the estimated areas of Upper Burma been shown 
on the schedules, this total would probably have been more than doubled. 

The divisions of the Chingpaw are numerous and varied, and must be kept 
apart if confusion is to be avoided. The classification of the race into Khakhus 
and Chingpaws is, roughly speaking, geographical. The Khakhus are the up-river 
men, the Chingpaw the Southerners. There is a further political division into 
Kamsa, or chief-ruled, and Kumlao, or democratic Kachins, but neither the de- 
mocrats nor their rfwwa-ruled congeners are peculiar to either of the geographical 
areas. The most obvious Kachin units are the clan and the tribe. Of tribes there 
are five— the Marips, the Lahtawngs, the Lepais,the 'Nkhums and the "Marans — 

3° 



' ** REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

which can be traced by legend back to a single progenitor and are looked upon 
as parent tribes. They are distributed all over the Kachin country and are re- 
presented indiscriminately among the " headwater " Khakhus and the Chingpaw 
proper. The sub-tribes of these parent tribes are very numerous. The Upper 
- Burma Gazetteer mentions fifteen subdivisions of the Marips, eighteen of the 
Lahtawngs, seventeen of the Lepais, eight of the 'Nkhums and four of the Marans. 
The Lepais are the most numerous and the most influential ; at the same time 
they are, or at any rate have been, the most impatient of control. The Marips have 
been uniformly well disposed towards the British, and it is only their Sana sub- 
tribe that has spoilt the Lahtawngs' record for good behaviour. The 'Nkhums and 
the Marans are comparatively unimportant divisions of the race. For a descrip- 
tion of the manners and customs of the Kachins, of the slavery that exists among 
them and finds a counterpart further south in the Chin Hills, of their marriage rites, 
their funeral ceremonies and their thick-headed, slow-moving system of vendetta, 
I would refer the enquiring reader to the pages of the Upper Burma Gazetteer. 
Mention must here be made of what Sir George Scott calls cognate tribes, with 
whom the Chingpaw consider themselves connected, but whose usages and 
speech seem to belie the relationship. The Sassans, the Marus, the Szis and the 
Lashis are the most important of these tribes. The Sassans bear many outward 
and visible signs of a connection with the Chingpaw. If it were not that they 
speak a dialect of their own, there would probably be no hesitation in classing 
them as Kachins. It is very possible that they are a connecting link with the 
Naga tribes. Their habitat lies to the north and west of the Amber mines and ex- 
tends into Assam. Outwardly the Maru is like a Kachin, but Lieutenant Pot- 
tinger, who has had exceptional opportunities of studying them in their haunts, 
"believes that the Marus, with the Szi-Lepais and the Lashis, belonged originally 
to a separate stock that at a comparatively recent epoch amalgamated with the 
pure Kachin. To my mind there is a great deal in this theory. In the light of 
the most recent pronouncements of linguistic experts, I venture to think that the 
three tribes were portions of a branch thrown off from the young parent stem 
after the early ancestors of the Burmans had descended some distance southwards 
from the headwaters of the Irrawaddy and had evolved the germs of a new lan- 
guage — in a word, that they, with the Lisaws, the Muhsos, and possibly the Maing- 
thas, the Akhas and the Lolos bear much the same relation to the Burmans in the 
east as the Kuki Chins, who are admittedly an offshoot of the last prehistoric in- 
habitants of the Upper Basin of the Irrawaddy, bear to that race in the west. The 
influence of China has done much to alter the characteristics of these people and 
to veil their real affinities, but the evidence of tongues is too persistent and uniform 
to be overlooked or ignored. The close linguistic connection between the Szi 
the Lashi and the Maru is adverted to in the language chapter. There were 3 1 
Sassans, 149 Marus, 317 Szis and 40 Lashis outside the "estimated" areas on 
the 1st March 1901. 

1 74. For want of a better classification Sir George Scott has dealt in the 
Connected tribes'. S ac * in f^T of his Gazetteer with the Khangs, the 

.Kaphawks, the Kaluns, the Tarengs, or Maingthas, the 
Khenungs, the Khunnongs, the Mums, the Sons and the Bilus, whom the Kachins 
regard as being "indirectly connected with them." These are for the most part 
mere names to the ethnologist. With the exception of the Tarengs little is known 
of them : they are peoples whose seats, eastwards towards the Salween, have been 
but rarely, if ever visited by Europeans. The Khunnongs have been identified 
with the Mishmis, who have been so thoroughly described in Dalton's Ethnography 
of Bengal. They are very fair iron workers. In this respect they resemble the 
Tarengs, who, under the style of Maingthas, have acquired a reputation as hawkers 
and coolies throughout the far north of the province. These Maingthas are an 
interesting race, possibly more Chinese-Shan than Kachin, with a character that 
combines the restlessness of the primitive nomad with the business instinct of the 
latter-day Celestial. If Dr. Macnamara's Mongolian bronze-sellers came to Corn- 
The Maingthas. ?*£ from^ anywhere within the limits of what now 

is Burma, it is among the Tarengs and their like that 
we must look for a survival of that spirit of enterprise that carried these wanderers 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. -- 1 I9 

of old across the better part of two continents to the far off Isles of Britain. 
The home of the Maingthas lies for the most part outside the limits of Burma near 
Hkamti-Long, but they come southwards in large numbers during the cold weather. 
There were 749 in Burma within the Census area on the 1st March 1901. In 
1891 there were 1,393 only, 26 of whom were females. 

175. It is not often that the search for the ancestral home of a widely diffused 
TheS1 race finds its consummation in so minutely precise a 

statement as that made by Professor Terrien de La 
Couperie in regard to the origin of the Shans or Tai. A nation is by no means easi- 
ly tracked to its primaeval fountain-head even under the most favourable circum- 
stances, so that when we find it stated in set terms in the introduction to Mr. 
Colquhoun's Amongst the Shans "that the cradle of the Shah race was in the 
Kiulung mountains north of Sz-ch'wan and south of Shensi in China proper, " 
we may well agree with Sir George Scott in thinking it conceivable that posterity 
may some day be led to modify the Professor's judgment. In fact we are in 1902 
practically where we were ten years ago in respect of our acquaintance with the 
early beginnings of the Tai. The greater part of what we know is what Dr. Cushing 
has already told us, namely, that South-Western China was the original home of the 
Shan people, or, rather, was the region where they attained to a marked separate 
development as a people ; that it is probable that their first habitat in Burma proper 
was the Shweli valley, and that from this centre they radiated at a comparatively 
recent date northwards, westwards and south-eastwards through the Shan States 
and across Upper Burma into Assam. We have learnt little in the interval save 
that the classification of the Tai races is a task of far greater magnitude than 
appeared when the last census was taken. The opening paragraphs of Chapter 
VI of Volume I of the first part of the Upper Burma Gazetteer will give the reader 
a graphic idea of the difficulties that stand in the way of a comprehensive view of 
the past and present of the Shan people, of the perplexing variety of names under 
which the Tai have been and are still known throughout the far East, and of the mis- 
leading character of certain salient points in their history as handed down to the 
present generation. No doubt, when all obstacles have been overcome, it will be 
found that the Tai race boasts of representatives across the whole breadth of Indo- 
China, from the Brahmaputra as far as the Gulfs of Siam and Tongking ; that it 
numbers among its members not only the Shans proper, the Laos and the Siamese, 
but also the Muongs of French Indo-China, the Hakas of Southern China and the 
Li, the inhabitants of the interior of the far Eastern island of Hainan in the China 
seas. No exhaustive survey of the Tai will, however, be possible till the results 
of British and French research have been combined. 

176. All that is necessary here is to consider that portion of the race that 
has come within the scope of the recent census operations. The late Mr. Pilcher 
divided the Tai into the North-western, the North-eastern, the Eastern and the 
Southern, and Sir George Scott has, with a few minor qualifications, adopted this 
division.. The Siamese and the Laos are the principal representatives of the 
Southern division. Siamese are found in considerable numbers in the districts of 
Amherst, Tavoy and Mergui in the Tenasserim division. The total at the time 
of the census was 31,890, while that of the Laos was 1,047. The habitat of the 
Eastern Shans lies between the Rangoon-Mandalay Railway and the Mekong, and 
is bounded roughly on the north and south by the 22nd and 20th parallels of latitude. 
It includes the Southern Shan States, and comprises the country of the Lti and the 
Hkiin of the States of Kengturig and Kenghung. Linguistically the connection 
between the latter two races and the Laos is very close, but apparently the racial 
affinity is not sufficiently near to justify the classification of the Hkiin and the Lii with 
the Southern Tai. The North-Western Shan region is the area extending from 
Bhamo to Assam between the 23rd and 28th parallels of latitude. It corresponds 
more or less with those portions cf the Katha, Myitkyina, Bhamo and Upper 
Chindwin districts which at one time or the other during the palmy days of the 
Shan dominion acknowledged the suzerainty of the Sawbwa of Mogaung. Of the 
many minor States that went to make up this dominant principality, only two, 
Thaungthut and Zingalein-Hkamti, have retained any relic of their former autono- 
my. The racial difference between this people to the west of the Irrawaddy 



I 20 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

and the Shans of the east is marked by divergencies of dress and dialect. The 
North-Western Shans talk what Dr. Grierson has called Northern Burmese Shan, 
a tongue closely related to Khamti Shan. It extends, with minor variations, into 
Assam, and is represented in its purest and most archaic form in the now obsolete 
Ahom of that province. In the fashion of their clothing the North-Western Shans 
have assimilated themselves to the Burmans, in the midst of whom they live. Mr. 
Pilcher's Nortfi-Eastern Shans are the Chinese-Shans, or, as they are called by the 
Burmans, the Shan-Tayoks, who are found where Upper Burma and the Northern 
Shan States border on China. Sir George Scott is of opinion that with the Shan- 
Tayoks should be classified for ethnological purposes the Shans of the Northern 
Shan States, whose dialect differs more from that of the Southern Shan States than 
it does from the tongue of the Chinese-Shans. These latter, we learn, have very 
little that is Chinese in their composition. We are not, of course, here concerned 
with linguistic considerations, but Sir George Scott looks to more than dialectic 
differences. Though the turban worn by the Chinese-Shan females is peculiar 
to the Shan-Tayoks proper, the divergences in dress between the Hsenwi and the 
Chinese Shan are not radical. But it is mainly on historical grounds that the 
compiler of the Upper Burma Gazetteer has decided to classify the Northern 
Shan States Tai with the Shan-Tayoks. It remains to be seen whether anthro- 
pometry confirms this view. 

The origin of the word Shan is a point which has not yet been finally settled. 
Sir George Scott says : — 

" Whence the name Shan came is an unsolved riddle. We have seen that the Burmese 
almost certainly first knew the Tai as Taroks or Tarets. It is possible that when afterwards 
they heard of the ' Han Yen,' the Chinese name for themselves, they transferred ' Han' into 
Shan and made a further ethnological error. * * * The name Siam is no help, for 
whether it is a barbarous Anglicism derived from the Portuguese or Italian word Sciam, 
or is derived from the Malay Sayam, which means brown, it can hardly be said to be a 
national word." 

177. The last decade has seen a very marked decline in the cult of the 
Karen. In the early eighties the Karen, after a number 
The Karens. o f y ears q{ ne gi ect) began to bulk large amid the non- 

Burmese elements of the population of the province and attracted perhaps a trifle 
more than his fair share of attention. At that time comparatively little was known 
of the Shan, the Northern Chin and the Kachin ; the Taking had lost much of his 
identity and was to the ordinary observer barely distinguishable from his Burman 
neighbour. The wild tribes of the Arakan Yomas were only to be studied in their 
own remote mountain fastnesses. The Karen, on the other hand, was to the fore, 
not less along the Eastern frontier than in the delta of the Irrawaddy. His dress, 
his form of speech, his manners and customs, and his extraordinarily receptive 
attitude towards the truths of Christianity singled him out as an accessible and 
profitable field for the labours alike of the ethnologist and the minister of 
religion, while his undoubted loyalty and his prowess as a fighter drew the 
official eye upon him. The missionaries have retained their hold on the Karen 
with unflagging zeal, but the interest of the' student of manners and customs has 
shifted gradually northwards into fresh realms of research. Thus it is that, where- 
as prior to 1887 Messrs. Mason and Smeaton and Colonels MacMahon and Spear- 
man had all written freely on the subject of the Karens, almost the only important 
contribution to our knowledge of the people that has been vouchsafed since then is 
that which Sir George Scott summarizes in that portion-of the ethnology chapter 
of the Upper Burma Gazetteer which relates to the Karens of Karenni and Upper 
Burma. Dr. Grierson has, on linguistic grounds, placed the speech of the Karens 
in the Chinese- Siamese sub-family, and, though it appears to me doubtful whether 
Dr. Mason is justified in identifying the river of running sand which the primaeval 
ancestors of the race are said to have crossed with the sand drifts of the desert 
of Gobi in Central Asia, there can be no doubt that the original home of the 
Karens must have been, if not in, at any rate in close proximity to, China. More 
than this it seems impossible to say. The Karens stand ethnically isolated in the 
midst of representatives of the three great Indo-Chinese immigration waves, and 
no increase to our knowledge of the Mon-Annam, the Tibeto-Burman and the Tai 
races serves to help us in the solution of the problem of their origin. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. I 2 I 

_ I have elsewhere described the Karen country as lying along the whole eastern 
frontier of Lower Burma from Mergui to Toungoo, in portions-of the delta of the 
Irrawaddy, in the south-west corner of the Southern Shan States, and in the feuda- 
tory States of Karenni. Its general position is indicated in the map which is ap- 
pended to this chapter. The three main divisions of the Karens — the Sgau, the Pwo 
and the Bghai — are by this time well known. The well-defined linguistic differ- 
ences that separate them one from the other do not here concern us ; what is more 
important ethnographically is the fact that, as Mr. Smeaton tells us, " although 
" there is perfect cordiality and fredom of intercourse between them, intermar- 
"riage is not frequent." This shows" that there is no immediate prospect of the 
distinction becoming obliterated. The two first divisions are confined for the most 
part to Lower Burma. The Bghai preponderate in Karenni and the Upper Prov- 
ince. Several of the members of the Pwo and Sgau tribes mentioned in the 
British Burma Gazetteer should no doubt properly be classed under the Bghai. 
The Taroo and Gaikho clans, for instance, placed by Colonel Spearman among 
the Pwo, appear to be the Padaungs and Zayeins of the Upper Burma Gazetteer, 
who geographically, at any rate, should be included among the Bghai Karens. 
There are various sub-dialects of the Pwo and Sgau, but, so far as is at present 
known, the variations are not important, and, apart from these differences of speech 
(which Mr. Eales tells us are no more marked than are those which exist between 
the different county dialects in England), the only distinction between one clan 
and another seems to be in the dress worn : here a white blouse without stripes 
but with a narrow border of embroidery at the bottom, which varies from village 
to village ; there a white blouse with red perpendicular lines ; elsewhere white 
trousers with radiating red lines and the like, a method of discrimination that 
has led Sir George Scott to compare the list of clans to 'a <; history of tartans." 
At some later date it may be possible to deal as fully and systematically with the 
Pwo and Sgau Karens as the compiler of the Upper Burma Gazetteer has 
dealt with the Bghai, though the task will be a difficult one, inasmuch as the 
introduction of Christianity has had a tendency to sweep away the more minute 
ethnographical distinctions. Till then we must be content to ignore the minor 
tribal subdivisions of the Lower Burma Karens and recognize only the two main 
ethnical divisions, the Sgau and the Pwo. At the Census the enumerators dealt 
with 86,434 admittedly Sgau and 174,070 admittedly Pwo Karens, 457,355 others 
being returned as " Karen " with the tribe unspecified. 

1 78. Under the head of the Karenni Sir George Scott has given us a descrip- 

D , . , ., tion of the Karen tribes that live in or in close proxi- 

Bghai and cognate tribes. ■, 4 ,, TI t-> • t-l ^ v -n i 

mity to the Upper Province. These are the Red 
Karens proper, the Zayeins or Sawngtiing Karens, the Bres, the Padaungs and the 
Mepu or White Karens. These have all been classified as belonging to the Karen 
race, partly on account of dialectic affinities, partly on account of similarities in 
dress, usages and outward appearance, though it seems possible that the Padaungs 
ought ethnically to be affiliated with the members of the Mon-Annam race. Nearly 
all the main subdivisions present exceedingly interesting peculiarities. Space 
forbids me to do more than to refer to the ungraceful beaded garters of the Red 
Karen women which compel the wearers to walk with their legs wide apart, to the 
peculiar burial customs and coffins, of the same people, to the teeth -staining 
ceremonies of the Bres, to the brass neck-rings of the Padaung women and to the 
modified form of tabu imposed upon the Padaung husband after his wife's confine- 
ment, to the customs prevailing among the Zayein males of shaving the whole of 
the head with the exception of a small patch over the ear, and to the extraordinary 
endogamous tendencies of some of the tribes, such as the Sawngtiing and the 
Banyang. For a full account of these interesting people the reader is recom- 
mended to turn to the Upper Burma Gazetteer (pages 523 to 554, Part I, Volume 
I). It appears from the report of Mr. Wooster, Assistant Political Officer, Kar- 
enni, that of late years the Red Karens, the Bres and Padaungs have suffered a 
diminution in numbers. The totals of the three races in the estimated areas of 
Karenni at the commencement of 1901 were as follows : Red Karens 24,043, Bres 
3,500, Padaungs 1,867. Outside Karenni the Red Karens totalled 4,936 souls, 
the Padaungs 7,825, and the Zayeins 4,440. 

3i 



122 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

1 79. That collection of hill tribes which is known generically as the Chin race 

. inhabits the highlands to the west of Burma that run 

c s. north and south from the 16th to the 26th degree of 

latitude, i.e., from Cape Negrais to the mountains that form the western boun- 
dary of the Chindwin valley in the Upper Chindwin district. Though, of enormous 
length their territory is nowhere of any considerable breadth, dwindling down in 
the Arakan Yoma region to quite a narrow strip of upland. It is on the whole 
very thinly populated. The Chins are closely related to the hill tribes of Eastern 
Bengal, and the conjecture that all are of Tibeto-Burman stock appears eminently 
reasonable. There seems every reason to believe that after the ancestors of the 
Burmans had passed from their earlier seats on the headwaters of the Irrawaddy into 
the extreme north of the province, and before any material change had come over 
their ancient form of speech, a portion of the race separated itself from the main 
body, penetrated down the valley of the Chindwin, -took up its abode in the hills to 
the west of the river, and from thence spread southwards and westwards into Lushai 
land and what are now known as the Arakan Yomas. The descendants of the 
side swarm in Burma are the Chins. Mr. Taw Sein Ko is of opinion that some 
of the Chin customs in regard to slavery, inheritance, marriage and the like give a 
very fairly accurate picture of what the corresponding Burmans usages must have 
been in the far off past before Buddhism spread, humanizing and beneficent, over 
the country, and it seems probable that of all the non-Burman races that have 
found a home in the province they have the closest ethnical connection with the 
Burmese. 

180. Roughly speaking there are three main geographical divisions of the 
m rh - Chins : the Northern Chins, whose seats run more or 

less parallel with the Chindwin almost as far south as 
its confluence with the Irrawaddy; the Central Chins, who occupy the Northern 
Arakan Hill Tracts and the Pakokku Chin Hills and are known under various names, 
such as Mros, Kamis, Chinbons, Chinboks and Chinmes ; and the Southern Chins, 
the comparatively insignificant remnant who tail away towards the Irrawaddy 
delta. There seems to be no doubt that they were a!l originally of the same 
stock, but for some reason or other the Central Chins appear to have been 
more exposed to Lushai influences on the west and to Buman influences on the 
east than their brethren to the north and south, so that some of the Arakanese 
tribes appear of late to have been regarded hardly as Chins at all. In the 
rugged mountain chains inhabited by the different sections of the race lang- 
uage is no sound test of affinity, and it must be admitted that, our knowledge of 
the Chins in the north-west of Lower Burma is by no means as clear as it should 
be. The greater part of the country of the Northern Chins falls within a clearly 
definied rectangular area, lying to the south of Manipur and between the Lushai 
Hills and the Chindwin river, which is known administratively as the Chin Hills 
and is the charge of a special Political Officer. It is true that people who are known 
as Chins and who bear no outward resemblance to the neighbouring Nagas of 
Assam are found scattered along the hills that fringe the right bank of the Chin- 
dwin far to the north of the Chin Hills proper, but little is known about them, and, 
compared with the residents of the politically administered area, they are numeri- 
cally insignificant. Messrs. Carey and Tuck's Chin Hills Gazetteer contains an 
ample and detailed description of so. much of the Chin race as the Political Officer's 
charge includes within its borders. To give the very briefest outline of the contents 
of the two interesting volumes would occupy more space than is at my disposal. 
A few, however, of the main points may be touched upon. The principal tribes 
into which the Northern Chins are divided are the Sokte, the Siyin, the Tashon, the 
Haka, the Klangklang, the Yokwa, the Thado, the Yo, the Nwite and the Vaipe. 
The last four are now barely represented in the Chin Hills proper. The tribes 
consist of clans. Of these some of the best known are the Kanhow of the S6kt& 
tribe, the Yahow and Whenoh of the Tashon tribe, the Thettas and the Yokwas. 
A reference to the 36 professional clans into which the Chins are said to have 
once been divided has been made in an earlier portion of this chapter. The 
extent to which up to a recent date slavery flourished in the hills is remarkable. 
At one time the slave trade was an organized source of profit to a considerable 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. I 23 

number of the Siyins and Soktes. Any serfsrthat still exist are slaves in name 
only, for their civil rights are practically the same as those of their masters. In 
1896 it was said that in a few years to come slavery, as we use the word, would 
be a thing of the past in the hills. The existence of slavery is a link connecting 
the Chin with the Kachins. The following notes regarding slavery and certain 
other matters, not touched upon in the Chin Hills Gazetteer, have been supplied 
by Mr. A. C. Bateman, Assistant Superintendent, Tiddim : — 

1. "Slaves. — Nearly everything which is worth knowing about slaves, how they are 
acquired and their ownership, will be found in the Chin Hills Gazetteer. 

" The following peculiar mannerisms, however, do not appear in the Gazetteer and may 
be of interest. It is not essential that a slave should live in his owner's house nor even in 
the same village. The slave may have three or four joint owners, and, so long as he fulfils 
his duty to his owner or owners, he may possess property. 

" In the case of the slave having only one owner, he mustgive that owner the right hind 
leg of every animal shot in the chase or killed for the purpose of holding any feast In 
the case of a slave having more than one owner his body and limbs are apportioned to each 
owner. Thus, the owner having the biggest claim on the slave, is apportioned the right 
arm, the next the left arm, a third the right leg, and so on, the head coming last in the scale 
of ownership. 

(< When this class of slave kills any animal he mustgive the right hand owner the right 
haunch, the left hand owner the left haunch, and so on, until all the owners receive their 
due. In such cases the slave is left possibly with the head, a few bones, and, with any luck, 
that highly prized Chin dish, the entrails. 

" On a slave's death, the son takes his father's place. Should the slave have no son, his 
owner takes all his propeity. If there be a multiplicity of owners the property is divided 
among them on the right and left hand principle explained above. Should a slave fail to 
give his owner his due on killing an animal, the owner demands a whole animal of the sort 
killed. If there be a multiplicity of owners each one of them gets a whole animal of the 
sort killed. 

" Should the slave refuse to settle this latter demand he is sold and all his property is 
confiscated to the owner or owners. 

2. " Religious customs. — In most of the Siyin villages a kind of Pongyi is told off per- 
manently to officiate at all ceremonies. This person is known as a " Pasan," ooo$s by Bur- 
mans and as a " Pui Sham Pa " by Chins. 

" The laws of inheritance are the same in his family as in that of any other Chin. 
"The " Pui Sham Pa" holds his land and house, &c, on the " Pogalika (uoooSco) " 
system of the Burman Pongyi. 

3. " Borrowing and lending. — In borrowing and lending money all bargains as to in- 
terest, &c, must be made prior to any transaction taking place. After money has once 
changed hands no interest may be claimed. 

" In borrowing grain, &c, the person borrowing must pay as interest two baskets for 
every one borrowed. This interest may be claimed for a period of eight years. After eight 
years no interest may be claimed. A landlord may claim a nominal yearly tax from any 
tenant. The tax takes the form of from one to two baskets of the grain or pulse cultivated 
on the land. 

4. " Other customs, — If while hunting a Chin wounds a tiger or other 'death-dealing 
wild animal, one may not ask any questions on the subject. It is very unlucky and one 
gives great offence to the spirit of the chase- by either asking or answering any questions 
about a dangerous animal which has been wounded and not recovered. It is very useful to 
remember this while out shooting with Chins. Never ask a Chin for the skull of an animal 
he has shot. 

" If on entering a Chin house and finding a woman 'at home,' one asks where her hus- 
band is, and gets the reply ' he is not here/ it is fatal to ask ' where is he.' ' He is not 
here ' is intended to convey to the stranger- that the husband is dead. One must never 
make a widow talk of her husband's death and vice versa. If the husband be living and 
not at home, his wife will tell you her husband has gone to his fields, or on an errand, and 
so on. During the Census operations I made this mistake with disastrous results. Never 
ask a Chin to climb a tree on which any heads of animals are hung. The mere asking will 
cause the nat of that tree to visit his anger on the Chin in the shape of some illness, unless 
the nat is propitiated, which means that the Chin is putto the expense of giving a feast. 
Should a Chin climb the tree, there is no hope for him. He must die, unless he be a 
wealthy man and can afford to give a very big feast to the whole village. 



1 2 4 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA.' 

5. " The Siyin fable about the origin of the various tribes and clans in the Hills is 
peculiar, in that it corresponds to our fable of the Tower of Babel. 

" The Siyin fables runs : Many centuries ago all the Chins lived in one large village, 
somewhere south of Haka. They all spoke the, same language and had the same customs. 
One day, at a big council, it was decided that the moon should be captured and made to 
shine permanently. By this means a great deal of unnecessary expense and bother would 
be saved in lighting. In consequence the construction of a high house (tower) was begun 
which should reach up to the moon. After years of labour the house had got so high that 
it meant many days of hard marching for the people working on the top to come down to 
the village to get provisions. It was therefore decided that as stage upon stage was built 
it should be inhabited, food, &c, being passed up from stage to stage, from below. In 
this way the people inhabiting the different stages gradually got out of touch with one 
another. From the very little intercourse the Chins of each stage had with one another, 
they acquired different manners, languages and customs. In the end when the structure 
had all but been completed, the nat in the moon was so enraged at the daring of the Chins, 
that he visited them with a fearful storm of rain, wind, thunder and lightning. During 
this storm the tower collapsed. It fell from south to north. The people inhabiting the 
different stages were consequently strewn over the land and built villages where they fell. 
Hence the different tribes and clans varying in customs and manners. The stones and 
building materials which formed this huge tower now form the Chin Hills." 

181. The Pakokku Chin Hills tract was treated as an " estimated " area and 
tl r . 1 j c .u /-«.- particulars regarding the strength of the different 

The Central and Southern Chins. r .. . & <• 1 r ,1 /~> 1 /-^i • 

tribes and races or such 01 the Central Chins as 
reside within its limits are not procurable. They are the Chinboks, the Yindus, 
the Chinbons and the Welaung Chins, who are subdivided into a number of 
clans. A description of their main characteristics will be found in Chapter VIII 
of Volume I of the Upper Burma Gazetteer. The Taungthas of the Pakokku 
district who numbered 5,704 at the Census are neighbours of the above. The 
following are the principal of the Central Chins of the Arakan Hill Tracts and 
the Akyab district, with the total of the persons who on the 1st March 1901 
returned themselves as representatives of the various tribes, — Kami 24,937, Mro 
12,622, Thet 232, Anu 588, Kyaw 215. Our knowledge of these tribes is very much 
what it was when Colonel Spearman wrote his 1880 Gazetteer. Major Hughes, in 
his Hill Tracts of Arakan, talks of the Kyaws (who are believed to have originally 
been pagoda slaves, offered to a local shrine by a queen of Arakan some three 
centuries ago) as being an off-shoot of the great Aryan family. Dr. Grierson has 
shown us that this view is erroneous and that the original home of the Kyaws was 
Lushai land. It may be noted that, if the returns are correct, there are no re- 
presentatives of one of the races mentioned in the 1891 Census Report — the Kuns 
— left in the province. They have probably been absorbed by the Kami. The 
Daingnets (3,412) have hitherto been looked upon as allied to the Chins. The 
connection seems to me, however doubtful. It is my belief that one of the 
most useful services that the ethnographical survey can do will be to trace the 
affinities of the Northern Arakan Chins with the tribes of the Pakokku Chin Hills, 
the Lushai Hills and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. I should be inclined to classify 
with the Central Chins the Chins of the Poko tract in the Kyaukpyu district and 
those of the Minbya township of the Akyab district. These tribes were, in con- 
sequence of their backwardness, enumerated non-synchronously. Of the Poko 
Chins the Deputy Commissioner, Kyaukpyu, writes as follows: — 

" Maung Tun Hla U, the Township Officer of An, has given the following account of the 
Poko Chins. He states that nothing definite can be learnt from the Taungmins as to the 
origin, manners and customs of the tribe who, however, give the following traditionary 
account. 

" It appears that the prefix ' Po ' is a corruption of ' Ko,' being the Burmese numerical 
9. The term ' Poko Ywa ' means ' nine villages under the chief of a tribe called Po. 
The tribe appears to have lived by stealing cattle, &c, in the Burmese time. It is said 
that they settled at the source of the Dalet chaung about two centuries ago. 

" The Poko tract is inhabited by another tribe called MonyinGyi, Monyin Gale (oaSstcBs 
^Sscogcos), who speak a different dialect from the ' Po ' Chins, but are under their do- 
minion. 

" The number of villages in the tract has increased from nine to seventeen. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. I 25 

" Po Nga" Tin is the Chief or Taungmin of the tract, and it appears that he claims to 
he a lineal descendant of the Taungmin. 

" The two tribes dress in the same manner (the usual Chin dress apparently), but have 
different marriage customs. It appears that the marriage dower of the Po tribe consists of 
spears, gongs, cymbals, &c, whereas that.of the Monyin are white buffaloes and bullocks. 
They have separate grave-yards." 

***** 

It is not quite clear from this extract whether Po is to be looked upon as 
"nine," the name of a Chief, or the designation of a tribe. The information will, 
however, be of use when the ethnographical survey is undertaken. It appears 
that a " Po Monyin " Chin dialect was known in the Minbu district in 1889, and 
it is possible that the Monyins may have come into the Kyaukpyu district from 
the east. 

The habitat of the Southern Chins has been indicated above. Mr. Hough- 
ton calls them the tame Chins in contradistinction to the Northern or Wild Chins. 
In an appendix to his Essay on the Language of the Southern Chins he gives an 
account of some of the more interesting of their customs and myths, which have 
affinities with those of their northern brethren. The " Chins " returned as such 
at the 190 1 enumeration reached an aggregate of 179,292 persons. 

The origin of the name Chin is still undetermined. The Chins call them- 
selves Yo, Lai, Zho or Shu. It has been suggested that Chin is a Burmese cor- 
ruption of the Chinese Jin or Yen, meaning ' man.' It is a far cry from Chinland 
to China, and I should be disposed to favour some other theory as to the birth of 
the expression. A more plausible derivation appears to be that indicated in the 
British Burma Gazetteer. 

" Sir A. Phaj-re * * * considers that Khyeng, a name by which the Khyeng 
do not, now at any rate, know themselves, is a corruption of klang, their word for man, 
and adds, 'An Arakanese in writing down for me words from the rnouth of a man of this 
race wrote Khyang (Burmanice, Khyeng) for what appeared to me to have the sound of 
Klang.'" 

Mr. Houghton gives "Ak'laung" as one of the words for " man " in South- 
ern Chin ; Major Hughes in his Hill Tracts of Arakan gives " Hklap." Accor- 
ding to the Upper Burma Gazetteer vocabularies, " man " is in the Tauhgtha 
tongue " Hkan" and in Chinbok Chan. I should be inclined to think that these 
were all the same word. Our first real knowledge of the Chins must have filtered 
to us largely through an Arakanese medium. In itself the transformation of 
" Klang " into " Chin " is in conformity with the laws of phonetic change that 
govern the relations between the archaic Arakanese and the modern form of 
Burmese. 

182. If the story told by the Taungthus of their origin is correct, they must 

be of Talaing descent. In 1057 A.D. Anorat'aor Naw- 
The Taungthus, Taungyos and Ta 'hta, King of Pagan, is said to have invaded Thatdn 

and to have carried thence captive to Pagan the King 
of Thaton, Manuha, his wives and children, and certain Buddhist scriptures, copies 
of which had been refused him by Manuha. The Taungthus claim to be the de- 
scendants of the remainder of King Manuha's subjects who, after the seizure of 
their capital and the deportation of their king, migrated north and founded a new 
Thaton (the existing State of Hsatung) in the Shan States. Their legend has it 
that Manuha was a Taungthu. History relates, however, that the dominant race 
in the country to the north of the Gulf of Martaban in the 1 ith century was that 
of the Takings, so that, if the Taungthus were members of that ruling race, they 
too must have Mon blood in their veins. Linguistically they show no traces of 
a Mon origin. They are believed to have Shan elements in their composition. 
The men as a rule clothe themselves like Shans; on the other hand, the women 
wear a dress resembling that of the Karens. Their tongue is a mixture of Karen 
and Burmese elements, and in many ways they seem more closely allied to the 
Karens than to any other of the peoples of Burma. Though they repudiate any 
relationship with the Taungthus, the Taungyos, whose habitat in the western part 

32 



I 26 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

of the Southern Shan States is much the same as the Taungthus, are probably 
closely connected with the latter race. The chief difference between the two 
appears to lie in the colour of the smock worn by the women. The Taungthu 
ladies wear black, the Taungyos affect red. They are classified together in the 
ethnology chapter of the Upper Burma Gazetteer. The Taungyo language, as 
exemplified in that work, strikes the observer as nothing more than a kind of 
bastard Burmese, or even Arakanese. Taungthu has much more Karen in its 
composition, but there are other elements as well. What might be looked 
upon as affording a clue to their origin is the Danaw race. Legend connects 
the Taungthus and Taungyos with the Danus or Danaws, another doubtful 
community who are their near neighbours in the Myelat. In many localities the 
Danu is now a mere Burmese-Shan hybrid who knows nothing of the Danu 
tongue. It is clear, however, that the original Dahus or Danaws spoke a language 
that had remarkable affinities with several of the tongues of the Mon-Annam 
family, notably the Wa, the Hka Muk, and the Riang. This language is still 
spoken by the Danaws in some places. Moreover, the Danus, even where they have 
lost their ancestral vernacular, still refer to a reputed emigration from Siam and 
claim connection with the Riangs or Yins. I am inclined to think that in the end 
it will be possible to bring the Taungthus, Taungyos and Danaws, and con- 
ceivably also the Padaungs of Karenni, into the ethnical family, of which the 
Takings, the Palaungs and the Was are all doubtless representatives and find a 
plausible explanation of their legendary migration from the south. All that it is 
possible to do now is to record their existence and admit that at present they are 
a puzzle. The strength of the communities in question in March 1901 was as 
follows: Taungthus 168,301, Taungyos 16,749, Danus 63,549, Danaws 635. 

183. At the enumeration the total number of Palaungs was returned as 

56,866. The Palaungs are found scattered through 
The Palaungs. ^ Shan States, but are most numerous in the 

vicinity of the Kodaung tract of the Ruby Mines district and in the Northern 
Shan State of Tawngpeng. They are held to be a respectable, law-abiding com- 
munity, whose habit of building their villages at a considerable elevation has led 
to their being studied less than some of their neighbours. Like the Taungthus 
they have a tradition of an ancient migration from Thaton, which will probably be 
found to be nothing more than an indication that they are of Mon-Annam ex- 
traction. Their language has now been definitely placed in the Mon-Annam 
family, and linguistically they are connected both with the Was on the east and 
with the Danaws on the south. The Palaung men invariably wear the Shan 
dress. The women have a picturesque costume, which comprises a hood, coat, 
and skirt with leggings of cloth. It is well depicted in one of the illustrations in 
the Upper Burma Gazetteer. 

The following extract from the District Census Report of the Deputy Com- 
missioner, Ruby Mines, refers to the Palaungs who inhabit the Kodaung .- — 

" The Palaung is a peaceful and industrious individual, but at the same time he is not 
Palaungs on '^ a coward at heart but a Jew in money transactions, and 

in business will always get the better of the Kachin by dint 
of his superior wit. He is a Buddhist, has monks and monasteries, and reads and writes 
Shan ; but he cannot hold his own against the Kachin, and, when driven out, migrates 
altogether. The Palaungs of the various circles in the Kodaung appear to represent so 
many different immigrations from their original- seat, said to be at the sources of the 
Anawma river, which the Hume men left 600 years ago. The dialect of one varies a good 
deal from that of another according to their own account of the matter, and even in the 
fashions of dress each circle has or had its own cut and idea of the becoming. The com- 
mon Burmese division of the Palaung tribes into Palaungs and Pales is not admitted by 
the Palaungs of Hume and Maing-kwin, and from what they say it would appear to be 
fanciful and incorrect. The Palaung uses bis own language when at home, but Shan is 
the religious and book language, and gives the village officials their only titles, e.g., 
"Kang " or " Pu-kang," " Paw-mong," " Pak," " Pukye," « Pawng," » Kang-kung-mong," 
" Haw-sawng," " Min-hong." 

1 84. The Was, whose affinity with the Palaungs is probably more than one of 
The Was. language only, were for the most part excluded from 

the scope of the Census operations. On account of 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 1 2 7 

the uncertain temper of its inhabitants, the wild Wa country, which lies to the 
east of the Northern Shan States, between the Salween and the State of Keng- 
hung, was treated as an "omitted" area in 1901. It is therefore unnecessary to 
say more here than that the Upper Burma Gazetteer contains a full and graphic 
picture of. both the wild and tame varieties of this interesting people. Here 
the reader will find described in the compiler's most attractive style the main 
peculiarities of the Wa, his taste for dog's flesh, his distaste for water, his pri- 
mitive attire, his villages, with their quaint tunnelled approaches, his houses, 
his liquor bins, and his disagreeable head-collecting habits. Allusion is made else- 
where in the chapter on the religions of the people to the animistic idea that 
underlies the Was' head-hunting and is the guiding principle in the ceremonies to 
which the act of decapitation is but a prelude. 

In the hills of Kengtung are tribes known as the Tai Loi or Wa Kiit and 
the Hka La or Hka Lam which are divisions 6f the Wa race. It is possible that 
some of the other communities alluded to by Mr. Stirling in his article" on Keng- 
tung in the Upper Burma Gazetteer, e.g./ the En, the Pyin and the Hsen Hsum, 
can similarly be referred to the same stock. The totals outside estimated and 
omitted areas at the Census were as follows : Wa (unspecified), 5,964 ; En, 931 ; 
Hkala, 70 ; Hsen Hsum, 1,351 ; Tai Loi, 15,660. 

185. The Kadus, a people who inhabit portions of the Katha and Upper 

Chindwin districts in and near the old Shan State 
of Wuntho, are so rapidly losing their identity 
and assimilating their modes of life to those of their Burman and Shan neighbours 
that it seems doubtful whether the problem of their origin will ever be satis- 
factorily solved. That problem is as obscure as it is interesting. The Kadu 
language has been found by Mr. Houghton to bear a marked resemblance to that 
of the Saks or Thets, a small, tribe of Arakan. Curiously enough, it also exhibits 
affinities with the Kachin, and Mr. Houghton would, on linguistic grounds, class 
both the Saks and the Kadus in the Kachin-Naga branch of the Tibeto-Burman 
race. The connection with the Saks of the Arakan Yomas is distinctly peculiar. 
Sir George Scott is inclined to account for it by the surmise that the original 
Kadus crossed the Chindwin as slaves of war from Arakan. This does not, 
however, explain the phenomenon of the presence in the Kadu language of a certain 
number of Kachin words. The only distinctive features of the Kadus' dress are 
the black jacket, petticoat and head cloth which a certain number of the- elderly 
women still wear. Men and women of the younger generation almost habitually 
wear Burmese costume. Mr. Blake, Subdivisional Officer of Banmauk, has 
favoured me with a very full note on the Kadus. Space does not allow of its re- 
production in full here, but I hope to make use of the new matter it contains in 
connection with the ethnographical survey of the province. The two theories 
of a Chin and a Kachin origin are dealt with in the following portion of that note : — 

" Who the Kadus are, whence they came and when, are questions which, having re- 
. . mained unanswered up to the present, are not likely to be 

° ln- answered in the future. The Kadus themselves, or rather 

some of them, say that they are descendants of a tribe of Chins which settled in the Katha 
district many many years ago, when the district formed part of the rule of the Shan Prince 
of Mogaung who had a subordinate in the Shwe Sawbwa of Mawnaing. From the accounts 
given by the people it would appear that many many years ago, the Chins inhabiting the 
village of M6nsabat broke up their village and came and settled in parts of the present 
Katha and Myitkyina districts. They were followed some time after by the inhabitants of 
Mahamyaing. Being subjects of the Shan Prince of Mogaung, they all paid their taxes to 
his subordinate, the Shwe Sawbwa of Mawnaing.- On one occasion the original settlers, the 
Monsabats went and paid the Sawbwa the taxes due by all the settlers. On their return 
journey they met the Mahamyaings going to pay their taxes and so told them to return as 
all the taxes had been paid. The Mahamyaings would, however, not believe the tale, but 
proceeded to Mawnaing where they offered their taxes to the Shwe Sawbwa who refused to 
accept the money. On this the Mahamyaings went to the Shan Prince at Mogaung, who on 
receiving the taxes said that they were " apwa " and thus it came about that the original 
settlers, the people of M6nsabat, came to be known as "araas" and the Mahamyaings as 
'apwas." In Ganan circle, where the Chins first settled, the people are still known as Ganan- 
mas and Gananpwas, though the " Amas" and the " Apwas" have intermarried for several 
generations, and a man calling himself " Apwa" may in reality be more of an " Ama." The 



I 28 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

children are called after the father though the mother belongs to the other tribe. There is 
no object now in keeping up this distinction, but up to the time of the annexation and ever 
since the " Apwas " paid double tax to the Shan Prince, they have had to pay double what 
the "Amas" did. 

" Another account, and one which has a ring of probability about it, is that the Kadus 
are descendants of Kachins who were settled in the Katha district and as far south as 
Shwebo many years ago. The Kadus who make this statement say that Kachin graves 
have been found in Ganan and other parts of the district, and from some of these necklaces 
and other ornaments of Kachin make have been dug up. One version is that the ancestors 
of the Kadus were a band of Kachins who were taken captives by Burmans and made to 
work by the latter at digging tanks and making canals. The Burmans called their captives 
Kantus (tank-diggers) which in time came to be corrupted into Kaudus and finally Kadus. 
In proof of their Kachin descent these Kadus point to the similarity of several words in the 
two tongues. " 

These stories are variants of the legends given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. 
The Kadus have by now developed into what are little more than hybrids. All the 
men talk Burmese and nearly all read and write it. The practice of staining the 
teeth of the women used at one time to be a distinctive feature of the Kadus, but, 
as Mr. Blake writes— 

" In fairness to the present and rising generation, it must be said that, with few excep- 
tions, the young women and young girls have not followed this dirty custom. The few 
young girls who stain their teeth are those who still adhere to the national costume." 

This teeth-staining recalls some of the practices of the Bres of Karenni. 
The fact that it is confined to the fair sex gives a hint at a Chin origin and sug- 
gests an analogy with the tattooing of the faces of Chin women. As a disfigure- 
ment it is apparently a superfluity, for Mr. Blake implies that adding artificially to 
the uncomeliness of the average Kadu woman's features is like gilding refined 
gold.' A total of 34,629 persons were returned as Kadus at the Census. 

186. Sir George Scott in his Gazetteer treats the Taws of the Indauktha 
... circle of the Katha district as differing racially from the 

communities in whose midst they live. According to 
the tradition given in the Gazetteer, the Taws are the descendants of a number of 
Pagan ladies whom the reigning monarch of Pagan, a man or rather woman-eating, 
birdlike being, considered unfit for human consumption and relegated to the jun- 
gles of Katha. The Deputy Commissioner of Katha, however, in his report on the 
Census operations, writes as follows : — 

" Other people in the Pinlebu township returned themselves as Taws, but, as the 
Myook, who is a local man, stated that the name was merely that of an old circle and not 
of a tribe of people properly so-called, this designation was not accepted, the people being 
shown as Shans." 

As a matter of fact 833 people appeared in the schedules in Upper Burma 
under the designation of " Taw." 

In the same communication Mr. Houghton alludes to a community known 
as the Kunyins, who have returned themselves as a distinct race and appear in 
the Census returns as such for the first time to the number of 283. I can find no 
reference to this people in the Gazetteer. 

187. Mr. Smyth, Deputy Commissioner of the Upper Chindwin, has sent me 
The Tamans. a . few P articular s regarding what is probably a hybrid 

tribe found in the Homalinand Uyu townships of that 
district and known as the Tamans. Their name as well as their habitat would 
appear to hint at a Burmese-Shan mixture, but their language, like Kadu, shows 
marks of a Kachin influence. Maung Myat Tun Aung, Subdivisional Officer of 
Legayaing, who has furnished the particulars above referred to, thinks that the 
Tamans are not Shans, but it appears probable that there is now more Shan than 
anything else in their composition. It seems to me that a study of the Tamans 
side by side with the Kadus might yield exceedingly interesting results. They 
numbered 829 persons in all. 

188. There were 1,427 Lisaws returned as such in the Northern Shan States, 
The Lisha WS) Lisaws or Ya» yi n. in KengtOng and in the Ruby Mines district. In the 

past they were thought to be connected with the 
Kachins. Sir George Scott holds the bond of union, if any, to be extremely slender. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. I 2<) 

Their possible connection with the prehistoric Burman inhabitants of the Upper Irra- 
waddy basin has been adverted to in an earlier paragraph of this chapter. They 
are a widely scattered community, building their villages high up on the hill-sides. 
Their habits are, on the whole, more akin to those of the Chinese than of the 
Kachin ; some of them are said to intermarry with the Chinese, but do not appear to 
do the same with other races. I am disposed to think that they are identical with 
the Lisus or Lissous mentioned. by Prince Henri d'Orleans, who are thus referred 
to by Gamier : — • 

Les Lissous, qui de toutes ces populations sont les plus sauvages et les plus indomp- 
tables, paraissent se rapprocher des tribus de langue melam qui habitent les parties tibet- 
aines de la vallee de la Salouen et du Mekong. Leur type semble leur attribuer une forte 
proportion de sang caucasique ; leur costume et leurs mceurs les rattachent aux populations 
pr^cedentes (namely, the Lolos.) " 

It is doubtless a good deal of this quasi-Caucasian, type of countenance that 
has led observers to classify them with the Kachins. Apparently Sir George Scott 
considers the Lisus a separate race. It must, however, be admitted that, even if 
the Lisaws are not the Lissous, they must be closely related to them, for, as I have 
noted elsewhere, there is a marked similarity between the Lisaw and Lissou (Lisu) 
vocabularies given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer. 

189. The Lahu or Mu Hso tribes are found here and there through the 
„, . , eastern portion of the Shan States, mainly between the 

Salween and the Mekong. If language is to go for 
anything, the Lahus are of the same race as the Lisaws, and if, as surmised above, 
the Lisaws and the Lisus are connected, one is irresistably led to wonder whether 
the Lahu or Mu Hso are not the Mu-sus or Mossos, of whom Gamier says, after 
having studied their physiognomy — 

'' On doit sans doute rattacher les Mossos au rameau tibetain." 
Sir George Scott says of the Lahus : — 
" They seem certainly to belong to the same souche as the Thibetans." 
Apparently, however, the vocabularies do not give the same support to the 
theory of identity as is afforded in the case of the Lisaw- Lisu view. At one time 
the Lahus appear to have made common cause with the Was against the Chinese 
and to have been for a while successful. They are now a down-trodden race of 
wanderers with a good many Chinese characteristics. The Chinese call them 
Loheirh, the Shans Myen, and one division of them is known to the Shans under 
the name of Kwi. The total of Mu Hsos at the Census was 15,774. The Kwi 
numbered 2,882 over and above that total. 

190. The Akhas figured for the most part in the Census schedules as Kaws, 

the name by which the people are known to the 
The Akhas. Shans. A total of 26,020 Kaws were returned by 

the enumerators of the State of Kengtung. They are a heavily built, dusky race 
who inhabit the hills to the east of that State. Their features recall various types, 
their most noticeable peculiarity being a lower jaw that is abnormally developed 
for this region and is believed to hint at an Oceanic Mongol ancestry. Outward- 
ly they in many ways resemble the Chinese and they show clear signs of Chinese 
influence. In the matter of dog-eating they are extraordinary catholic, not re- 
stricting themselves to any particular canine breed. Their language has not as 
yet been definitely classified but has been placed provisionally in the Burmese 
group. A photograph of Akha women given in the Upper Burma Gazetteer 
conveys an excellent idea of the dress of the females. The main divisions of 
the tribe are said to be seven in number. The Ako, referred to by Mr. Stirling 
in his article on Kengtung in the Upper Burma Gazetteer, are apparently a cross 
between the Kaw and some other race. There were 1,506 of them in March 1 901. 

191. There are very few Hka Muks or Hkamets within the limits of the pro- 

vince. The total of 141 returned at the 1901 Census 
The Hka Muks. wag f()r ^ m6st part found ; n the g han g tate q£ 

Kengtung and in the Salween district. Philology claims them as members of the 
Mpn-Annam race. They are a somewhat dusky community and resemble the 

33 



1 3O REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Karens (with whom, however, they seem to have no ethnical affinity) in the way 
their dress varies from tribe to tribe. They have been studied hitherto more from 
a French than from a British point of view. About Chiengmai they are largely 
employed as coolies by the Forest Department, and are described as being stupid 
but irreproachably honest and trustworthy. It is possible that the L01 of Mong 
Lwe are connected with this race. 

192. Like the Hka Muks, the Riangs or, as they were called in the Census 

schedules, the Yins, are probably of Mon-Annam ex- 
The Riangs or Ym. traction. In all 3,094 Yins were enumerated at the 

Census. The Riang region lies generally to the north-east of the cis-Salween 
portion of the Southern Shan States, but Yins are found here and there elsewhere. 
The most numerous tribe is known to the Shans by the name of Yang Lam. The 
two other tribes are denominated the Yang Hsek and the Yang Wan Kun. It 
seems clear that they have been settled in their existing seats for a very long 
time. They are almost certainly pre-Shan. The men have conformed to Shan 
fashion in the matter of raiment, but, as is the almost invariable custom among 
these eastern tribes, the women still adhere to their national dress, in this case one 
of dark-blue cloth, which Mr. Stirling tells us is sombre, but modest and becoming. 

193. The Hpons are a numerically .insignificant community, who live in the 

southern portion of the Myitkyina and in the northern 
e pons ' portion of the Bhamo district in the vicinity of the Ir- 

rawaddy. Their language, which is dealt with in the language chapter, is interest- 
ing, but they have now' no particular attractions for the ethnographist. Whatever 
they were originally they have by now practically developed into Shans, and as such 
they seem to have been returned on the 1st of March 1901. 

194. The trans-Salween Northern Shan State of Son-mu is where the Pan- 

thays, a Muhammadan race known for the most part in 
1 " Burma as caravan drivers, are found in greatest force. 

These Panthays or, as they are known to the Chinese, Hui-hui, are ordinarily looked 
upon as Yunnanese Chinese, and they doubtless have more Chinese blood in their 
composition than any other. The foreign strain appears to have been introduced 
with the Musalman religion by military immigrants several centuries back. As 
mule-drivers they are known well throughout the north-east of the province. Much 
has been written concerning the origin of the name Panthay. " Pathi " is doubtless 
a word in very common use among the Burmans as an expression for Muhamma- 
dans, and the inclination to connect it with " Panthay " is natural. It is the explan- 
ation to which the compiler of the Upper Burma Gazetteer seems on the whole to 
lean. Mr. Taw Sein Ko has, however, something new to say in the matter. A 
note on the word recently contributed by him to the Indian Antiquary is given 
below : — 

" Now that both domestic and-foreign troubles are falling thick upon the central Chinese 
Government at Peking, it is probable that we shall hear of the Panthays again. They are 
Chinese converts to Islam, and large numbers of them are found in the provinces of Shensi, 
Kansuh and Yunnan. In the former two provinces they are known as Tungani or Hui-hui. 
In Burma and the adjoining Shan States, the Muhammadans of Yunnan are known as Panthay 
or Pang-hse. They are a fine and warlike race, and held Yunnan against Imperial troops 
from 1855 to J 873- In raising a British regiment at Wei-hai-wei. Chinese Muhammadans 
are much sought after by recruiting sergeants. 

" In Northern China, the Chinese call the converts to Islam Hui-hui, \SJ jo}, and the 
Yunnanese call them Hui-tzu, ^ ]oj ^ There is a great deal of contempt and hatred 
implied by the Chinese character % as distinguished from 1]D' as the first part of the 
former means 'a dog.' Evidently the compliment is a reciprocal one, because the 
favourite epithet used by all Muhammadans in addressing the followers of other religions is 
' infidel dog.' The Yunnanese also call the Chinese Muhammadans ' Fan P'an' or 'rebels.' 
Both the Burmese word ' Panthay ' and the Shan word 'Pang-hse' are evidently derived from 
fan tsei, or pan tsei, which means 'a rebellious brigand.' 

" The derivation of the word ' Panthay ' appears to be one of the vexed questions of 
sinology, and I trust that the above solution will be acceptable to Chinese scholars." 

In all there were 39 Panthays in the synchronous and non-synchronous areas 
of Burma on the 1st March 1901. Of these 31 were men and 8 women. 



" REPORT ON THE CENS0S OF BURMA. I3 1 

195. The total of Chinese in the Province is an ever-growing one. The last 
™ n ,. decade has seen an increase from 41.4^7 to 62.486 

The Chinese. ,, ., , ., ^ ,T R' , '^ 

in their numbers. If we except the Panthays, no 
members of the Chinese race are indigenous to Burma, but experience has shown 
that the Celestial takes kindly to the country, and, if one may venture on a fore- 
cast, it will not be long before he is one of its dominating elements. As mer- 
chants and traders the Chinese have established themselves firmly in all the com- 
mercial centres, while as petty contractors and carpenters they supply a much 
felt want throughout the length and breadth of the Province. In the purely rural 
areas they have hitherto had but little scope for their talents ; but if Chinese agri- 
culturists as enterprising and law-abiding as the artificers and traders of the pre- 
sent generation could be introduced into the country, I have no hesitation in say- 
ing that the economic welfare of Burma would be assured, for the Chinese amal- 
gamate with the Burmans far more readily than do the Natives of India. The 
bulk of the Chinese in Burma come from the South of China and from the Straits 
Settlements- The immigrants from Yunnan and the South West of the Empire 
are fewer in number, but it is -from this quarter, if any, that Chinese husbandmen 
must come. The Dayes, of whom 1,094 were recorded on the schedules, are said 
to be Chinese half-castes. 

196. Nothing fresh of importance has been learned about the Selungs, the sea 
The Selungs gypsies of the Mergui archipelago, since the- 1 891 

Census. They were enumerated non-synchronbusly 
by the late Mr. Clogstoun and showed a total of 1,325 souls, as compared with 
1,628 at the preceding Census. 

197. A total of 1 1,132 persons were returned as Ponnas and Kathes at the 
~, .„ . - . Census. These were lumped together in the abs- 

The Mampuns. , rr j iL r r it ■ • r~, 

traction omce under the name ot Mampuns. The 
following note by Mr. E. P. Cloney, Subdivisional Officer of Amarapura, shows 
that the two classes derive their origin from the same source. Any difference that 
exists would appear to be for the most part one of religion. 

''Kathe. — The descendants of the Manipuris are known to Burmans by this name. ' Meik- 
tein ' is the name by which they distinguish themselves. It would appear that Manipur was 
invaded twice by the Burmese kings in 1 120 and 1181 B.E. On both occasions the peo- 
ple — men, women and. children — were seized and brought captives into Burma. Some of the 
captives were sent to Mong Nai (Mone). The rest were allowed to settle at Ava, Amarapura, 
in the southern parts of the Kyaukse district, and at Mogok. At first the captives sup- 
ported themselves by daily labour of all kinds. Gradually their children and grandchildren 
learnt weaving, spinning, &c, and they now support themselves mostly by silk spinning, 
weaving, &c. ; some are cultivators. 

''Religion. — Most of the descendants of the captive Manipuris have embraced Buddhism. 
Only a small number continue to follow the religion of their forefathers, Hinduism. The 
Buddhist Kathes have adopted the dress, customs, &c, of the Burmese, differing only in a 
few matters of custom and in speech. 

"Language. — All Kathes nearly are bilinguists, speaking Manipuri or Kathe and Bur- 
mese. 

"House buildings. — The Kathe does not as a rule build his house like the Burmau off 
the ground with a plank or bamboo flooring. The house is low with an earthen floor and 
surrounded with a raised earthen platform called hmangun (§§2$), the same as one sees in 
most Hindu houses. Where, however, the village is likely to be flooded, the Kathe is com- 
pelled to build exactly like the Bur man. 

"Courtship- — In the matter of courting a girl, the younger generation follow the Bur- 
mese custom,' but the marriage custom partakes of the Burmese and Hindu customs com- 
bined. In asking for a girl in marriage, the mother of the man and his female relatives go 
first to the parents of the girl, and ask their consent. On the second Occasion, the man's 
father and his male relatives ask the consent of the girl's parents- On the dayof the mar- 
riage kado by the bridegroom and bride is performed as is customary among Burmans; but 
besides the kado, Ponnas are invited to pronounce the benediction or beiktheikmyaukgyih 

(oSco8oSg@do5§50. 

" In most other matters, the Kathes' customs are the same as the Burmese now. 

" Those Kathes that have not embraced Buddhism still keep up the Hindu customs and 
strictly maintain caste prejudices, refusing to eat or drink with those that are Buddhists, and 
abstaining from all flesh meat. They eat fish and salt-fish and vegetables, but will not eat 
ngapi pounded by Burmans. . 



I 3 2 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. - 

"The Kathe is of a more mild and docile temper than the Burman, and is obedient and 
timid. He is respectful to his elders and supervisors, and is generally industrious and careful. 
He gives very little trouble, and is on the whole a good loyal subject. 

Ponnas. — There are not many Ponnas in this subdivision. There are a few house- 
holds in each of the villages of Yegyibauk, Shwegyetyet, Koko Ngedo and Kyandan. 
These are called the Kathe-Ponnas and are practically unconverted Kathes, but they are 
decidedly not Brahmins as one understands a Brahmin of India. 

" These Ponnas are not purely vegetarians as they eat fish. 

" The Ponnas are cultivators, weavers and fortune-tellers. They preside at religious 
ceremonies too. In all manners and customs they are practically the same as the natives of 
India. 

" The Ponnas are also bilinguists, speaking Kathe and Burmese or Wethali (Assamese) 
and Burmese; in some cases Hindi, Kathe and Burmese. The Ponnas are good, loyal sub- 
jects on the whole." 

" Meiktein " is doubtless the same word as " Meithei," the name of the lan- 
guage of Manipur. 

198. Of European races the English are naturally the most strongly repre- 
Europeans &c sented. The returns show 5,053 English males and 

1,180 English females, as against 7,198 and 2,074 
respectively enumerated in 1891. The withdrawal of British troops accounts for a 
portion of this decrease, but the rise in the total of Eurasians from 7,022 to 8,884 
seems to point to the fact that the enumerators were somewhat more liberal in 
their interpretation of " English " in 1891 than in 1901. In all, 1,090 persons 
returned themselves as " Europeans." It is probable that some of these should 
properly have been included among the Eurasians. The total of Germans has 
fallen from 353 to 194 but in the case of all other European races there is no very 
marked variation on the figures of ten years back. 

199. In India exogamy and endogamy are matters of prime importance in a 
n , , comprehensive survey of caste. In Burma no such 

Exogamy and endogamy. r ,. J , , 

' extraordinary interest attaches to these practices. 

They are not so marked as in India 3 nor are they governed by the same inflexi- 
ble rules. It is, however, instructive to note how the exclusiveness or otherwise of 
customs in regard to matrimony varies from race to race. Roughly speaking, 
among the peoples of the plains, the Burmans and the Takings, there are practi- 
cally no restrictions on marriage, save those imposed by near blood relationship. 
It is only among the more primitive hill communities that anything approaching 
endogamy or exogamy is noticeable. According to Mr. Houghton, the Southern 
Chins, when selecting a wife, take one from some other clan than their own. It 
does not appear whether further north the Chins are exogamous in relation to 
the clan, but the Siyins at any rate are endogamous in relation to the tribe. The 
Soktes too appear, so far as the tribe is concerned, to have endogamous lean- 
ings. Among the Hakas it would seem that political motives are as responsible 
as any for what exogamous tendencies prevail. Still the exogamy is there, 
whatever the motives were that produced it — and Mr. Andrew Lang's Custom and 
Myth shows us that as to the motives to exogamy there is considerable divergence 
of opinion. Among the Kachins a man may not marry a woman of the same 
surname as himself. Of these surnames or family names there appear to be a con- 
siderable number (ninety-seven are specified in the Upper Burma Gazetteer), so 
the choice is moderately large. Strange to say, side by side with this restriction 
exists a recognized custom which requires a man ordinarily to marry a first cousin 
on the female side. It is not mere blood relationship that is a bar ; it is blood re- 
lationship through the father, i.e., the relationship which brings with it the family 
name. This fact seems to constitute an additional item of evidence in favour of 
Mr. Andrew Lang's view that exogamy is not, as Mr. Morgan has held, the 
outcome of the discovery of the evils of close interbreeding, but is possibly one 
form of the totem tabu. So farreaching is this prohibited degree that persons 
of the same name will not intermarry even if they are members of different tribes. 
This is, as Mr. George points out, interesting not only because it suggests 
totemism but because it shows' that the family distinctions are older than the 
tribal. Here we certainly have something not very far removed from the Hindu 
gotra and the Roman gens. Generally speaking the marriage customs of thes 



REPORT d.N THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 1 33 

Kachjn are a singular mixture of exogamy and endogamy. Another significant 
point is that among the Szis certain specified families whom we will call A's may 
take females from other families who may be denominated B's, but the B's may 
not take their wives from among the A's and are obliged to go elsewhere to other 
specified families for their consorts. "Mr. George describes this as an arrangement 
" whereby one family is, so to speak, general parent-in-lav: to another family, and 
gives females only to the members of the latter family." The custom is interesting 
as being the nearest, in fact the only near, approach to hypergamy I have been 
able to discover in Burma. I think we may take it that the hill dwellers on our 
Western and Northern borders are fully imbued with the principles (whatever they 
may be) that are reflected in the practice of exogamy. Turning from the north 
and west to the east of the Province one finds that among the hill tribes such 
restrictions as are set on marriage are not exogamous, as among the Chins and 
Kachins, but, on the contrary, endogamous, and, as a matter of fact, endogamous 
to a very marked degree. At one time many of the Palaungs were sticklers for 
endogamy. In the past the members of the Pato Ru clan of this race did not' 
look for spouses outside their clan. Now, however, there are no prohibitions in 
regard to matrimonial selections. It is further south among the Karens and their 
fellow dwellers amid the Eastern hills that endogamy is carried to its most absurd 
extremes. The Padaungs are quoted in the Upper Burma Gazetteer as almost the 
only exception to the rule ordinarily obtaining among the Karens that compels a 
man to marry one of his own blood. Among the Sawngtiing Karens " marriages 
are only permitted between near relations such as cousins," and only certain vil- 
lages may intermarry with certain villages. The same is the case among the 
Banyang Karens. Here their abnormal matrimonial customs have reduced the 
race to the inhabitants of a single village of six houses, whose residents custom 
compels to contract alliances — apparently with extreme unwillingness, — solely 
among themselves. We shall have to learn a great deal more about the people of 
Karenni before it will be possible to attempt to account for their remarkable 
usages in connection with marriage. 

200. The question of endogamy naturally leads to that of totemism. Sir 
. George Scott says in the Upper Burma Gazetteer : 

"All the Indo-Chinese races have a predilection for 
totemistic birth stories. Some claim to be sprung from eggs, some from dogs, some 
from reptiles." The Was, like a tribe in North-West America cited by Mr. Andrew 
Lang in his Custom and Mythj state that their primaeval ancestors were tadpoles. 
The Palaungs trace their beginnings back to a Naga princess who laid three eggs, 
out of the first of which their early ancestor was hatched. An egg-laying Naga 
princess figures in the early legendary history of the Mons or Talaings and points 
to an affinity between the Palaungs and the Talaings which the most recent 
linguistic research has done much to- strengthen. The totemisp suggested by 
the marriage customs of the Kachins has been adverted to in the preceding 
paragraph. Up to the present time all attempts to ascertain the origin of the 
Kachin family names have failed. The totem of the Kachins should, if anything, 
be a pumpkin, for legend has it that the whole race is descended from a being who 
was made out of a pumpkin. So far as I can discover, however, their belief in this 
singular genesis does not deter Kachins from eating the vegetable to which they 
owe their origin. They do not even appear to be precluded from gathering. it under 
certain circumstances or at a particular period of the year, as is the case with 
some of the western Australian tribes. The Southern Chins on the other hand 
are forbidden to kill or eat- the king-crow which hatched " the original Chin egg." 
The bird is regarded in the light of a parent, but, as it is not used as a crest by 
the Chins, Mr. Houghton is of opinion that it cannot be looked upon as, properly 
speaking, a totem. The rising sun of the Red Karens is something of the nature 
of a totemistic badge. Mr. Smeaton refers to it as follows in his Loyal Karens 
of Burma : — 

" Every Red Karen has a rising sun — the crest of his nobility — tattooed on his back. In 
challenging to combat he does not slap his left folded arm with his right palm, as the rest 
of the Karens and the Burmans do, but, coiling his right arm round his left side, strikes 

34 



1 34 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

the tattoo on his back. This action is supposed by him to rouse the magic power of the 
symbol." 

Sir George Scott, however, seems to detect no totemistic inwardness in this 
tattoo mark, for he sums up the matter under consideration in the following 
words : — 

" Totemism also shows itself in the prescribed form of names for Shan and Kachin 
children and in the changing or concealing of personal names, but, so far as is yet known, 
there is no tribe which habitually takes its family name or has crests and badges taken 
from some natural object, plant or animal, though the limiting of marriages between the 
inhabitants of certain villages only practised both by tribes of Karens and Kachins is no 
doubt the outgrowth of this totem idea." 




I K */ 7 

l^\OS -f. \ 

\ 

\ \ 
CThAUNiGTHAS 

\\ \ 



n 



LOWER BURMA 
Showing 
ISTRIBUTION OF PRINCIPAL 

NON-BURMAN RACES. 



i. 

i 



Qf"0\ OH INS. h 



50 is o 

t-i-rt-i-rm^ 




REFERENCES 

The Chin country. 
The TaUing country. 
The Karen country. 



Scale of wLti 

I 



I0O 



ISO 

I - 



•zoo 

=1 



SELUtftJS \ 

/p 3 a*/ 
f.tr --Y 






6, 5UpI CENSUS 2- *■ -02- 18 IO . 



Pa? 



UPPER BURMA 

Showing 

DISTRIBUTION OF PRINCIPAL RACES 

(non-burman.) 



.- TARCNGS 




ch^nbo'ns yaws 
ch'himes 

VIKD1>S 

taun1stra\s f(; * 



to 



50 
tea. 



Scale of miles. 



ISO 

=1 



REFERENCES. 

The Shan country Sgl 

The Kachin country i 1 

The Chin country 1 1 

The Karen and Taungthu country \ \ 



Nt 6. 3UPI CS.N5US l9-t-oa-l,2iO. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 435 



CHAPTER IX. 



OCCUPATI O N S . * 

20 1. It is generally acknowledged that one of the most laborious tasks to be 
„ , ... - undertaken in a census abstraction office is the 

Subsidiary occupations. ,.• r ,i_ lji t jr..! 

extraction from the schedules or a record of the 
occupations of the population enumerated. The operations at the recent Census 
were no exception to the general rule in this one particular. Imperial Table 
No. XV, dealing with occupations, has been by no means an easy one to compile 
and while slip posting was in progress there were no columns that evoked such a 
tedious array of questions as Nos. 9, 10, and 1 1. This much may be said, however, 
that, when once the questions had been dealt with and the figures had been com- 
piled, it was possible to feel what could not be fully felt in the case of caste, 
language, and birth-place, namely, that the labour spent had not been in vain even 
in the case of the non-indigenous residents of Burma. At the 1891 Census the re- 
cord of occupations was confined to a single column of the schedule in which the 
means of subsistence of both actual workers and dependents figured alike. In 190 1 
three columns were provided for the information required, to enable the means of 
subsistence of those not supporting themselves to be shown separately from that 
of those supporting themselves, and to ensure the entry of any second or 
subsidiary occupation followed by the latter class. At the previous Census the 
only subsidiary occupation to be shown in column 1 1 of the schedule of that 
enumeration was that of "owning or cultivating land." In March 1901 all sub- 
sidiary occupations were entered in column 10. For abstraction purposes it was 
necessary to have on record only those subsidiary occupations which were agri- 
cultural, but on general grounds it was deemed inexpedient to leave it to the 
enumerated or to the enumerator to decide what were and what were not agricul- 
tural avocations. All occupations were accordingly entered and it was left to the 
Abstraction office to select the agricultural from the total of those returned and 
to enter the latter in that portion of Imperial Table No. XV which was designed 
to show what section of the people in addition to the regular agriculturists was 
more or less dependent on the produce of the land and thus likely to be affected 
to a greater or less degree by scarcity. 

202. During the course of abstraction the Census Superintendent of the 

Central Provinces raised the question of the expedi- 

Subsidiary occupations of those ency of recording the subsidiary occupations of those 

cufc™" ° ccupation was agd " whose main occupation was agriculture ; and the 

compilation of a special table showing subsidiary 
occupations combined with selected principal occupations was suggested. It did 
not appear to me that a table of this nature was required in Burma and I expressed 
this view to the Local Government accordingly giving the following reasons for 
my opinion. 

In paragraph 391 of his report Mr. Eales, when touching upon the question of 

subsidiary occupations, says : — 

" In Burma the instructions issued by the Government of India that only one occupa- 
tion was to be returned, except when agriculture was combined with another occupation, 
was strictly carried out. Any attempt to return complex and combined occupations, except 
thus restricted, would have been in Burma an almost endless and useless task. A Burman is 
a jack of all trades and a very large number of them have in their time worked at all sorts 
of employments. In India, where caste restrictions confine the vast majority of the inhabit- 
ants to certain well defined employments such a return would present, comparatively 
speaking, but little difficulty. 

The above goes to the very root of the matter. In giving prominence to 
What I may call the industrial ' versatility of the Burman Mr. Eales merely enun- 
ciates what is a well-known fact to every officer who has had any experience of 
the Province. In India it might no doubt be instructive to learn how many field 
labourers, for instance, were also cart-drivers. There would be some guarantee 



I3 6 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



that the figures would not fluctuate to any very great extent from year to year. 
In Burma, on the other hand, the indigenous field labourer who returned his subsi- 
diary occupation as that of a cart-driver one year might very well give it as that 
of a toddy-tree climber a second and of a fisherman or a sawyer a third. The 
ploughman who during one season spent his spare hours in earning a little money 
by wood-cutting might during another devote them to lime-burning orcutch- 
boiling, and it is clear that for spasmodic workers of this kind figures regarding 
dual occupations would be of no practical utility. I know of no subsidiary occupations 
other than agriculture which would furnish data of any real value for statistical 
purposes. I doubt, for example, whether the number of people who combine 
agriculture with money-lending in Burma is anything very great. There is 
nothing here like the union of the two occupations that is found in India. 
Under the existing system full particulars have been given in Table XV for one 
section of those who pursue both avocations, namely, for those returned as money- 
lenders who are also partially agriculturists, such as Chetties who have obtained a 
decree for and are working their debtors' fields. It is onfy in respect of those 
agriculturists who lend money as a subsidiary occupation that details of their 
second means of support are not shown, and it appears to me questionable whether 
the further data, if compiled, could be put to such use as would justify the labour 
entailed. It appears to me that it would be the same in the case of other occu- 
pations. It is instructive to know and we now do know how many traders, pleaders 
and the like there are in Burma who, in addition to their ordinary business, make 
money out of cultivation, but information as to how many cultivators find time to 
make a little profit by trading is by no means so likely to be of interest. 

203. In 1891 the instructions for filling up column 11, though far more 

detailed than those for filling up any of the other 
ilatiOT Uh ' eS experienced in com ' columns, appear to have been often misinterpreted 

and the expansion of the single column into three 
in 1 901 did little to simplify matters, added to which an unfortunate mistrans- 
lation of some subsidiary instructions regarding the omission of " household " 
workers was the occasion for some further misunderstanding. Errors in the occu- 
pation columns were, however, for the most part patent and capable of imme- 
diate rectification in the Abstraction office. A child of 2 shown in column 9 as a 
practising physician had obviously been wrongly dealt with and there was never 
any hesitation in putting the precocious infant in his proper place. The harm 
dohe was as nothing compared with that caused by the unhappy foreigner shown 
as " Hindu " by caste, as born in " India," and as speaking the " Hindu " lan- 
guage. In themselves the entries in columns 9, 10 and 1 1 presented as a rule no 
special difficulties. Contrasted with the entries in a European Census paper 
they would doubtless have seemed simplicity itself. The following extract from 
an article in The Times published in March 1901 and treating of the then ap- 
proaching English Census gives some idea of the scope for error in tabulation 
afforded by a thoughtless return of occupation in a manufacturing country. 

" The mere tabulation of such a mass of detail would obviously be a work of con- 
siderable magnitude, even if all the descriptions were clear and unambiguous. But this is 
precisely what they are not. The difficulty is twofold. A man engaged in some mechan- 
ical pursuit, say, will naturally describe his occupation by the name under which it is 
known to him and his fellows, without dreaming that the word used maybe a technical one 
which is familar to none except those following the same or closely allied occupations and 
which gives no indication in what broad branch of industry he is to be classed. For in- 
stance, the term " pig-selector " to the initiated might seem to have an agricultural ring 
about it, but as a fact the worker who is entitled to that designation is engaged in the iron 
and steel industry. Again, " biscuit-placers " have nothing to do with baking bread, nor 
have all " saddle-makers " and *' spur-makers" any- connection with the manufacture of 
harness for horses. In many cases the unravelling of these mysteries is mainly a question 
of technical knowledge on the part of the tabulators, and naturally the Census authorities 
have a staff of clerks skilled in such learning who, by the aid of the elaborate glossaries 
that have been drawn up, can classify the strange designations received." 

We have, of course, nothing approaching this complexity of industrial callings 
in Burma and as a rule the returns of occupation were perfectly straightforward 
and intelligible. I may say that in the schedules filled up in the vernacular there 
was -hardly ever room for doubt as to the nature of the occupations shown- It 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 137 

was only when the returns were made in English by an enumerator with an 
indifferent knowledge of the language that the meaning of some of the terms was, 
obscure. " Hunting maistry " for instance was a puzzle for some time. A refer*, 
ence to the enumeration book concerned .showed, however, that it was probably; 
the title given by the enumerator to the headman of a gang of coolies employed 
in keeping the turf of the Rangoon race-course in order. Fortunately, however, 
instances of this kind were rare. Even when the entry in the schedule was 
unambiguous, there was always a danger lest the occupation writer's scanty 
acquaintance with English might lead to a ludicrous error. One prominent 
official who had returned himself as a " Civil Servant " would certainly have found 
his way into sub-order 14 (Personal and domestic service) had not the mistake 
been discovered in time and corrected. Slips of this kind were, however, reduced 
to a minimum by a system of check on the writers' work as it progressed. 

204. The classification of occupations adopted at the 1901 Census corre- 
',._., . sponded in its general outline with that employed at 

Classification of occupations. ., _,• ° ,• rp. . , 1 j- • • 

the preceding enumeration. I he largest subdivision 
was the class, and of classes there were eight, as compared with seven in 1891. 
Class A (Administration), Class B (Pasture and Agriculture), Class. C (Personal 
services), Class D (Preparation and supply of material substances), Class E 
(Commerce, Transp&rt and Storage) and Class F (Professions) all covered the 
same ground as the corresponding classes of the earlier Census. The only change 
introduced was the division of the 1891 Class G (Indefinite and Independent) 
into two classes, namely G (Unskilled labour, not agricultural) and H (Means of 
subsistence independent of occupation). Each class consisted of so many orders, 
each order was split up into so many sub-orders, and each sub-order contained so 
many occupations, to each of which a separate number was allotted. Of orders' 
there were 24, as in 1891, while the total of sub-orders was 78 or one less than the 
total of the " groups" of the preceding enumeration. In all the occupation num- 
bers reached an aggregate of 520, as compared with 479 in 1891. 

205. Imperial Table No. XV is printed in two parts. The first gives the 

Provincial total for actual workers and dependents' 
^Contentsof Imperial Table No. aga i nst eac h D f the 520 occupation numbers in the 

classified list of occupations, first for the Province as 
a whole, including the cities of Rangoon and Mandalay, and next for the two cities 
aforesaid. It also gives in the case both of the Province and of the cities the 
totals of partially agriculturists, males and females, against each one of the 
occupation numbers. The second part exhibits the totals for each district 
in respect of 169 callings selected as being the most representative and important 
in the Province together with the totals by districts for each sub-order, order and 
class in the occupation list. It contains no particulars in regard to partially agri- 
culturists. The entry of data on this latter point is unnecessary in view of the 
fact that the Provincial Tables give the totals of partially agriculturists for each of 
the townships in Burma. No attempt has been made at this Census to show 
occupations by age periods. It is considered that the existing law in regard to. 
the supervision of children in factories has already secured all the ends that the 
exhibition of age periods in the occupation table was intended to further. 

"206. We may now proceed to examine the various classes, orders, sub-orders, 

' . . , „ , &c. as they come, contrasting them, where a con- 

Companson with ,891 totals. ^ . g ^^ ^ the corre sponding figures of 

,1891, In connection with this latter point the following extract from a letter 
written by the Census Commissioner when forwarding the final list of occupations 
Jo Provincial Superintendents will explain how it is that the comparison with the 
returns of the previous Census cannot be fuller. 

" Although the classes, orders and sub-orders have been retained the system now 
adopted for dealing with occupations differs very materially from that employed in the last 
Census. The figures of 189 1 gave merely the population supported by the various occu- 
pations, - males and females were mixed up and no attempt was made to distinguish workers 
Irpnvdep'enderits, Makers and sellers again were shown together and no distinction was 
drawn' between home industries and industries carried on in factories. In view of these 
wide discrepancies of treatment it seems doubtful whether any comparison with the statistics- 
of 189 1 will be possible." - 

35 



*3® REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

The above applies more to the occupations themselves than to the classes, 
orders and sub-orders of which they form the constituent parts. In the following 
remarks where comparisons are drawn they will in the main be between the sub-order 
and order totals for the two enumerations. 

207. The total of sub-order 1 (Civil service of the State) is 69,831 as against 
. class A— Go m 86,887 in 1 891. An examination of these totals side 

by side with the totals for sub-order 4 (Army), which, 
despite the reduction in the regular troops and the Military Police has risen from 
30,828 to 33,146, inclines me to the belief that the 1891 figures for sub-order 1 
included a number of Military Police. I can account in no other way for the de- 
crease. Sub-order 2 (Service of Local and Municipal bodies) shows an increase 
from 4,952 to 6,337 an ^ sub-order 3 (Village service) has leapt from 11,733 to 
73. 2 1 3- This latter rise bears eloquent testimony to the extension of the village 
headman system throughout the province during the ten ) r ears that have just 
elapsed. 

Order III, comprising sub-orders 6 and 7, is headed " Service of Native and 
Foreign States " and contains figures in respect of Shan Sawbwas and their 
immediate followers. As the Shan States were barely dealt with in 1891 it is not 
surprising that the total of this order should have risen from. 192 to 8,478. 

In Order II (Defence) of Class A the proportion of actual workers to depend 1 - 
ents (74*35 to 25*65) is unusually high. This is, in view of the foreign composition 
of the military element in the country, natural enough. The indigenous elementis, 
however, so much the more predominant in Class A as a whole that its proportion of 
actual workers is only 39 per cent., which, curiously enough, is lower than that of 
any other of the classes. 

208. The total of Class B (Pasture and Agriculture) is 6,947,945, or 67 per 

Class S-Pasture and agriculture. C ™ L of ^ total population of the province. In 1 89 1 

the corresponding figure was 4,879,490; in other 
words, as my predecessor pointed out, the Pastoral and Agricultural class then com- 
prised 6,41 5 out of every 10,000 persons of both sexes. It will thus be seen that the 
proportion of agriculturists in the wider sense of the term has risen by 285 per 
ten thousand during the past decade. The opening up of the delta districts to the 
foreign and Upper Burma immigrant must be looked upon as part cause of this 
rise, but the main factor in the increase is, no doubt, the inclusion in the operations 
of the political areas in which the agricultural element preponderated. Sub-orders 
8 to 13 inclusive are comprised in Class B. The first of these (stock breeding 
and dealing) shows a general increase in the case of nearly .all occupations. 
Herdsmen and persons supported by herdsmen have risen in number from 22,273 
to 46,463. The 1 89 1 figures were, Mr. Eales implied, smaller than what one would 
have expected had it not been for the fact that herding is pursued more as a. sub- 
sidiary than as a principal occupation, and the rise that has taken place in the past 
10 years calls for no special comment. Elephant catchers are fewer in number than 
.10 years ago. Twelve males and a female have been returned as camel breeders. 
-It is probable that this is an error in classification unless the thirteen individuals 
were immigrants and camel breeding was their last occupation in India. Pig 
breeders are a good deal more numerous than at the last Census. 

Sub-order 9 deals with «the training and care of animals. The only item 
in the sub-order that attracts attention is the large total of 6,4x5 under occupation 
No. 35 (Vermin and animal catchers). Here I think that in a certain number 
of cases the entry of 36 (Rent receivers) has been wrongly read as 35by:the 
tabulators and entered as such in the tabulation sheets. 

209. In all 717,753 persons came into -the landholder and tenant category 
, -, which sub-order. 10 embraces. There were two occu- 
pation heads in this sub-order, namely, ;3'6. '(Rentier 

eeivers) ,and 37 (Rent payers), and of these the former furnished ithe lion's 
"Share of workers. Three^classes, farm- servants, field labourers and taungya. or 
;jhum cultivators, made up the total of 5,739,523 described 1 under sub-order -i'i -as 
■ Agricultural labourers. Subsidiary Table No. IXA appended to this -chapter 
:shows us that this sub-order alone contains 55*38 per cent, or well over halt i& 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 139 

the total population of the province. As in 189 1 the total of farm servants was 
insignificant. The;, great bulk of the agricultural community returned itself as 
cultivators pure and simple (le 16k) for which occupation No. 39 (Field labourers) 
was thought' the '-nearest equivalent. The total returned under this head was 
4,322,1 20. > It must be admitted that the classification of agricultural callings adopt- 
ed was not specially suited to the requirements of the Province. The term 
*' Rent payers " would properly cover the very large class of State land workers in 
Upper Burma who pay rent for their holdings direct to Government, and if it had 
been decided to require all agriculturists in Upper Burma to state whether the 
land they worked was bobabaing or State it might have been possible to secure 
fuller returns for occupation number 36 than were actually obtained. An instruc- 
tion of this nature would, however, have been directly opposed to the : policy of 
dissociating the- Census as far as possible in the minds of the people from 
revenue, collection and it has thus been found necessary to sacrifice a certain 
amount of detail to the susceptibilities of the enumerated. _ It is, moreover, a ques- 
tion whether in a country like Burma the duty of differentiating nicely between the 
various classes of agriculturists is one which need be thrown upon the -Census 
^department. One thing seems, in the light of. the 1891 enumeration, clear enough, 
that is,, that of the total of 286,182 actual workers returned under the head of 
"Rent receivers " only a portion consisted of persons who worked no portion of 
the land -they owned. The total of taungya or .jhum. cultivators and, dependents 
was 1,416,65-1.; In ,1891 the taungya cutters were classed with. market gardeners 
or ^vegetable growers, and -their- precise total is not now ascertainable. ;It,rnustj 
however, have been far below the 190-1 figure. I am led to hold this view because 
an examination of the district -totals showed me that the abstraction staff had 
classified as taungya cutters a number of agriculturists who must in reality have 
cultivated- millet, sesamum and other ya or upland crops in the dry .districts of 
Upper Burma. 

210.. Inconsequence of the classification of taungya cutters adopted in 

. _ , . , . i8qi, the total of growers of special products is far 

Growersof special -products. -' ,, ., *? * ■ ™, .. , 

- - smaller .now than ten years ago. 1 he items under 

this head exhibit no features of special interest. The record of occupations in 

the Shan States has resulted in a. large return of tea growers. In 1891 the total 

of -tea plant ers,>&Ci, was shown with other totals under a head .the bulk of which 

consisted of tobacco, growers, and it ;is impossible now. to gauge the extent of 

the "increase, if, any, under tea cultivation. Sub-order 13 now comprises besides 

agricultural training and supervision, the figures for Forests, so no profitable 

comparison of the sub-order totals of the two : enumerations is practicable. The 

heading, '•' Directors of Agriculture and their, staff " included Superintendents and 

Inspectors of Land Records. Who the .87 persons returned as agricultural 

chemists and experts were is not quite clear. Class B shows a higher percentage 

of dependents than actual workers. The figures are 42*4 for the latter and 57'.^ 

for .the former. In all 99*8 per cent, of the persons represented in this class yvere 

country dwellers. and only o'2 per cent, were enumerated in the two cities of the 

^Province. 

-2i*i, The^total of persons' partially dependent upon agriculture for {their 

living has been returned as 47,524^^ whom 31,648 

Partially.a^r^Itunsts. are ma i es and :IS) 8 7 6 females. The majority of 

thdse'partially agriculturists were enumerated in -rural areas, ithe:total for :the.;twp 
cities df^RangooWand'Mahdalay being 3,507 malesandj^efemales.only,,,. Sub T 
sldiary'TableNoilXBappendedto this chapter, indicates ;what:pro.portion-the.pec- 
sons erf this kind comprised in each of the -eight occupation classes bear -to the>tqtal 
trfthe classv Their- distribution over the districts and townships of the rPrpyincft 
can best be gathered from the Provincial Tables. The <Class-.whioh contains the 
largest percentage, of partially agriculturists is Class A (.Government); with a- 6 per 
cent; "Glass 'D Can claim 1*5 percentiandiClassoEii^ per cent, of workers of this 
kind, but ; in all the Otherclaisses except Class C.rthe proportion is" below one psr 
cent. ' arid ; for 'the whole provirice.is barely one-half per cent., so that one is led to 
the conclusiori-that, "'broadly speakihg,:the partMlyagricultui^:portion^QfiJ^fe.Go.ni? 



1 4° REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

munity is almost a negligeable quantity. The occupations which return the larg- 
est number of partially agricultural folk are cotton weavers (5,566), toddy drawers 
(3,218) and coolies (2,874). 

212. I was at one time not without misgivings lest the total of persons shown 

Cl c -Per onal ' ' n ^ ass as servants should have been unduly swelled 

ass . ersona services. ^ a m ; strans i at i on f the orders to supervisors in re- 
gard to the treatment at the enumeration of women and children whose daily work 
was incidental to domestic routine. The intention was that these household work- 
ers — the mother who cooked for the family, the daughter who husked paddy for its 
consumption — should not be shown as actual workers, but as dependents, but, 
through a misconception in the Government Translator's office, the Burmese ver- 
sion of the orders conveyed the contrary impression. The slip was discovered be- 
fore the final enumeration, but so shortly before that it was not always possible to- 
take action on the corrigendum issued and there were in consequence a large num- 
ber of persons shown as cooks, water carriers, and the like who should properly have/ 
been returned as dependents. As I have explained in an earlier paragraph, im- 
proper entries of this nature which bore on their face obvious evidence of error were 
dealt with in the Abstraction office with the result that the aggregate of sub-order 
14 (Personal and domestic service) though a good deal higher than in 1891 (89,766 
against 50,240 persons) shows no signs of any abnormal inflation. The next 
sub-order (15, Non-domestic entertainment) shows alarge total under the head of 
refreshment-room keepers, which title covers the proprietors, &c, of the numer- 
ous eating-houses that have been established in all the larger centres of popu- 
lation. The highest figure in sub-order 16 (Sanitation) is under No. 74, Sweepers 
and Scavengers. Here the total is much the same as in 1891. : 

In view of the large number of natives of India in Class C it is not surprising 
that the percentage of actual workers is large and that of dependents comparaT 
tively insignificant {66 6 and 333). ; 

213. Class D, which deals with the preparation and supply of material sub- 

stances naturally presents the longest list of occu- 

of LTteriaTs P uEcis°. n ^^ P ations : ^ contai " s * ' orders and 37 sub-orders, and 

its total of 1,923,084 actual workers and dependents 
comprises practically the whole of the artizan section of the population, which 
may thus roughly be said to form i8'5 per cent, of the community. Those callings 
that are connected with the provision and preparation of food, drink and stimu- 
lants are covered by the first three sub-orders (Order VII). Into this category 
come fishermen, with a total of 126,651 workers and dependents, fish dealers 

' or&r VU.-F006, drink and ™ th 77,*54 and &™ a " d V^e dealers with 78,489. 
stimulauts. Klce pounders and huskers number in all 50,039. 

It is possible that some of these are domestic workers 
who do not pound for hire, but the fact that there was no special head for this 
occupation in the 1891 table renders criticism of the total a matter of some 
difficulty. A substantial item in the second of the sub-orders concerned is the 
total of 47,191 under the head "Rice-mills, operatives and other subordinates." 
As is to be expected the total of dependents in this last calling (8,863) is 
comparatively insignificant. The bulk of the workers in the rice-mills of the 
Province are temporary male immigrants from India who come to Burma unen- 
cumbered by their families. Toddy drawers (workers and dependents) number 
in all 70,918, of whom 21,725 are male workers. Toddy sellers, on the other 
hand, show an aggregate of 3,167 only and the total of the two occupations 
together is below the 1891 figure of 82,755. It is much the same with the makers, 
of sugar, molasses and gur by hand ; there is a decrease on the figures of the, 
preceding Census (19,487 against 20,855) and the return are not without indica- 
tions of a falling off in the toddy and jaggery industry. It is possible that th<? 
depression is temporary only. 

214. Order VIII of Class D is concerned with lighting, firing and forage, 

Order VIIL- Lighting, firing The last ten years have seen a substantial advance in 

and forage. tne exploitation of the petroleum area in Upper Burma 

. and the total of 3,330 which, for want of a better 

classification, has been placed under the head " Petroleum Refineries, workmen and 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 1 4 I 

other subordinates," represents the bulk of the population who are supported by 
the extraction and refining of- the crude earth oil of the Province; The 4,044. 
petroleum and kerosene oil dealers (with their dependents) shown under the next 
succeeding head are concerned on the other hand with the refined Russian and 
American petroleum so largely used by all classes in Burma. Sub-order 21 deals 
with fuel and forage. 

215. Order IX deals with buildings and the two sub-orders it embraces are. 
Order /X-Buildings. J 1 ^ ." 22 > Building materials," and "23, Artificers 

in building. In Burma mat and thatch are the pre- 
vailing building materials and the most strongly represented occupation in this 
order is that of thatcher, which maintains 30,645 workers and dependents. Thatch 
dealers number 3,301 and the two occupations combined are the means of sup- 
port of 5,961 more persons than at the Census of 1891. 

216. Order X, which is devoted to the occupation's relating to the manufac- 
x — v vi d ture °^ veh ' c ^ es arm vessels, claims the comparatively 

■ 4 ,ses. sma ]j tota i f 1^019 actual workers and dependents. 

It remains numerically at about the same level as at the last enumeration. A notice- 
able fact, however, is that, while cart makers and the like are more numerous now 
than ten years ago, the total of boat and canoe makers has fallen. Improvement 
in land communications explains the former increase no doubt ; but the causes of 
the diminution in the boat-building business remain somewhat obscure. 

217. Supplementary requirements, details of which are given in Order XI, 
„ , rrr „ , consist of a large variety of callings providing a living 

Order ^/.—Supplementary re- t i j - o x 11 t u 

quirements. * or J 4> 13 4 male and 5,983 female workers, or whom 

nearly 30 per cent, labour in cities. In this order are 
found the paper makers, the wood carvers, the lacquerers, the toy makers and the 
cutlers of Burma. A rough paper used for wrappers, umbrellas and the like is 
made in Mongnai and elsewhere in the Shan States. A description of its manu- 
facture is given at page 427 of the second volume of Part II of the Upper Burma 
Gazetteer. Lacquerwork was the means of support of 14,274 persons of both 
sexes. Of these 4,277 males and '2,072 females were actual workers and of the 
actual workers 1,426 males and 1,294 females came from the Myingyan district, 
the headquarters of the lacquerwork industry. The article on this district in the 
Upper Burma Gazetteer contains an account of the processes followed by lac- 
querers in their work. Wood carvers abound in Mandalay and Rangoon. Ivory 
carving flourishes most in Moulmein. Nearly all the 25 actual workers shown 
under this latter occupation were enumerated in the Amherst district. A useful 
monograph on the ivory-carving industry of the Province has been written by Mr. 
H. S. Pratt. 

2 18. Textile fabrics and dress form the items of Order XII of Class D. Three 

occupations stand out with prominence in this order, 
Order jW— Textile fabrics and narn ely, those of silk weavers, cotton weavers and 

cotton spinners. In all three the female actual workers 
exceed the male in number. In all 136,628 women and girls returned themselves as 
cotton weavers at the Census. The corresponding total in 1891 cannot now be 
ascertained, as mill owners and managers were then included under the same head 
as workers by hand, but it seems probable that the total of females who gave 
cotton weaving as their occupation was somewhat lower on the 1st March 1901 
than it had been ten years before. There can hardly be any question, I think, 
that the figure returned at the recent Census represents a portion only of the 
female population who were in the habit of weaving cotton cloths, but the line 
between the weaver who weaves for a living and the weaver who produces no- 
thing more than a sufficiency of coarse cloth for home consumption is as a rule 
so shadowy and indefinite that considerable divergencies in the returns for the two 
enumerations must be allowed for. Mr. G. F. Arnold is the author of a mono- 
graph on the cotton fabrics and the cotton industry of Burma, as Mr. J. P. Hardi- 
man is of a note on silk in Burma. Silk weaving is by no means so universal or 
so domestic, an occupation as cotton weaving. It flourishes most in Prome 
Mandalay and Tavoy. Silk weavers were in the 1901 occupation list lumped 

36 



1 4 2 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

together with silk carders and spinners and makers of silk braid and thread, but the 
great bulk of the 5,973 males and 18,316 females returned under the occupation 
number concerned were undoubtedly engaged in weaving. Judged by a compari- 
son with the 1891 figures (so far as such comparison is possible) the silk-wearing 
industry would seem to be making headway in Burma. Owing to the large pro- 
portion of female weavers the percentage of actual workers in Order XII (71* 74) 
js more than ordinarily high. 

219. Workers and dealers in gold, silver and precious stones and their depend- 
n , vrrT „ , „ ents constitute nearly half of the total returned under 

cioustton^ Pre " Order XIII. Taking dependents and their supporters 

together there were 42,112 workers and 1 1 ,806 dealers 
in Burma on the date of the Census, while the total of the whole order was only 
94,723. In 1891 the population concerned with precious metals and jewels 
was spread over a far larger number of heads than in 1901, so that a detailed con- 
trast of occupations is of no particular value, but there is an increase from 36,453 
to 56,400 in the sub-order concerned (No. 43) which is ample proof of the fact 
that the demand for luxuries of the nature in question is not in any way diminish- 
ing in the province. Mr. H. L. Tilly has written on the brass and copper wares 
of Burma. Table XV tells us that 4,076 persons of both sexes were artizans in 
brass and copper or were supported by brass and copper workers. As Mr. Tilly 
observes, the Burmese do not use copper utensils for cooking and practically the 
whole of the population returned under occupation No. 322 were brass workers. 
Experts in tin, zinc, quicksilver and lead numbered in all 5,135 actual workers and 
dependents. This total included the tin miners of Mergui no less than the kalai 
■walas of the industrial centres. Of non-precious metals iron claimed the largest 
number of artizans. There were 9,580 males and 1 ,oi 7 females who returned them- 
selves as actually employed in working in iron and hardware on the 1st March 
1901. 

220. The only occupation that is deserving of special comment in Order 
n , „ r „ „, , , XIV is that of the potter. The ordinary rough pot- 

Order XI V.— Glass, earthen and . <■ ,, • 1,1 j ' t * 

stoneware. tery of the province is well known and as the greater 

part of the indigenous cooking of Burma is done in 
earthen receptacles, the potter is ubiquitous. The actual workers and dependents 
connected with the production of pottery (occupation numbers 334, 335 and 336) 
numbered in all 19,800. or 0*19 per cent, of th!e total population of the Province. 
Considering the extensive use of earthenware the total would seem unduly small. 
It must be borne in mind, however, that pot-making is often a subsidiary occupa- 
tion combined with agriculture, and further that a good many of the persons 
returned as brick-makers were also potters. The earthenware of the province 
has usually no pretensions to beauty of form. Here and there, however (as for 
instance in Pyinmana, Myinmuand Kyaukmyaung), glazed pottery is made which 
is not without artistic merit both in the matter of shape and of colour. Pot-mak- 
ing is essentially a rural avocation. Less than 2 per cent, of the actual workers 
in earthen and stoneware pursued their calling in the cities of Rangoon and Man- 
dalay. 

221. Timber is so important a produce of the country and wood so popular a 
o j v -,7 ™, j , material for building purposes that those who have 

Order XV. — Wood, canes and , .. . , j 1: 

leaves. dealings with wood are naturally numerous. 

Nearly every large village has its saw-pit or two, the 
saw-mills of Rangoon and Moulmein employ a host of workmen, while the timber 
and bamboo rafts form a feature of all the principal waterways at most seasons 
of the year. Wood and bamboos (sub-order 49) supported 159,276 souls or rather 
over 1 '5 per cent, of the total population whose occupations have been returned. 
Connected with the above occupations is that of mat making, which found employ- 
mentfor 16,001 male and 12,692 female actual workers on the 1st March 1901. 

222. There is little requiring detailed comment in Order XVI, which gives 

particulars regarding those who were concerned with 

Order XVI.— Drugs, gums and drugs, gums and dyes. Cutch is the mosj important 

" es ' of the products dealt with in this order. Catechu 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 143 

preparers numbered 1,294 workers, catechu sellers 589, while under cutch factories 
total of 20 males and females where shown. Nearly all. the districts of the dry 
zone of Upper Burma return a substantial number of cutch-boilers and Thayetmyo 
and Prome in Lower Burma also furnish a share of the total. The local drug- 
gist squatted behind his array of simples is a well-known figure in every Burman 
bazaar. Chemists and druggists give a total of 98 male and 44 female workers 
only. The bulk of the village pharmacists come under the more comprehensive 
term of " persons occupied with miscellaneous drugs " (4,635 workers and depend- 
ents). Dyeing is largely a subsidiary occupation in Burma and it is probable 
that the figures under " Dye-works " and " Persons occupied with miscellaneous 
dyes " are but a fraction of the total population engaged in the dyeing industry, 
which Mr. J. D. Fraser has fully described in a monograph published in "May 1896. 

223. Shoe-makers (2,602 male and 538 female workers) form the bulk of the 
Order ^//.-Leather. population concerned with the preparation and manipu- 
lation 01 leather. 1 he fcsurman-sandal has compara- 
tively little leather in its composition, and an attempt was made in abstraction to 
discriminate between the makers of indigenous foot gear of this kind, who are 
ordinarily Burmans, and the makers of leather shoes, the majority of whom are 
Chinamen or Natives of India. The former were returned under occupation 
number 305 (makers of shoes not leather) and totalled 12,864 workers and 
dependents, the latter under number 387 and gave an aggregate of 5,635 of all 
classes supported directly and indirectly by the industry. I think that these two 
totals represent approximately the strength of the home and the foreign branches 
of the shoe-making craft. The total of the two occupations combined is very 
much the same as the figure returned in 1891 under the head "shoe, sandal and 
boot-makers and sellers" (17,588). 

224. Of the total population of the Province whose occupations wererecord- 

ed, 449,955 or 4-34 per cent, were engaged in or were 

Class E.— Commerce, transport j „ „j/_l ' _ j ■ ,1 . , 

and storage. dependent upon persons engaged in the commercial 

callings detailed in Class E. In all 81*84 per cent, 
of the total workers in this class were enumerated in rural areas and 18*15 P er 
cent, in the two cities of the Province. 

225. In Order XVIII (Commerce), one of the points that arrests atten- 

„ , „,,„, ,. tion is the comparatively large number of females who 

Order XVIII. — Commerce. , l • J a • , . , , 

are shown as pursuing commercial avocations. In the 
case of sub-orders 54, 55 and 56 (" Money and securities," " General merchandise " 
and " Dealing unspecified ") the total of male actual workers is 60,938 and that 
of female actual workers 35,538 or rather more than half, and the details under 
female money-lenders, money-changers, bill-collectors, general merchants and 
shopkeepers disclose a state of things that probably finds no counterpart in the 
rest of India. The figures in this order give, in a word, an almost startling insight 
into the position that the energy and capacity of the Burman woman have won for 
her in the social economy of the country. Even in sub-order 57 (Middlemen, brokers 
and agents) the female element asserts itself. It is possible that some of the 
female brokers and contractors shown as actual workers in the columns of Table 
XV may not have been entitled, strictly speaking, to the denomination, but those 
who know the Province will be ready to admit that the figures give by no means 
an unreal picture of the part played by woman in Burma in the business transac- 
tions of the country. 

226. Order XIX deals with transport and storage. The details of the first 

Order ^.-Transport and sub-order of this order (58, Railway) are interesting in 
storage. s0 iaT as they are a measure of the growth of railway 

communications during the past decade. In 1891 
the total of actual workers and dependents under all Railway heads was 8,976 
only. At the 1901 Census the corresponding figure was 11,594. The increase 
is fully accounted for by the construction of the Sagaing-Myitkyina, the Sagaing- 
Alon, the Thazi-Myingyan and the Northern Shan States lines, all of which have 
come into existence within the past ten years. Sub-orders 59 (Road transport) and 
60 (Water transport) contain two large items, namely, cart-owners and drivers 



1 44 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

71,676 workers and dependents, and boat and barge men, 88,415 workers and 
dependents. I have adverted, in the paragraph dealing with Order X, to the increase 
in cart building during the past ten years and to the apparent decline in the boat- 
building industry. The probability that improved land communications will tend to 
the partial supersession of boat by land carriage seems hinted at by the figures for 
transport ; for whereas land transport now supports 79,306 workers and dependents 
against 59,549 so supported in 189 1, water transport finds occupation for 1 13,941, 
or less than a thousand persons only more than ten years ago. The growth of the 
two main classes of transport has been by no means equal. The totals for the last 
two sub-orders of Order XIX, which contain figures for Post Office, Telegraphs 
and Storage and Weighing, have nothing suggestive to show. Nearly 70 per cent, 
of the actual workers in the last sub-order (62) were enumerated in the cities of 
Burma. With the exception of sub-order 28 (Books and Prints) this is the highest 
proportion of urban workers in any of the sub-orders. 

227. The professional section of the population of Burma numbered 264,047 
Class F —Professions workers and dependents, a figure which represents 2*54 

per cent, of the total population whose occupations 
were recorded on the schedules. In Class F the actual workers are slightly in excess 
of the dependents, a state of things which seems somewhat peculiar when it is borne 
in mind that the number of professional females is comparatively small and that 
the Indian element does not enter much into the composition of the professional 
classes. Space forbids me to dwell at any length on the professions followed by 
the people of the country except two, tattooing and midwifery, callings which, at 
the suggestion of the Census Commissioner, have been dealt with rather more 
fully than the rest. 

228. The first of the learned professions, the religious, is strongly represented 

Learned professions. in Bu ™a. The total of 75,365 male actual workers 

shown under the head " Religious mendicants, inmates 
of monasteries, convents, &c," represents generally the strength of the indigenous 
Buddhist priesthood. No attempt was made at the recent Census to discriminate 
between Pdvgyis, Upazins and Koyins, and scholars now figure wholly in the 
dependents' column instead of having a separate occupation number assigned to 
them so that detailed comparison of the items of which sub-order 63 is made up 
is of no particular value, but the total of the sub-order gives no indication of any 
diminution during the past decade in the strength of the religious orders of the 
Province. Education too (sub-order 64) exhibits a higher aggregate than it did 
ten years ago. Literature (sub-order 65) shows a rather large total under the 
head "writers (unspecified)." This represents the sum of persons entered as 
" Clerks " whom it was found impossible to assign to one or other of the many 
clerical heads under Administration, Commerce and the like. Law (sub-order 66) 
exhibits a very considerable increase on the 1891 figures. The latter aggregated 
4,279. The 1 90 1 total was 7,507. Barristers and Advocates have risen in number 
since the last enumeration, but the principal growth is in the total of lawyers' 
clerks and petition-writers with their dependents. Sub-order 67, dealing with 
medicine, similarly shows an increase on the figures of the previous Census. The 
total of practitioners without diploma — the class in whose hands the care of the 
bodies of the bulk of the people of the Province still unfortunately rests — has risen 
from 37,276 actual workers and dependents to 43,252. 

229. A total of 1,942 females returned themselves as midwives at the 

. enumeration. In 1891 the total number of persons 

' dependent on midwifery was 819. The sex and age 

figures show that of these the actual number of persons actually following the 
calling of a midwife must have been less than 500. There can be little doubt that 
a large proportion of the women who made a practice of attending at child-births 
must have then been returned under some other head of occupation. This fact in 
itself is indicative of the haphazard, amateurish view taken by the people of the 
country of the profession upon which such important issues hang. Not only is 
it ordinarily combined with some other occupation, but in the majority of cases it 
has occupied so subordinate a position as^to have been not thought worth 
recording. 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 1 45 

It. has long been welhknown that the obstetric methods obtaining in Burma 
were deplorable., The following cextracts from^a note on Burmese, midwifery 
which Dr.T. F. Pedley of Rangoon has kindly placed at my disposal gives a 
very clear idea of .their barbarity. Dr. Pedley's knowledge of this branch of 
therapeutics in Burma is probably -unique : — 

The Burmese have, according to western notions, extraordinary ways of treating their 
women at the time of child-birth. It is unnecessary here to describe in detail what really 
takes place upon these occasions, but it may at once be said that it would be difficult for 
blind ignorance and superstition to devise a more miserably cruel system of interference 
with the ordinary course of nature at a time when unnecessary interference is fraught 
with peril to human life. These methods are so frequently followed by disastrous con- 
sequences to either or both mother and child, that they are regarded with astonishment 
•by European practitioners of medicine." 

The indigenous midwives come from the lowest and poorest class, their chief title .to 
practice usually being that they are old women who have themselves passed several times 
through the dreadful perils which their system entails. While the calling of a midwife is 
regarded as menial and defiling, her assistance is believed to be absolutely necessary, and 
she is better paid than in many parts of India. 

A woman expecting to be confined lays in a large store of fire-wood, one or two- 
hundred-weight. A shallow box, four or five feet long by three or four wide, is placed in 
the lying-in room. This is filled with sand or earth and formed into a kind of hearth upon 
which a fire is made ; the heat and smoke render the air of the apartment stifling, for no exit 
is provided for the smoke. The choice of the lying-in room is not influenced by any regard 
to its sanitary surroundings. Etiquette forbids that a woman, especially at this time, 
should lie in- an upper room, even if one is available, because she might be upon a higher 
level or above the heads of. men entering the house. The darkest, dirtiest and worst 
ventilated, a place hardly fit for a. dog to lie in, is usually chosen and that by the patient 
and her female relatives. 

The great object of the midwife is to expedite the birth ; for this purpose firm pressure 
is constantly made- by two or three women with their hands upon the abdomen. Very 
.often it is used long before it can have the desired effect of expelling the child. Often the 
pressure is very severe and sometimes the midwife kneels or stands upon the abdomen, and 
even more outrageous means are not unfrequently resorted to. 

After the birth the mother is placed as close as possible to the fire, and hot bricks or 
stones wrapped in rags are applied to the abdomen and other parts, as hot as they can be 
borne ; often the skin is blistered thereby. She is rubbed all over with turmeric and is 
given hot water to drink ; she has to smell little bags of crushed herbs, or plugs of betel 
leaves are pushed into her nostrils. A tent of thick calico is hung like a mosquito net 
.over the mat on which she lies, and she must remain inside this day and night except on 
occasions when two or three times a day she is taken out and made to sit near the fire or 
over smouldering embers on which turmeric is thrown, or over steam from hot bricks. Her 
diet meanwhile consists of dried salt-fish and boiled rice, with hot water only to drink. 

In health the Burmese woman is usually cleanly and when water is available bathes 
frequently, but at this time and in times of illness she is not allowed to touch water for 
purposes of ablution. If she becomes feverish or otherwise ill from the treatment or sur- 
roundings she is not washed perhaps for a month, and the bodily uncleanliness becomes 
indescribable. 

According to the Burmese notions the odour of cooking food or the smell of burning 
oil in which much of their food is cooked, is a pernicious poison to a sick person, a lying-in 
mother or a new-born child, and every precaution is taken to prevent the access of such 
odours by shutting the invalids under the tents before described. 

On or about the eighth day the .mother is taken from her over-heated tent-bed and well 
bathed in the open air with plenty of cold water. If she has escaped other ill effects of 
the treatment this proceeding often gives rise to a chill to be followed by lung or 
other troubles. 

Immediately after birth, the child is well bathed with cold water, its limbs are pulled 
about with the idea of straightening them. Turmeric is placed upon and around the rem- 
nant of the umbilical cord. It is almost stifled by cloths thrown over its face for the pur- 
pose of excluding the pernicious ".cooking smell." It is for three days dosed with honey 
and water, and not put to the breast. This custom often causes the mother much unneces- 
sary suffering from accumulation of the milk. 

It is the earnest hope of the educated of all nationalities in Rangoon and larger towns 
that the training of midwives should be vigorously pushed on, for it is fully recognized by 
the benevolent public that in this direction lies the only remedy for the great mortality and 
untold suffering among child-bearing women of this country. 

37 



146 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 



230. The artistic professions are comprised in sub-orders 70 and 71. The 
. stage was the means of support of 17,981 persons in all, 
ic profession ^ e eX p ress ; on COV ering not only actors themselves, but 

the members of the orchestras which accompany the strolling troupes through the 
country. The total of these bandsmen remains at practically the same level as in 
•1 89 1. That of actors has risen from 5,259 workers and dependents to 8,582, but 
the 1 89 1 figures comprise the totals for exhibitors of puppets who were shown to 
the extent of 4,517 under a separate head in 1891. Painters with their dependents 
have fallen in number from 5,701 to 4,637 and sculptors, i.e., the makers of stone 
and marble images of Gaudama, from 1,940 to 792. 

231. Professional tattooers numbered 986 actual male workers. In the ori- 
„, ginal list of occupations circulated by the Census Com- 

Tattooers. b ■ ■ r • , •■ j f , « , 

missioner no special provision was made tor tattooers. 
The professors of this branch of the pictorial art are, however, so numerous in 
Burma that I recommended their being specifically shown, and in his revised list 
the Census Commissioner arranged for their entry under a separate number. Near- 
ly every Burman male is tattooed from the knee to waist. The practice is un- 
doubtedly one of long standing. It is possibly of Polynesian origin. Both the Sa- 
moans and the Kyans, a tribe closely allied to the Dyaks of Borneo, are said to deco- 
rate this portion of the body. An account of the River Barram given in the Journal 
of the Indian Archipelago (Singapore, 185 1), describe the women of the Kyans as 
being so adorned. In Burma the ornamentation is effected by means of a black 
pigment. The pattern, which is continuous, consists of animals, cats, monkeys, 
chinthes, and the like, each figure being separated from the surrounding figures by 
dotted tracery. This tattooing of the waist and adjoining members may be said 
to be considered indispensable as a sign of manhood among the Burmans and is 
usually effected shortly before or after the temporary assumption of the yellow robe. 
In other portions of the body the colour employed is ordinarily red, the designs 
(single figures enclosed within a dotted border) are isolated and ordinarily have 
a particular significance. Thus a quail, a parrot, or a cat tattooed in red on one 
side of the neck below the chin is reputed to act as a love charm ; a galon on the 
back of the hand renders, or should render, the bite of a poisonous snake innocuous ; 
a quail on the ankle is believed to have the same desirable effect. A cat on the 
forearm will protect the person decorated from hurt from sword, spear or gun, 
while the proper design on the biceps brings with it the convenient power of dis- 
appearing at will. Other charms are referred to in Chapter X of Part I of the 
Upper Burma Gazetteer. Under the Burmese regime tattoo marks were among the 
insignia of office. I have procured copies of a few of the designs so employed. A 
to or dragon on the knuckles of the right hand was the ordinary mark of the pri- 
vates of the various infantry regiments ; cavalry troopers had cantering horses tat- 
tooed on their stomachs above the navel. The name of the regiment appears to 
have also been tattooed on to the body. Burmese women are not, as a rule, tat- 
tooed, though occasionally an eligible spinster will have a parrot done in red on 
her lower jaw if amorously inclined. The Aarkanese do not tattoo. Tattooing is 
common among several of the non-Burman races. With theShans the portion of 
the body covered with black tattooing is even larger than with the Burmans. The 
Karens do not, as a rule, tattoo their thighs, but among the Red Karens every male 
had up till recent years a rising sun tattooed in red on the small of his back, while 
the Loilong Karen men ornament their chins with two black squares. The Chins 
of the Chin Hills proper do not tattoo. In the country of the Southern Chins, 
however, all the women have their faces tattooed, and in many cases a female's 
personal charms are gauged by her tattooing. Among the Chinboks the women's 
Ibreasts are surrounded by a circle of dots. The men in these regions are not tat- 
tooed at all. The Chins of Northern Arakan also tattoo their women's faces and 
the same custom orevailed up to a recent date among the Kadus of the Katha 
district, who have otner points of similarity with the Southern Chins. It has been 
generally believed in the past that this tattooing of the fair sex was originally de- 
signed to make the women less attractive to raiders who might otherwise feel in- 
clined to take them away from their homes for purposes of concubinage. Major 
Hughes does not, however, in his Hill Tracts of Arakan favour this theory. 



RBFORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 147 

According' to this latter authority the Mros of the Hill Tracts occasionally tattoo 
a. small mark or star on the cheek, forehead or breast, " with which they associate 
fecundity and various domestic virtues." Among the Kachins it appears to have 
been formerly the custom for the women to have a succession of rings tattoed on 
their legs between the ankle and the knee. The instrument used for tattooing is 
described by Mr. Ferrars in his Burma as having " a handle weighted at the butt 
and a long point of bronze, split like a ruling pen." The two-pronged instrument 
(hnttkwasok) appears to be the one ordinarily used, but reference is made in Jud- 
son's Dictionary to an eight-pronged tattooing iron (shithkwazok) with which ap- 
parently work proceeds more rapidly. No special diet is prescribed for the person 
to be operated upon, but, while tattooing is in progress, he is drugged with opium. 
The operator is always of the male sex. The 46 females returned as actual workers 
at the 1 90 1 enumeration were probably merely their husbands'assistants. There 
are indications that the practice of tattooing is dying out among the Burmans. 
It is not now so frequently resorted to as in former days. 

232. Class G embraces all non-agricultural occupations that require no 

special training or skill. It has been allotted only ten 

Clase G.— Unskilled labour not occupa ti n numbers, but these include avocations as 
agricultural. ,. r . r .' . ,. . . 

diverse as those or the tank-digger and the prostitute, 

and are represented by atotal of 441,012 workers and dependents or 4*25 per cent, 
of the total population enumerated on the standard form of schedule. Its two 
orders are XXII, "Earthwork and general labour," and XXIII, " Indefinite and 
disreputable." We may, perhaps, congratulate ourselves on the fact that of these 
the second is numerically insignificant. Order XXII contains the bulk of the class 
' G entries and the greater part of its representatives (392,654 workers and depend- 
ents) are found under the head " 504, General labour," a term which comprised 
practically the whole of the class who returned themselves at the enumeration as 
coolies. The figure fs higher than that returned under the corresponding head at 
the 1 891 Census (227,628) but it would be unsafe to draw any conclusions of a 
general nature from this increase. 

233. The last of the occupation classes (Class H) covers much the same 

ground as the latter half of Class G of 1891. To it 

Class H.— Means of subsistence De i 0n g beggars, pensioners, prisoners and the like who 
independent of occupation. ,=> j ' r i -, r ,i c , , • . • 

are dependent upon chanty, the otate or private in- 
come other than that derived from land. In Burma this class is naturally small. 
Were it not for the non-religious mendicants who subsist on alms and the convict 
population, its aggregate would be below ten thousand. As it is the 22,433 beg- 
gars, returned under number 513 "Mendicancy, not in connection with a reli- 
gious order " and the 1 1,057 persons shown as " Prisoners convicted or in reforma- 
tories " raise the total to 41,522, or 0^40 per cent, of the population whose callings 
were recorded. The jail population returned at the 1901 Census, including pri- 
soners under-trial and prisoners for debt, is 1 1,322. This is much the same as the 
1891 aggregate but is somewhat below what, according to the departmental figures, 
it should have been. It is probable that a portion of the jail population was returned 
under its previous occupations or as warders or the like and thus escaped being 
shown under occupation number 520. 



148 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table IX-A. 



General distribution by 


occupation. 


' 


' 


■■:.'. i.% 


Class, order and sub-order. 


Percentage on 
total popula- 
tion. 


Percentage in 

each order and 

sub-order of 


.Percentage of 

actual workers 

employed 




Persons 
supported. 


Actual 
workers. 


Actual 
workers. 


Depend- 
ents. 


In 
cities. 


In rural 
areas. "• 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


I. — Administration. 


1 '4 


0-4 


32-52 


67-47 


I3-93 


86-o6 


1. Civil Service of the State 

2. Service of local bodies 

3. Village service 


0-7 
0-7 


D"2 

0*2 


37-86 
49-26 
25-98 


62-13 " 

5°73 
74-01 


I9- C 9 

45-41 

i"6o 


8090 
54-58 
9839 


II. — Defence. 


0-32 


C24 


74-35 


2565 


29-34 


70-65 


4. Army 

5. Navy and Marine ... ... ... 


0-31 
o'ol 


0'23 
O'OI 


74'37 
73'57 


2562 
26*42 


28-94 
46-56 


71-05 
53-43 


III. — Service of Native and Foreign 
States. 


0-08 


0'02 


28-11 


71-89 


3-06 


9693 


6. Civil officers ... .... 

7. Military 


0-08 


O - 02 


2 7-75 
.75'°° 


72-24 
25-00 


171 
68-75 


98-28 
3125 


Total Class A, Government. 


i-85 


073 


39-78 


60-21 


18-70 


81-29 


IV. — Provision, &c, of Animals. 


° - 93 


C56 


60'22 


3978 


3-10 


•96-90 


8. Stock-breeding, 8c c. 

9. Training, &o, of animals 


o-86 
0-07 


° - 53 
0-03 


6r52 

44-82 


38-47 
55-17 


3*oo 
4-70 


9699 
95-29 


V. — Agriculture. 


66 - io 


27-87 


42-17 


57-82 


0-18 


99'8i 


10. Landholders and tenants 

11. Agricultural labourers 

12. Growers of special products 

13. Agricultural training, &c. 


6*92 

5o38 

372 

0-07 


2-78 

2320 

r8 5 

0-03 


40-20 
41-90 

4977 
42-26 


59-78 
58-09 
50-22 

57-73 


- 22 

0-14 

052 
7*oi 


99-77 
99-85 
99-47 
92-98 


Total Class B, Pasture and Agricul- 
ture. 


6704 


28-44 


42-42 


57'57 


0'22 


9975 


VI.— Personal Services. 


Too 


067 


66-69 


33-3° 


34-50 


65M9 


14. Personal and domestic 

15. Non-domestic entertainment 

16. Sanitation ... 


o-86 
0-59 
0"04 


o-5 
C04 

0'02 


68-70 

51-34 
60*92 


31-29 
48-65 
39-07 


2265 
2887 
34-54 


77'34 
71-12 

65-45 


Total Class C, Personal Service. 


I "00 


0-67 


66-69 


33'3o 


34-50 


65-49 


VII. — Food, Drink, and Stimulants. 


9'52 


501 


52-64 


47-35 


836 


91-63 


17. Provision of animal food 

18. Provision of vegetable food 

19. Drink, condiments, &c. 


2"l6 
5'20 

2-08 


I'OI 

303 

0-96 


46-76 
57-57 
46-31 


5323 
42-42 
53-68 


5-12' 

12-88 
7-58 


94-87 
87-11 
92-41 


VIII. — Lighting, Firing and Forage. 


0-32 


0-17 


53'i9 


46-80 


11-96 


88-03 


20. Lighting 

21. Fuel and forage 


o'cg 

0*22 


0-05 

- II 


5628 
51-97 


4371 
48*02 


I TOO 

12-37 


8899 
8762 


IX.— Buildings. 


0-58 


0-32 


55'8o 


44-19 


8-gl 


91-08 


22. Building materials 

23. Artificers in building 


0-14 
0-44 


008 
0*24 


56-6i 
55-54 


43-38 
4445 


6-44 
9-75 


93 - 55 
90-24 


X. — Vehicles and Vessels. 


O'l 


... 


42-4 


57'5 


1 5-2 


847 


24. Railway, &c, plant 

25. Carts, carriages, &c. 

26. Ships and boats ... ... 


... 


... 


36-6 
45o 
39-7 


63-3 

549 
60-2 


ai'o 
15-2 
15-5 


78-9 
84-7 
84-4 



Report on the census op burma. 
Subsidiary Table IX-A. 



149 



General distribution by occupation — continued. 



Class, order and sub-order. 



Percentage on 
total popula- 
TION. 



Persons 
supported. 



Actual 
workers. 



Percentage in 
each order and 
sob-order of 



Actual 
workers. 



Depend- 
ents. 



__XI. — Supplementary Requirements. 

37. Paper 

28. Books and prints ... 

29. Watches, clocks, &c 

30. Carving and engraving 

31. Toys and curiosities 

32. Music and musical instruments 

33. Bangles, necklaces, &c. ... 

34. Furniture 

35. Harness 

36. Tools and machinery 

37. Arms and ammunition 

XII. — Textile Fabrics and Dress. 

38. Wool and fur 

39. Silk 

40. Cotton 

41. Jute, hemp, &c ... 

42. Dress 

XIII. — Metals and Precious Stones. 

43. Gold, silver, and precious stones 

44. Brass, copper, &c. ... 

45. Tin, zinc, &c. 

46. Iron and steel 

XIV.— Glass, Earthen and Stoneware. 

47. Glass and Chinaware 

48. Earthen and stoneware 

XV.— Wood, Canes, and Leaves. 

49. Wood and bamboos 

50. Canework, matting, &c. 

XVI.— Drugs, Gums, Dyes, &c. 

51. Gums, resins, &c. ... 

52. Drugs, dyes, &c. ... 

XVII. — Leather. 

53. Leather, horn, and bones, &c. 

Total Class D, Preparation and Supply 
of Material Substances. 

XVIII.— Commercb. 

54. Money and securities 

55. General merchandise 

56. Dealing unspecified 

57. Middlemen, brokers, &c. 

XIX.— Transport and Storage. 

58. Railway 

59. Road 

60. Water «• 

61. Messages _ «- 

62. Storage and weighing 

Total Class E, Commerce, Transport 
and Storagb. 



04 



0-06 

O'OI 

0-07 

0"OI 

4-04 



0-42 
2-44 
009 
1-06 

o - 9i 

o-54 
0-03 
0-05 
0-27' 

033 

0'02 
0-30 

2'07 

r53 
o-53 

0-13 

o'o5 
o - o7 

0-09 

0-09 

1 8-55 



2'22 

0-08 

0-26 

i-55 
0-31 

2*1 1 

0*11 
076 

1*09 
o"o4 
0*09 

4*34 



0-03 
0-03 
2-90 



0-29 
1-92 
o*oS 
0-63 

0*41 

0-25 
o"oi 

C02 

o-il 

C17 

O'OI 

0-16 
094 

o-65 
0*28 

0"o6 

0'O2 

0-03 

o - o4 

0*04 
10-30 

i-oS 

o'o4 
0-13 
075 

0"I2 
I 14 

o'o6 
o*35 

o-64 

- 02 

o - o5 
2*19 



48-0 

Si"o 

'43'3 

44'5 

44"9 

597 

64*16 

50-48 

5° - 54 

45-i8 

5i*37 

52-74 

7i'74 

5o-86 
67-78 
78-40 
5693 
59-43 

45-o8 

46-97 
44-70 
46-36 
41-21 

53-o9 

4773 
53'46 

4S-5o 

42-69 
53"°2 

4772 

43-67 
50-75 

50-62 

50-62 
55-53 



47'42 

54-39 
49-43 
48-44 
38-91 

53-93 

60-41 
45-75 
58-62 

47-07 
6152 



Percentage of 

actual workbrs 

employed 



In 
cities. 



50-60 



52-0 

48-9 

56-6 

55-4 

55-o 

40*2 

35-83 

49'5i 

4946 

54-8i 

48-62 

47'25 

28-25 

49-13 
32-21 
21-59 
43-06 
40-56 

54-9i 

53-° 2 
55-29 
53-63 
5878 

46-90 

52-27 
46-53 

54-49 

57-30 
46-39 

52-27 

56-32 
49-24 

49*37 

49*37 
44-46 



52-57 

45-6o 
5o-57 
Si-55 
6ro8 

46-06 

39-58 
54-24 
4i"37 
52-92 

38-47 
49-39 



In rural 
areas. 



29-7 

10-3 

73-9 
58-6 
23-4 
468 

i5'3i 
45-19 
64-80 

44-57 

7'64 

3234 

10-90 

36-00 

1907 

4-24 

7-70 

27-52 

2T59 

19-44 
14-37 
5o - c6 
21-63 

3 - 54 

30-70 
r88 

14-22 

16-98 
7-89 

12-94 

9-67 
15-04 

3i-°5 

3i'o5 
1 1-65 



i3"27 

21-45 

3303 

6-48 

3o-53 

22-65 

27-65 
17-97 

20-38 
26-78 
69- 1 1 



18-15 



70-3 

89-6 

26-0 

4i-3 

765 

43'i 

84-68 

54-8o 

35-19 

55-42 

92-35 

67-65 

89-09 

64-00 
8093 

95-75 
92-29 
72*48 

78-40 

8o-55 
85-62 

49-93 
78-36 

96-45 

69-29 
98' 1 1 

85-77 

83-01 
92-10 

87-05 

90-32 
84-95 

68-94 

68-94 
88-34 

86-72 

78-54 
66-96 
93'5i 
69-46 

77*34 

72-34 
82-02 
79-61 
73-21 
30-88 

8i-84 



38 



«5o 



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table IX- A. 



General distribution by occupation — concluded. 





Percentage on 


Percentage in 


Percentage of 




total popula- 


each order and 


actual workers 




tion. 


sub-order of 


employed 


Class, order and sub-order. 






Actual 










Persons 


Actual 


Depend- 


In 


In rural 




supported. 


workers. 


workers. 


ents. 


cities. 


.areas. 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


XX. — Learned and Artistic Professions. 


3-S3 


1*29 


51-28 


48-71 


11-62 


8837 


63. Religion 


1-48 


0-84 


57"i° 


42-89 


12-34 


87-65 


64. Education 


CI2 


0-05 


46'9o 


53-09 


1 183 


88-16 


65. Literature 


0'02 


o-oi 


39'i5 


60-84 


5-4i 


94-58 


66. Law ... ... ... 


C07 


- 02 


28-87 


71-12 


17-25 


82-74 


67. Medicine 


0-47 


0-18 


40-36 


59-63 


8-58 


9I-4I 


68. Engineering and survey 


0-08 


o'o4 


48-48 


5i-5i 


8-09 


91*90 


69. Natural science ... 
/ 


... 




55-83 


44-16 


363 


96'36 


70. Pictorial art, &c. ... 


o-68 


0-03 


4i43 


5856 


15-72 


84-27 


71. Music, acting and dancing ... 


0-17 


009 


5i-49 


4850 


10-84 


89-15 


XXI— Sport. 


0*01 




5o-56 


49-43 


19-84 


8015 


72. Sport 






48-79 


5l"20 


2-97 


97-02 


73. Games and exhibitions 


0"01 




5i-5i 


48-48 


28-45 


7fS4 


Total Class F, Professions. 


2 - 54 


1-30 


51-28 


4871 


11-67 


88-32 


XXII. — Earthwork and General Labour. 


4*20 


2" 29 


54-6i 


45-38 


9-71 


90-28 


74. Earthwork, &c. ... 


o"4i 


0-25 


6142 


38-57 


2-82 


97-1.7 


75. General labour 


378 


2"04 


53-86 


46-13 


io-57 


89-42 


XXIII. — Indefinite and Disreputable 
Occupation. 


o'oS 


0-03 


70-93 


29-06 


26-69 


7330 


76. Indefinite and disreputable ... 


o - o5 


0-03 


7093 


29-06 


26*69 


73-3o 


Total Class G, Unskilled Labour, not 


4-25 


2-33 


54'8i 


45^8 


998 


go'oi 


Agricultural. 












XXIV. — Independent. 


o*4o 


0*30 


76-26 


23-73 


17-14 


8285 


77. Property and alms 


0-25 


0-18 


72-10 


27-89 


io-33 
27-25 


89-66 
7274 


78. Af the State expense 


0-14 


0'12 


83-41 


16-58 


Total Class H, Means of Subsistence 


o - 4o 


O-30 


76-26 


2 3-73 


17-14 


8285 


independent of Occupation. 

> 













REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF BURMA. 

Subsidiary Table IX-B. 



151 



Proportion oj Partially Agriculturists in each Occupation Class. 



Occupation class. 


Total of partially 
agriculturists. 


Percentage of 
partially agri- 
culturists to 
total of class. 


A. — Government 

B. — Pasture and agriculture 

C. — Personal services 

D. — Preparation and supply of material substances 

E. — Commerce, transport and storage 

F. — Professions 

G. — Unskilled labour not agricultural 

H. — Means of subsistence independent of occupation 


S.050 
1,628 
1,058 
27,895 
6,131 
1,708 

3.779 
275 


2-6 

TO 

i-5 
1*4 
07 
°"9 
07 


Total 


47,524 


o5 



G. B. C. P. O.— iNo. 6, Supdt., C. O., 31-7-1902— ioto. 



APPENDIX. 



Extracts from the Reports of Deputy Commissioners and 
Presidents of Municipalities. 



APPENDIX A. 



Extracts from the Reports of Deputy Commissioners and 
Presidents of Municipalities. 



From L. H. Saunders, Esq., i.c.s., Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Akyab, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma, — No. 1181C, dated the 15th April 1901. 

With reference to your Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the honour to forward herewith 
a brief report on the Census operations just completed in the Akyab district. 

(a) The general register of villages (Appendix A) was prepared by Township Officers 
with the assistance of circle thugyis and revenue surveyors, and submitted to the district 
office. On receipt of these, circle lists were prepared and issued, with the printed instructions 
for.. Charge Superintendents and Supervisors. The Akyab, Pauktaw, Myohaung, Minbya, 
Kaladan, and Naaf townships each formed one charge, the Urittaung township (which 
includes the Mingan plague camp charge) was divided into four, and the Rathedaung town- 
ship into two charges. 

(b) House-numbering.— -House-numbering commenced about the 1 5th of October through- 
out the district and was completed.by the end of November. * * * The numbers were 
for the most part marked on small pieces of wood and hung up under the eaves of the houses. 
In parts of the Kyauktaw subdivision the idea prevailed that these numbers brought fever 
with them, and they were accordingly hung up on trees or stuck in the ground as far from 
the house as the owner would venture to put them, having regard to the risk incurred in 
disobeying orders. 

(c) The agency employed in each of the subdivisions of the district was as follows : — 



Subdivision. 


Number of Charge 
Superintendents. 


, Number of Super- 
visors. 


Number of Enumera- 
tors. 


Akyab ... 

Kyauktaw 
Rathedaung 


3 
5 
3 


63 

86 

124 


749 

1,009 

849 


District Total ... 


n 


273 


2,607 



The agency employed, excluding a few private individuals, was practically entirely, 
official, consisting of Myooks and their clerks, Inspectors of Land Records, circle thugyis,. 
revenue surveyors, ywathugyis, and a few members of the Police force. 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was started in the Akyab and Kyauktaw subdi- 
visions and in the Naaf township of the Rathedaung subdivision about the 15th January 190 1. 
It commenced in ,the Rathedaung. township about the beginning of February. * * * 
The enumeration was completed in the Naaf township by the end of January, and in the 
other townships by the middle of February. * * * The introduction of the ywathugyi 
system in place of administration by taikthugyis has not facilitated census work, the village, 
headmen being naturally inferior, to the circle headmen in point of intelligence and education, 
while the number of official's with whom the Township Officer has to deal directly has increased 
very largely and thereby increased his work. Village headmen are not subordinate to revenue 
surveyors, the class from which .the Supervisors. were mostly drawn, and these^surveyors there- . 
fore do not make as good Supervisors as the taikthugyis.' 

(e) The final enumeration took place on the night of the 1st March 1901. * * * 
The Subdivisional Officer, Akyab, brings to notice the good work performed by Maung Pan 
Hla, Township Officer, Akyab. & 

* * * * * 

The Subdivisional Officer, Rathedaung, selects the three Charge Superintendents of his 
subdivision, namely, Maung Aung Zan, Inspector of Land Records, Maung Kyaw Zan U, and 
Maung Pa Taw U, Township Officers of Rathedaung and Maungdaw respectively. 

(/) Preparation of the district charge, and circle summaries, <&*<:.— The prqyisional 
figures for each charge were received from Township Officers and other Charge Superin- 
tendents between the 4th and the 9th March. The district totals were compiled on the 9th idem 



IV 



APPENDICES. 



and the provisional figures wired to the Census Commissioner, Calcutta, and the Provincial Su- 
perintendent, Rangoon, on the same day. The delay in submission of these figures was due 
to the late receipt of the figures for the Myohaung and Urittaung townships. 

* * * * * 

{g) The operations in non-synchronous areas.— The only portion of the district in which 
the. Census was taken non-synchronously was in the Chin Hills in the Minbya township. 
Maung Shwe Pan, Township Officer, Minbya, with five military policemen and one interpreter, 
was placed on special duty for this purpose. The Census was begun on the 1 2th January and 
completed on or abcjut the 15th February. 

***** 

The Township Officer, Maung Shwe Pan, reports that he experienced no special difficulty 
in taking the Census of the wild tribes inhabiting quite an isolated portion of this district. 
***** 

(h) Prosecutions under the Census Act, &°c. — One Supervisor in the Pauktaw and one 
in the Urittaung township, who were both absent from their circles on the night of the 1st 
March 1901, and one Supervisor in the Myohaung township, who was more or less constantly 
drunk, are being proceeded against, with my approval, under the provisions of the Census Act, 

1900. 

* * * * * 

The correct recording of castes and tribes among Natives of India was naturally a great 
stumbling-block The columns of occupation also required a good deal of explanation. One 
solemn native of India, who could not be suspected of jesting, entered the occupations of all 
children under 1 5 years of age or so as, " playing at games," while another entered the occupa- 
tion of all infants in arms as " imbibing their mothers' milk." 

(»') The total cost of the operations in the Akyab district office up to date amounts to Rs. 
92-15-6. 

***** 

(A) Vital statistics. — The undernoted figures relate to vital statistical events in the dis- 
trict during the decennial period 1891 — 1900 : 



Births. 


Deaths. 


Excess of births over deaths. 


120,610 


102,411 


18,199 



Cholera of a severe type was epidemic throughout the greater part of the district during 
the years 1892 to 1895 and caused a great number of deaths. 

***** 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — No satisfactory data are available to show the ex- 
tent of emigration from, and immigration into, the district during the past ten years. 



Report on the Census operations for the town of Akyab, ipoi. By the Secretary 

to the Akyab Municipality. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of the town was begun on the 16th Au- 
gust 1900 and was completed about the 15th of September 1900. 

The preparation of the circle list was commenced on the 1st September and was com- 
pleted about the 20th of December after house-numbering was finished. 

The town was divided into nine Census charges, each under a Superintendent. 
***** 

(b) The numbering of the houses commenced on the 1st November and was finished by 
the 15th of December. It was done by Municipal agency direct and not by the Enumer- 
ators. 

* * * * * 

(c) The agency employed was as follows : — 

Number. 
Charge Superintendents ... ... ... ... ___ _ 

Supervisors ... ... ... ... ... _' 2 . 

Enumerators ... ... ... ... ... _ t ^ 

* * * * * 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the I oth February" and was com- 
pleted on the 13th February 1901. 

***** 



APPENDICES. v 

{e) The final test of all the preliminary records was done on the night of the ist March. 

* * * * * 

All the arrangements connected with the taking of the Census in the town were carried 
out in the Municipal office under the supervision of the President and Secretary. 

The Municipal Akunwun, Maung Hla Paw U, who served as Charge Superintendent in 
the Buddawmaw revenue* circle, also rendered valuable assistance in the general organization 
of the Census operations, and I would recommend him for special commendation- 

(/") All the Charge Superintendents, Supervisors, and Enumerators assembled on the 
forenoon of the 2nd March in the hall and the rooms of the High School for the purpose of 
preparing the Enumerators' abstracts and circle and charge summaries. 

* * * * * 
(h) There were no prosecutions under the Census Act. * * * 

(i) The total actual cost of the operations, exclusive of the cost of forms, was Rs. 217. 

* * * * * 

(/) There is an annual immigration of Chittagonian coolies into the town both by land 
and water. Most of these come into the town to work in the rice-mills and return to their 
homes at the end of the season 

This year the numbers were rather below the usual, as it is said the segregation rules 
deter many from coming by steamer. 

Another factor in the decrease of the number of coolies this year was that the paddy 
crop for the year was not a good one. 

***** 

The total number of births and deaths for the last 10 years was — 

Deaths ... ... ... ... ... ... 11,260 

Births ,„ ,„ .„ .,, ... ... 6,705 



Report on Census work performed in the Arakan Hill Tracts district during the year 
1 go 1, By E. G. Mumford, Esq., Deputy Commissioner. 

* * " * * * 

The census taken in this district was non-synchronous. The district was divided into 
27 blocks, as there were 27 ywatkugyis in this district ; 25 Enumerators were appointed, one 
in charge of each block, and the other two blocks being small ones, with very few hamlets in 
each, were placed in charge of the two nearest Enumerators. 

***** 
The Enumerators employed in this district were 2 sergeants, 13 guard-writers, 2 forest 
revenue officers, i Deputy Commissioner's clerk, 1 office peon, 5 outsiders, i.e., 4 men from 
Paletwa village and 1 ywathugyi. 

***** 
- (2) The 27 blocks were divided into four circles, and a Supervisor was appointed to 

each. 

* * * * * 

The 4 Supervisors appointed were 2 Police office clerks, 1 Deputy Commissioner's 
clerk, and 1 forest officer. 

(3) The four circles were again divided into two charges, i.e., (a) Upper and Lower 
Kaladan, (b) Michaungand Lemru. (a) was in charge of Maung Mra Tha, Deputy Commis- 
sioner's chief clerk, (b) was in charge of Mr. J. T. B. Pedler, Headquarters Inspector of 
Police. 

(4) All the Enumerators and Supervisors were called into the headquarters on the 14th 
January 1901, and were fully instructed how to take the enumeration. 

* * \ * * * . 

Each Enumerator was supplied with schedule forms together with a list of villages from 
the General Village register (Appendix A) for each block on the 18th January 1901. The 
Enumerators then commenced their work in taking the enumeration and they completed the 
work on the 25th February 1901. 

***** 

(5) I am of opinion that all the Enumerators have done their work well. Amongst the 
4 Supervisors Maung Aung Tha Zan and Maung Ni Tun t6ok great pains over the work. 

(6) In my opinion the Census enumeration has been well done. As will be seen, there 
is an increase roughly of 6,000 souls. 

***** 

(7) As regards the boats plying on the river, orders were issued to the 'guard. writers 
below and above Paletwa to send them in to the Paletwa police-station before the 35th 
February 1901. Only seven boats were found plyfng within this district. The boats were 
enumerated between the 20th and 25th February. 

b 



VI APPENDICES. 

(8) As I have already said, I am of opinion that the Census enumeration has been well 
done, and I am satisfied with the work. 

***** 

(g) In conclusion I have only to add that I have had the greatest assistance from all 
my officers. 



From A. G. Cooke, Esq., i.c.s, Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Kyaukpyu, to the Superintendent, 
Census Operations, Burma,— No. 707-14—01, dated the 1st May 1901. 

As requested in your Circular No. 24 of 1 go i, I have the honour to report as follows on 
the results of the Census operations recently undertaken. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages was ordered on the 15th May 1900. 
The Township Officer, Ramree, completed the work about the end of the same month and the 
register for the An township was the last, not being completed till the end of August. The 
register for Kyau'cpyu town was examined by the Superintendent, who revised it. The re- 
gister for rural tracts was compared by the Deputy Commissioner with the district map and 
the jurisdictions of each Census circle fixed. 

* * * * * 

From the copies of the register kept up to date in the District office circle lists were 
prepared and, with maps, were issued to the Charge Superintendents on the 3rd November 1900. 
***** 
(6) House-numbering was first commenced in the Ramree township (20th November 
1900). The work was completed on the 2nd December iqoo. The township which was latest 
in completing the numbering of houses was Kyaukpyu, the date being the 14th January 1901. 
***** 
(c) The agency employed. — The number of Charge Superintendents was nine, distributed 
according to townships as follows : — 

Cheduba and An, Township Officers only ... ... ... 2 

Ramree and Kyaukpyu, Township Officers and Inspectors of Land Re- 
cords 



Myeb&n, Head Constable and Inspector of Land Records 
Kyaukpyu Town, Vice-President of the Municipality 



Total 



The total number of Supervisors was 160 and there were 1,397 Enumerators. 

Almost all the circle thugyis and clerks were appointed Supervisors. 

The Enumerators were for the most part village headmen, but as a large percentage of 
these officials are illiterate, or nearly so, either the Charge Superintendents or Supervisors had 
to do most part of the Enumerators' work. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced in all townships on the 15th January 
1901, except in Cheduba, where it was a day later. The work was completed first in An (18th 
January -1901) and last in Ramree, being on the 20th February 1901. To simplify matters, 
enumeration schedules were stitched into books in the District office and transmitted to Super- 
visors through Township Officers for distribution to Enumerators. 

The Deputy Commissioner tested the work in 16 villages and the Township Officers in 
427 villages. (The Deputy Commissioner also checked many between the 14th February, 
when the periodical return ceased, and the 28th.) 

There were no special difficulties at this stage of the operations, except the apathy of the 
Supervisors, who failed to instruct their Enumerators, and the illiteracy of most of the latter. 
***** 

(e) Final enumeration. — From the many corrections in red and additions in the enumer- 
ation books, I am inclined to think that endeavours were made to have the final enumeration 
as complete as possible. 

The Township Officer, Kyaukpyu, specially commends the work of the joint Charge Super- 
intendent, Maung Tha Hla, Inspector of Land Records. 

The Township Officer, Ramree, mentions several names, but specially commends the work 
of Supervisors Maung Shwe Sun, Advocate, and Maung Lun Aung, Merchant. He also 
brings to notice the good work done by Supervisors Maung Chit Shwe and Maung Kein, 
thugyis respectively of the circles of Sagu and Ledaung. 

The Township Officer, An, commends the work of Supervisor MaungTha Dun of Dalet. 

I have to bring to special notice the good work done by Maung San Aung and Maung 
Tun Hla U, Township Officers of Kyaukpyu and An respectively. 

***** 

(/) All Township Officers were ordered to send in their charge and circle summaries so 
as to reach headquarters early on the 5th March 1901 and, if necessary, to employ special 
messengers. 



APPENDICES. Y 11 

The checking of the circle summaries with the circle lists and with the totals in the 
charge summaries in the manner laid down in paragraph 6, Chapter XII, of the Code of Census 
Procedure was commenced on the 3rd March with the summaries,- &c., received for Kyaukpyii ' 
town and township. This was continued from day to day as summaries, either complete or 
not, came in from other townships. 

On the night of the 7th March the summaries were complete, except for three circles of the 
Myeb6n township, and, in order not to further delay the telegram ordered in paragraph 7, an 
estimate, given by the Township Officer, Myebon (2,000 souls), for the three remaining circles 
was adopted and the telegram sent by steamer to Akyab the next morning to be wired from 
there, there being no Telegraph Office here. 

***** 

(g) The operations in non-synchronous areas. — The Poko Chin tract, situated in the north 
part -of the Da\et chaung and comprising an area of 144 square miles approximately, was non- 
synchronously enumerated. On the 20th February 190 1 the Township Officer, An, proceeded 
to Poko and, with the aid of the headmen or Taungmins of the two tribes inhabiting the 
tract, he enumerated the inhabitants. At the last Census the Poko Chins were returned as 
508 against 425 at the recent Census. 

***** 

(k) There were no prosecutions under the Act. The attitude of the people is reported 
to have been quiet. 

***** 

(/) I believe that the figures obtained were fairly correct. * * * 

(i) Vital statistics are registered by the village headmen and their work is reported 
to be fairly accurate. The only epidemic was cholera in 1894, when 2,072 deaths were re- 
gistered as due to the epidemic alone. It is believed that the number registered was a small 
percentage of the number of deaths which actually took place. On the occurrence of cholera 
villages were abandoned and corpses were left lying about. These cases of course escaped 

registration. 

' * * * * * 



From Major A. B. Pritchard, Deputy Commissioner, Sandoway, to the Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma, — No. 809-1 — 00, dated the 4th April 1901. 

With reference to your letter No. 223-51 CO. (Circular No. 24 of 1901), dated the 18th 
January 1901, I- have the honour to report on the Census operations of this district for the 
year 1 90 1 as follows: — 

(a) The preparation of the map and general village register were completed and for- 
warded to you by the 23rd July under cover of this office letter No. 1411-1 — 00. 

Copies of this map for each charge and circle, and circle and charge lists, were prepared 
by the District Surveyor working in this office and forwarded by the 15th of October 1900 to 
the different Township Officers for distribution to the Charge Superintendents working in 
their townships. 

Forty specimen schedules were issued on the same date (15th October 1900) to the Town- 
ship Officers for distribution to 40 Enumerators, and these were returned by the second week 
of November and in due course forwarded to you. 

(b) House-numbering. — On receipt of your letter No. 24-nC.O., of 24th September 1900 
(Circular No. 10 of 1900), the necessary instructions were issued to Township Officers to start 
the work of house-numbering. The dates on which this work was begun and completed are 
shown below. 



Sandoway township 
Sandoway town 
Taungup township 
Gwa township 




2 1st October 1900 
24th October 1900 
10th November 1900. 
2nd November 1900 . 



Completed. 



nth November 1900. 
1st November 1900. 
24th November 1900. 
26th November 1900. 



(c) Agency employed. — The Charge Superintendents employed in district and town were 
all Government officials and nine in number. * * * - 

The Supervisors were 76 in number (including 11 in the town) and consisted of 10 thu- 
gyis, 10 surveyors, 19 clerks, 10 traders, 10 village headmen, 4 pensioners, 4 cultivators, 5 
teachers, and 4 sergeants of Police. * * * . 



V1U 



APPENDICES. 



There were 628 Enumerators, 588 being in the district and the remainder in the town, 
and were drawn, from the cultivating class 198, ywathugyts 158, se-ein-gaungs 143 ; traders 
clerks, process-servers, office peons and yazawutgaungs constituted the remainder. 
* * * - * * 

{d) The preliminary enumeration. — * * * Dates of commencement and com- 
pletion of preliminary enumeration are given below. 



Sandoway Township {char^No' 3 
Sandoway town 
Taungup township 
Gwa township 



Commenced. 



13th January 1901 ... 
20th December 1900... 
1 st February 1 901 
15th January 1901 ... 
15th January 1901 ... 



Completed. 



20th February 1901. 
31st January 1901. 
13th February 1901. 
15th February 1901. 
14th February 1901. 



(e) The final enumeration. — The final Census on the night of 1st March came off with- 
out a hitch. Many officials showed a creditable interest in the work. The Superintendents 
and Supervisors were all out on that night checking and helping their Enumerators. 

Boat enumeration and enumeration of travellers began on that night too and was carried 
on up to the 3rd in distant places and the figures for these were incorporated in their respec- 
tive charge summaries. The schedules in the case of the British India Steam Navigation 
steamer Karagola-j which were given out to the master at Kyaukpyu, were collected here. 
***** 

The following Charge Superintendents, Supervisors, and Enumerators have been selected 
for special commendation : — 

Charge Superintendents. 
Maung Tha Aung, Myook, Gwa. 
Maung Kin, District Surveyor. 
Mr. Godfrey, Superintendent of Land Records. 
Maung Kyaw Min, Akunwun. 

Supervisors. 
Maung Shwe Tha, Sergeant of Kyeintali. 

Maung Ta Daing, Clerk, Gwa Myook's Court, for helping to prepare charge sum- 
maries. 
Maung Shwe 0, Thugyi of Lintha. 
Po Kin. 5 

San Baw. 
Shwe Daik. 



Enumerators. 
Maung Kyaw of Shwenyaungbin. 
Maung Shwe Bye") r r ,. 
Maun|MyatPu | ofKmmaw ' 
Maung Shwe Yin of Peindawgale. 



Maung Si Laung of Pazunpye. 
Maung Aung Min of Kyaiktaw. 
Maung Tha Nu of Sandoway. 
Maung Ba Thin, clerk. 



Maung An of Sandoway. 

(/) The enumerators' abstracts were all more or less prepared on the morning of the 2nd 
March after the taking of the final census. These abstracts were checked with the schedules 
by the Superintendents and Supervisors and the whole finally submitted to the district office 
by the 6th March. * * * The district totals were then made out and the result tele- 
graphed to you and the Commissioner of Census, Calcutta, so as to reach by the 7th. * * 

ig) There was no non-synchronous census record for this district. * * * 

(h) There were no prosecutions sanctioned under the provisions of the Census Act. * 
,* * * ' * * 

( i) The expenditure incurred on account of transmitting the Census paper and schedules 
to the Charge Superintendents and by them to the District office was Rs. 104-12-0. * * 

(/) The result of the census in this district may be accepted as fairly correct. 

( k ) The vital statistics for the past ten years ending December 1900 show 30 107 births 
and 19,342 deaths. ' 

***** 



From W. H. A. St. J. Leeds, Esq.,i.c.s., President. Rangoon Municipality, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma,— No. 215-23, dated the 27th May 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit the following report in connection with the Census opera- 
tions in Rangoon. . * 



ArPEN DICES. IX 

i. As in 1891, the Municipality was divided into 13 Census charges, corresponding 
with the Municipal Revenue circles. The same division of the Municipality is adopted 
in the Health Department for the purpose of vital statistics. The Census charges and 
Charge Superintendents were as follows : — 



South-west Town, — Mr. H. A. Nelson. 
South-east Town, — Mr. I. Cowling. 
Kungyan, — Dr. B. Dey. 
Botataungand Yegyaw, — Mr. J. E. Moultrie. 
Theinbyu, — Captain Williams. 



North Kemmenditie, — Maung Shwe Po. 

South Kemmenditie, — Mr. G. E. Wales. 

Lanmadaw, — Maung Po Tsi. 

Tar6ktan, — Mr. P. M. Burke. 

North-west Town, — Mr. A. M. Minus. 

North-east Town, — Mr. A. Malcolm. I Dallah, — Maung Po Saing. 

Tamwe, — Mr. G; W. Mundy. 
***** 
Mr. Burke, Superintendent of Police, undertook the Census work in the Chinese quar- 
ter, Taroktan, which is the most difficult quarter to deal with. I desire to especially bring 
his services to favourable notice, as they were of the utmost value. My thanks are also due 
to the gentlemen unconnected with the Municipality, who undertook the duties of Charge 
Superintendent. 

3. Some of the forms prescribed for Census work in the district and places other 
than Rangoon could not be used without amendment in Rangoon, and it was decided, after 
discussion with yourself, to make any alterations that might be considered necessary with- 
out interfering with the nature of the final enumeration and returns. * * * 

4. House-numbering commenced in December igoo and was mostly completed by 
the 12th January igoi. In some charges the work took far longer than in others. In 
Lanmadaw it was completed by the 29th December, while in Botataung and Yegyaw 
some houses were found to be unnumbered on the 20th February when the preliminary 
Census was being taken. In most of the charges the numbering had been completed 
by the 12th January. Each tenement was given a separate number, as in 1891, and ser- 
vants' quarters were numbered as distinct from the houses to which they belonged. * 

* * On the completion of the numbering the circle lists and house lists were prepared 

and then each charge was thoroughly inspected by the Municipal Secretary, who made a re- 
port to me of the results of his inspections. In all 23 inspections were made of the various 
charges, in addition to special inspections of the Census work at mills and at certain places 
where it was found the work was not being done in a satisfactory manner. It would appear 
that the most satisfactory definition of a Census house in Rangoon would be a tenement. 

5. In the taking of the Census the Municipal Secretary acted, as in 1891, as General 
Superintendent. The agency employed in taking the Census consisted of— 

13 Charge Superintendents. 
100 Circle Supervisors. 

950 Enumerators (the services of nine men being dispensed with after house- 
numbering). 
Of these— 

1 Superintendent was paid. 
12 Superintendents were unpaid. 
14 Supervisors were paid- 
86 Supervisors were unpaid. 
564 Enumerators were paid. 
386 Enumerators were unpaid. 

The rates of pay were — 

Superintendents, — Rs. 100. 
Supervisors, — „ 30. 

Enumerators, — „ 20. 
Three Enumerators, however, were paid only Rs. 15 each, as they were reported for 
giving trouble, and nine men were paid at reduced rates ranging from Rs. 10 to Rs. 5 
Of the Superintendents — 

8 were Municipal servants 'J ., 

4 were Government servants J ° 

1 was a Master at the Rangoon College — paid. 

Of the Supervisors — 

27 were Municipal servants ") . , 

59 were Government servants J ^ 

14 were outsiders — paid. 
Of the Enumerators — 

49 were Municipal servants "\ 

228 were Government servants > unpaid. 

~ ) 



109 were sent from the Census Office 
128 were teachers 
436 were outsiders 



128 were teachers and school boys ") ., 



A APPENDICES. 

The Superintendent of the South-east Town Census Charge, whose substantive appoint- 
ment was Chief Clerk of the Municipal Engineer's office, was placed on special duty for two 
months in connection with Census work, and a clerk on Rs. 70 was employed for nearly 
three months. 

It was hoped that far more Government clerks would have been made available for 
Census work and 291 must be a small proportion of the total available for such work in 
Rangoon. There is no doubt that Census work is unpopular with this class, although it 
was not really heavy and liberal holidays were given as a reward. It would be advisable 
if the Government orders could be stricter on the occasion of a Census being taken in the 
future as, in some cases, the heads of offices seemed to scarcely realize the urgency of the 
claim upon the services of their establishment. * * * 

6. Preliminary enumeration was commenced in most charges by the 1st February and 
was completed throughout the Municipality, excepting the mills, by the 20th February. 

The following work was done in testing. On the 18th and 19th February I, in 
company with the Municipal Secretary, inspected a large number of the Enumerators' 
schedules and visited all the Census charges and inspected the work on the spot. In accord- 
ance with a circular issued, all the Enumerators attended, as directed, at the Jubilee Hall on 
the 20th and 21st February, and every book of schedules was inspected as far as possible. 
This checking in the presence of the Charge Superintendents and Supervisors enabled them 
to carry out a further and complete check if they wished to do so. The work was exceed-^, 
ingly laborious, but the result proved that it was absolutely necessary. At future. preliminary 
enumerations it would be advisable to devote more than two days to checking the work done. 
Four days would be well employed in this work. 

The usual mistakes, due to stupidity or ignorance, were met with as largely as ever. 
Some Enumerators showed Native Christians as Christians in column 4 and Hindus in column 
8, and it was a common thing for a sect to be given for a religion. It was difficult to make 
the majority of the Enumerators understand column 11 (Means of subsistence of dependents 
on actual workers) and it would appear that the heading to the column could in future be 
amended with advantage. Columns i4and 15 gave a considerable amount of trouble and they 
appear to be unnecessarily complicated. It would appear to be simpler to have one column 
only, headed "Language he or she can both read and write. " 

As regards castes no claim to accuracy can be made as to the returns. It will never 
be possible to obtain accurate returns of Hindu castes in Rangoon. Few of the Enume- 
rators know much about castes and a large proportion of the Hindus enumerated appear to 
know less. Some trouble was taken to get a correct list of the principal Madras castes 
from well-educated Madrassis, and after the list had been compiled it was found from a 
reference to the Madras Census Authorities that most of the names given were not |the 
names of castes at all. The best possible was done under the circumstances. * * * . 
As the caste returns in Rangoon must always be inaccurate and, therefore, useless, and as 
an immense amount of time is wasted in obtaining them, it would be of great advantage if 
no enumeration of castes were attempted in future. Sample schedules were printed and 
distributed, and proved of great use in the preliminary enumeration. 

7. The final enumeration calls for no particular comment. * * * I am of opinion 
that the Census returns are accurate. 

No house schedules or private schedules were used within Municipal limits, and none 
were required or asked for, although it was publicly advertised that anybody requiring 
these schedules could have them. There is no necessity for using these schedules in 
Rangoon, as all classes of the people are accustomed to having the Census taken by 
Enumerators, and prefer giving the requisite information to one of them to taking the 
trouble to understand and fill up schedules themselves. Under these circumstances, and 
as time is saved and accuracy is gained by having the entire Census taken by Enumerators, 
there does not appear to be any necessity for having private or house schedules in Rangoon 
at all. 

8. In accordance with a Circular letter, dated the 23rd February, the Superintendents, 
Supervisors, and Enumerators attended at the Jubilee Hall on the 2nd March, commencing 
at 7 A.M. Papers of instructions were given to the Superintendents and Supervisors, and 
the Municipal Secretary exercised. a general supervision over the preparation of the pro- 
visional totals. The provisional totals from the Port, the Railway, the Military authorities, 
the Jail, and Lunatic Asylum were received at the Jubilee Hall during the day. The Rail- 
way authorities gave their totals according to the Municipal charge division. The grand 
total was telegraphed to the Census Commissioner at 8-40 P.M. 

9. The Census at the 51 mills in Rangoon was taken by the agency provided by the 
owners. Considerably less trouble was experienced on this occasion than in 189 1. At 
the last Census the Charge Superintendents in some cases did not get in touch or work in 
harmony with the Mill Census officers. On this occasion the Municipal Secretary person- 
ally visited every mill and instructed the Enumerators and helped them where neces- 
sary. Some mills were visited three or four times by the Secretary, and in addition the 
Charge Superintendents visited most of them. * * * I am happy to be able to 
report that, except in one case, a mill owned by a Mussalman and managed by a Eurasian, 



APPENDICES. XI 

not the slightest difficulty was experienced at the mills, and thanks are due to the firms 
who so readily and cheerfully performed an onerous public duty with great success at a 
time when the milling season was at its height. 

In paragraph 2 I have already mentioned Mr- Burke, Superintendent of Police, for 
special commendation. Captain Williams, Health Officer, and Messrs. Wales, Nelson and 
Vinton also did good work, while 1 consider the thanks of Government are due to Mr. 
Short for his able and energetic supervision throughout the operations. His experience, 
acquired during the Census of 1891, proved of great value, and no doubt materially con- 
duced to the work being smoothly and efficiently performed. 

10. The total cost of the Census operations lias been — 

Remuneration of Charge Superintendent 
Remuneration to 14 Supervisors @ Rs. 30 
Remuneration to 552 Enumerators @ Rs. 20 
Remuneration to 3 Enumerators @ Rs. 15 
Remuneration to 1 Enumerator @ Rs. 10 
Remuneration to 8 Enumerators @ Rs. 5 
Office establishment 
General contingencies 



Rs. 


i. 


r. 


100 








420 








11,040 








45 








10 








40 
1.067 
3.368 




5 
3 



6 

3 


16,590 


8 

* 


9 



From G. G. Collins, Esq., Deputy Commissioner, Hanthawaddy, to the Superintendent, Census Oper- 
ations, Burma, — No. 205-13 — 1, dated the 14th June 1901. 

t HAVE the honour to report on the Census operations in this district as follows: — 
(«) The general registers of villages and towns were drawn up in the head- 
quarters office from reports received from circle thugyis and revenue 
surveyors. In most cases the numbers of houses were under-estimated in 
these reports, but all villages were included. 

(3) House-numbering was started about the 1st October and completed about 
the 1st November. No difficulty was experienced in the course of the work. 

(c) The agency employed was — 

Charge Superintendents; all of them Inspectors of Land Records. 
Supervisors, 150; these men were circle thugyis, thugyisayeSj and revenue 

surveyors of the Land Records. 
Enumerators, 3,527, for all villages and hamlets; these were ywathugyis 

and se-ein-gaungs; for the mills, the managers or clerks of the mills. 

(d) Preliminary enumeration started about the 12th December 1900 and was com- 

pleted about the 1 st January 1901. A good amount of testing was done and 
the Deputy Commissioner, Subdivisional Officers, and Township Officers 
checked a portion of the work, which proved useful ; serious mistakes, how- 
ever, were exceptional and rectified where found; the result generally 
was satisfactory. No special difficulty of any kind was experienced. 

(e) The final .enumeration was well performed ; all officers worked well. The 

following may be specially mentioned : — 

Maung Paw Htun, Subdivisional Officer, Twante. 

Maung Lu Gale, Township Officer, Twante. 

Mr. Pereira, Chief Clerk of my office, gave very great assistance in entering 

and correcting mill schedules and Mr." Sarfas, Headquarters Assistant, gave 

useful help. 
Mr. Torrens practically superintended the District Census staff, which, as 

shown above, was connected largely with his own department ; he gave 

much time and labour to the work and deserves particular mention. 

(/) For the preparation of the district, charge, and circle summaries, the following 
plan was adopted : — 

Enumerators went to the headquarters of their Supervisors on the 2nd 
March, the Supervisors after having abstracted their results went to 
the headquarters of their Charge Superintendents on the 3rd March 
and the Charge Superintendents in their turn brought their abstracts to 
the District headquarters on the 5th March. The plan worked well 
and all Enumerators, with the exception of two or three, were up to 
time. The provisional totals were wired to India on the 7th March. 

(g) There are no non-synchronous areas in the district. 

(//) No prosecutions under the Act were made. The attitude of the people was 
favourable and information was readily given. 

(i) The total cost of the operations was Rs. 30-5-0. 

(/) I consider that the results obtained are satisfactorily 'correct. 



xn APPENDICES. 

From N. S. Field, Esq., Deputy Commissioner, Pegu, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma,-* 
No. 439-1 — 91G., dated the 3rd April 1901. 

IN compliance with your Census Circular No. 24 of 1901, dated Rangoon, the 18th January 
10.01, I have the honour to forward the report on Census operations in the Pegu district 
during the year 100 1. 

{a) The preparation of the general registers of villages and towns and of the 
circle list. — The general register of villages was prepared by the Subdivisional Officers in 
consultation with the Township Officers. The work was commenced on the 19th April 1900 
and completed on the 14th July 1900. 

From the above, circle lists were prepared by the Superintendent of Land Records to- 
gether with the necessary maps, which were forwarded to the Charge Superintendents on the 
26th November 1900. 

***** 

{b) House-numbering. — House-numbering was commenced about the middle of No- 
vember and completed by about the end of December. 

(c) The agency employed. — The district was divided into ten charges, inclusive of the 
non-synchronous tract of Ananbaw, where the Charge Superintendent (the Township Officer) 
held the office of Charge Superintendent of the Ananbaw non-synchronous tract as well as 
that of the synchronous area. 

There were therefore nine Charge Superintendents only appointed, comprising three 
Myooks, five Inspectors of Land Records, and one Railway official. 

***** 

There were 144 Supervisors and 1,703 Enumerators employed. 

The Supervisors were mainly drawn from taikthugyis, revenue surveyors,and thugyisayes- 
The Enumerators were mainly drawn from village headmen, revenue surveyors and ten-house 
gaungs, with a few Police officers, subordinate forest officials, and non-official persons. 

(d) The preliminary enumeraticn. — The preliminary enumeration was commenced on 
the 15th January 1 90 1 and was completed in the Pegu subdivision in the first week in February 
and in the Nyaunglebin subdivision on the 25th February 1901. * * While the pre- 
liminary enumeration was in progress Subdivisional Officers, Township Officers, and Charge 
Superintendents were constantly on the move checking the entries. 

* * * * * 

(e) The final enumeration. — The final enumeration throughout the synchronous area 
was taken on the night of the 1st March. Both Mr. Pascal, Subdivisional Officer, Pegu, and 
Mr. Duff, Subdivisional Officer, Nyaunglebin, did excellent work. 

***** 
(/) The preparation nf the district, charge, and circle summaries and the arrange- 
ments made for the early submission of data for the provisional totals. — The instructions in 
Chapter XII, Census Code, were strictly complied with. Maung San Shwe, Superintendent 
of Land Records, who has supervised Census arrangements throughout under the orders of 
the Deputy Commissioner, was the gazetted officer placed in special charge for the purpose 
of computing district provisional totals. These were telegraphed on the 7th March. 

(g) The operations in non-synchronous areas. — There was only one small non-syn- 
chronous tract in the district, comprising a portion of the Ananbaw circle lying in the hills 
in the north-west of the district and consisting of twelve villages only. 

House-numbering was commenced and finished in December. 

The preliminary enumeration was made betwen the 18th and 25th January, and the final 
enumeration began on the 18th and was finished on the 25th February. 

Schedules and abstracts were received on the 1st March 1901. 

* * * * * 

(h) Prosecutions under the Act and the attitude of the people towards the operations. — 

There were no prosecutions under the Census Act. 

The attitude of the people in general towards the operations was all that could be 

desired. 

***** 

(/) Total actual cost of the operations. — The expenditure incurred is given below : — 

Rs. A P. 

Pay of clerks assigned to Census duty, 29th January to 10th February 

Postage 

Telegrams 

Freight on forms received from Rangoon ... ... ... 

Cost of despatching schedules to Rangoon, inclusive of fare of clerk • 

Total 



II 


5 


7 


10 








16 


13 





5 


11 





X 


7 





■ 48 


4 


7 



APPENDICES. 



Xlll 



(/) The correctness or otherwise of the results obtained. — The results obtained are as 
correct as can be expected, considering the scope of the work and the classes from which 
Enumerators have to be drawn. 

«£ JJS 3|C !JC !(C 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — There has been little emigration from the district, 
but a very large immigration. 

There has been a large influx of natives of India, principally from the Madras Presi- 
dency, and large villages almost solely composed of such persons have sprung up. 

The flow of population from the Upper Province has gone on increasing from year to 
year. Upper Burmans come down at the ploughing and reaping seasons, engage themselves 
as field labourers, and finally settle down permanently. Large areas which 10 years ago 
were forests are now under cultivation. 



From the President, Pegu Municipal Committee, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma, — 

No. 340, dated the 3rd April 1901. 

With reference to Circular No. 24 of 1901, dated the 18th January 1901, I have the 
honour to report as follows : — 

{a) The circle list was prepared by dividing each of the 17 wards in the town into a 
convenient number of blocks, numbering 72 in all. These blocks were then grouped into six 
circles, each in charge of a Supervisor, and the whole town formed a separate charge un- 
der one Charge Superintendent. The general register and circle list were prepared in the 
Municipal office in accordance with the above arrangements. 

(b) House-numbering. — House-numbering was commenced on the 26th November 1900 
and concluded on the 15th December 1900. * * * 

(c) The agency employed. — One Charge Superintendent, Headquarters Assistant Com- 
missioner ; 6 supervisors, comprising 2 Myo6ks, 1 Municipal Secretary, 1 Excise Superin- 
tendent, and the Chief Clerk and Head Judicial Clerk of the Deputy Commissioner's office ; 
72 Enumerators, principally clerks from Government offices and ward headmen, 2 Police 
officers, some school-masters, and the Court interpreter were appointed. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 1st February and completed 
by the 15th. * * * 

(e) The final enumeration was conducted in an entirely satisfactory manner between 7 
P.M. and midnight on the 1st March 1901. In most of the circles the work was over at an 
earlier hour owing to the great assistance rendered by the inhabitants, who stayed in their 
houses with lights burning. No night bazaar was held, the streets were practically deserted, 
hackney-carriages did not ply, and the absolute stillness and quietude of the town, even at an 
early hour of the evening, was a remarkable and impressive feature. * * * 

(/) The charge and circle summaries were prepared in strict accordance with Chapter 
XII of the Census Code. The charge summary was completed and submitted on the 4th March 
1901. 

(g) Nil. 

(h) There were no prosecutions under the Act. The attitude of the people was all that 
could be desired. * * * 

(/') The total actual cost of the operations was Rs. 1 5-7-0. 

(7) I have no doubt as to the correctness of the results obtained, owing to the limited 
area, the large number of educated Census Officers available, and the facilities for constant 
supervision and check, which were fully utilized. 

***** 

(I) Emigration and immigration. — There has been little emigration, but a considerable 
influx of natives of India from the Madras Presidency and of Burmans from the dry zone. * 



Report on the Census operations, Tharrawaddy district. By IV. N. Porter, Esq., Deputy 

Commissioner. 

(a) The preparation of the general register for villages and towns was commenced on the 
24th June 1900. It was first completed and submitted to this office by the 26th September 
1900. It was then checked and found to be satisfactorily done, with the exception that in a 
number of cases blocks with 50 houses or slightly less were created. On the advice of the 
Census Superintendent the lists were returned to split up all blocks containing 45 to 50 
houses into two. 

***** 

Circle lists and maps were distributed from the District office on the 30th November 1900. 
* * * * * 

d 



X1V APPENI3ICES. 

(6) House-numbering was commenced on the 15th November 190Q and completed on the 
1 2th January 1 901 in all charges except Zigon town. The figures for. that charge are-^- 

Commenced on the 5th February 1901. j Completed on the nth February 1901. 
Check by district officials showed that the most prevalent errors were— 

(1) that the numbering became faint and indistinct. 

(2) that the numbers were too small. 

*.**** 
(c) Agency employed. — There were employed 21 Charge Superintendents, 209 Super- 
visors, 2,643 Enumerators- At first it was thought that 12 charges would be sufficient in 
addition to the one Railway and three Municipal charges, and the General Register was com- 
piled on that basis. 

Subsequently it was necessary to form five additional charges. 

***** 
Charge Superintendents included — 

Eight Myooks. 

One Subdivisional Officer. 



One Deputy Conservator of Forests. 
One Deputy Inspector of Schools. 
One Superintendent of Land Re- 
cords. 



One Assistant Superintendent of 

Police. 
Four Inspectors of Land Records. 
One Agent, Bombay Burma Trading 

Corporation. 
One Municipal Secretary. 

Supervisors were principally drawn from the following classes — 
Village headmen. i Clerks. 

Revenue surveyors Forest rangers (in forest tracts). 

Ward headmen (in Towns). j Ywathugyis. 

Taiksayes. 

Enumerators were chiefly — 

Village headmen. Police officers. 

Ten-house gaungs. Traders. 

Clerks. 
(d) Preliminary enumeration- — This commenced on the 15th January 1901 and was 
not completed till the 22nd February 1901. 

***** 
{e) I believe the final enumeration was extremely accurate. Few Census Officers slept 
on the night'of the 1st of March. There was commendable activity and interest shown and 
I know of only one case in which culpable negligence was shown. 

* * * * * 

( f) Summaries. — The District Summary was commenced on the morning of the 4th 
March 1901 and the provisional totals telegraphed to Rangoon and Calcutta at about noon on 
the 6th March 1901. 

The chief difficulty encountered was the absence of circle lists, which were in most cases 
not sent with the charge and circle summaries. 

***** 
Provision was made for including the preliminary figures of the following charges : — 
(i) Bombay Burma camp charge ; 
(ii) Tharrawaddy Reserve forest charge ; and 
(iii) North Zamayi Reserve charge 
in the provisional totals to be telegraphed to Rangoon and Calcutta, as it was feared 
that the final figures would not arrive in time. The final figures, however, arrived in time to 
be incorporated in all cases, except the North Zamayi Reserve. 

(h) Two prosecutions were instituted under the Act. 

(1) The expenditure on Census operations was as follows: — 

Rs. A. P. 
Pay of Census Clerk, 2nd January to 15th March 1901, at Rs. 25 ... 61 4 8 
Travelling allowance of Census Clerk ... ... ... 3 14 o 

Travelling allowance of officers not deputed on special duty, but tra- 
velling solely for Census work ... ... ... 303 13 3 

Total ... ... 368 15 11 

V * * * * 



APPENDICES. 



:*Y 



{k) The following figures show the number pf births and deaths recorded in tW s (fas? 
trict for the past 10 years :-— • i; 

* * * * * 



Year. 


Births. 


,- ■ ■ • 1 
, Deaths. 


1891 ... 

1892 ... 

1893 .» 

1894 ... 

1895 .» 
1896 

1897 ... ..; 
1898 

1899 ... 

1900 ... ... ... ... ... ... 


10,609 

9.069 

9,447 

8,941 

10,366 

10,946 

10,244 

10,176 

13^55 

13.899 


6.451 
7,62a. - 
8,558 
7.004 '„> 
6,510 
9,162 , 

9.325 : 

9.3«7 

9.074 • 

8,49' 


Total ... 


IP7.552 


'~ "81,51V " ) 



The natural increase according to the vital statistics available is therefore 26,o^q. 

* * * * it 

(/) Calculated from these figures the immigration for the district is — 

' Total increase for decade ... ... ... ... 48,428 

Natural increase ... ... ... - ... .;. 26,040 



I ncrease due to immigration 



22,388 



It is probable that these figures are too high. 

A considerable immigration, however, exists, consisting of labourers who come to the dis- 
trict for harvest operations. These mostly return to their homes, but a considerable number 
remain, and in ten years a material increase in population is thereby effected. 



From C. M. Webb, Esq., i.c.s., President, Municipal Committee, Th6nze, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma, — No. 82, dated the 16th May 1901. 

With reference to Circular No. 24 of 190 1, Census Department No. 223-51 — C.O., dated 
the 18th January 190I, I have the honour to report as under. 

(a) The general register of villages and the circle lists were prepared in the Municipal, 
office under the control of the Deputy Commissioner, Tharrawaddy. 

(i) House-numbering was started on the 18th October 1900, after full instructions having 
been given to all Supervisors and Enumerators by the Charge Superintendent, and completed 
long before the 15th November 1900. * * * 

(c) There were only one Charge Superintendent, 1 7 Supervisors, and 80 Enumerators 
employed for Census work in the Thonze Municipality. The Akunwun of Tharrawaddy was 
the Charge Superintendent, and all ward headmen of Thonze Municipality were appointed 
Supervisors, and block elders or ten-house gaungs generally were employed as Enumerators." 
A few clerks and other private individuals were also selected as Enumerators. 

{d) The Charge Superintendent gave instructions on the 13th January 1 901 to the Su- 
pervisors and Enumerators to make them understand the Census rules thoroughly, and 
explained fully their duties to be performed, and distributed schedules and other require- 
ments. The Enumerators were supplied with blank paper as well for preliminary enumeration 
and were directed not to copy the entries into schedules until they have been examined and 
corrected by the Supervisors under the supervision of the Municipal Secretary and passed by 
the Charge Superintendent. The work started punctually on the 15th January 1901. * 
* * The preliminary Census work was thoroughly examined and tested on the spot 

by the Charge Superintendent with the assistance of clerks from the Deputy Commissioner's 
and other offices on the 12th and 13th February 1901. 

(e) The Akunwun with three of his clerks and the Municipal Secretary assisted the'. 
Supervisors and Enumerators in final enumeration and tested their work on the night of #ie 
1st March 1901. 

(/) On the morning of the 2nd March all Supervisors and Enumerators collected at the 
Thonze Municipal office and did their work of checking and preparation of abstracts arid 
circle summaries under supervision of the Charge Superintendent. * * -*• The 
charge and circle summaries with schedules and circle lists were .submitted to the Deputy 
Commissioner, Tharrawaddy, on the morning of the 3rd March 1901. 

* * * * * ' 

(k) No prosecutions were made under the Act. r 

(z) The total cost of the operations, exclusive of the cost of forms, amounted to Rupees 
g-15-3 only, being cost pf paint and stationery, • ; - ■■.'}. 

(7) The statistics obtained were to my knowledge as accurate as possible and inay : be 
regarded as correct. -- 



XVI 



APPENDICES. 



From Mauno Po Si, President, Municipal Committee, Gyobingauk, to the Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma, — No. 71-10G., dated the 10th April 1901. 

WITH reference to your Circular No. 24 of 1901, dated the 18th January 1901, I have the 
honour to submit a brief report on the Census operations. 

(a) The general register of the town and the circle lists have been prepared in accordance 
with the instructions contained in Circular No. 7 of 1900 and completed on the 31st August 
1900. * * *. 

(6) The house-numbering was commenced on the 22nd November 1900 and completed on 
the 24th November 1900. * * *. 

(c) During the time of Census operations, the agency employed consisted of a Charge 
Superintendent, who is the Secretary to the Municipality, five Supervisors, who are the ward 
headmen, and 35 Enumerators, who, most of them, are the block-elders appointed under the 
Lower Burma Towns Act. 

(d) On the 15th January 1901 the preliminary enumeration was commenced and complet- 
ed not later than the 19th January 190 1. The testing of the work was thoroughly done by 

the Supervisors and the Charge Superintendent. * * * 

* * * * * 

(/") The charge and the circle summaries were prepared on the 2nd March 1901 and 
submitted to the Deputy Commissioner's office, Tharrawaddy, on the 3rd March 1901. 
(h) There was no prosecution under the Act. 
(z') No expenditure was incurred to the Municipality. 
(j) The figures were correctly obtained. 

***** 



From Captain F. H. Eliott, Deputy Commissioner, Prome, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma, — No. 63-C.O. — 1, dated the loth April 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit a brief report on the Census operations for the year 1901, 
as required by Census Circular No. 24 of 190 1. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages, of towns, and of the circle 
list.— General registers of villages were distributed to all Subdivisional and Township Offi- 
cers for filling in columns 2 to 7 and to be returned by the 20th May 1900. 

***** 
The abstract of the general village register of Prome district together with a Census map, 
prepared according to the rules laid down in Chapter II, was submitted on the 8th August 1900. 
The circle lists and maps were prepared in the Land Records Office and distributed to all 
Charge Superintendents on the 28th September 1900. 

(b) House-numbering. — House-numbering was commenced and completed in the several 
townships on the following dates : — 



Name of township. 


Numbering commenced 


Numbering completed. 


Paukkaung and part of Hmawza 
Theg6n and Paungde 
Shwedaung and part of Hmawza 
Padaung ... ... 


15th October 1900 
19th October 1900 
10th October 1900 
2nd October 1900 


15th November 1900. 
4th December 1900. 
27th November 1900. 
29th October 1900. 



***** 

(c) The agency employed. — There were four Charge Superintendents for the rural 
areas, 142 Supervisors, and 1,938 Enumerators, and none of these received any extra remune- 
ration for their services. 

Inspectors of Land Records filled the post of Charge Superintendent. Most of the 
Supervisors were taiksayes and Revenue Surveyors and the more literate taikthugyis and 
ywathugyis. Village headmen, se-ein-gaungs, and village lay school-masters acted as Enume- 
rators. 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — The dates on which the recording of the prelimi- 
nary enumeration was commenced and completed are as under : — 



Name of township. 


Date commenced. 


Date completed. 


Paukkaung and part of Hmawza 
Thegon and Paungde 
Shwedaung and part of Hmawza 
Padaung 


15th January 1901... 
5th January 1901 ... 
22nd January 1901 
9th January 1901 ... 


23rd February 1901. 
26th February 1901 . 
2nd February 1901. 
10th February 1901. 



APPENDICES. :?Y 1 . 1 

(e) The final enumeration. — Mr. W. J. Baker, Superintendent of Land Records, Prome, 
Was appointed for the compilation of the District provisional totals. * * * He did excellent 
work throughout. * * * Maung'Mya, Head Revenue Clerk, was appointed as Census 
Clerk from the 27th January. He worked hard and intelligently and deserves special mention. 
* * * Maung Wa and Maung Pe Po, officiating Myooks under training, rendered good 
service in checking and helping the more backward Enumerators. 

But the most deserving of all the men employed were the four Charge Superintendents— <■ '■ 

(1) Maung Hmun, | (3) Maung Charley, and 

(2) Maung Lu Gale, | (4) Maung Po Saing. 

***** 

The Revenue surveyors and thugyisayes all worked well, with one exception. 
The Subdivisional and Township Officers without exception all took a keen interest in 
the work. 

(f) The preparation of the District, charge and circle summaries and arrangements 
made for the early submission of data for the provisional totals. — All Charge Superinten- 
dents * * * arrived at Prome by Monday, the 5th March. 

***** 

All the enumeration books were re-checked in the Land Records Office as to totals, males 
and females, the circle summaries and charge summaries were all checked personally by Mr. 
Baker * * * and the figures were wired on the evening of the 6th March both to Cal- 
cutta and Rangoon. 

***** 

(g) The operations in non-synchronous areas. — There were no non-synchronous areas 
in this district. 

5}S W "J* "P T* 

(h) Prosecutions under the Act, if any, and the attitude of the people towards the 
operations. — There were no prosecutions under the Act to report. The attitude of the 
people generally towards the Census has been of the usual passive kind. 

***** 
(j) The correctness or otherwise of the results obtained.-^-AW the Subdivisional 
and Township Officers report, after having been about a good deal checking the work f that 
there is no reason why the figures should not be considered accurate. 

***** 
(k) Vital statistics. — The total number of deaths during the decade under report has 
been — 

Males ... ... ... ... ... ... 44.0X7 

Females ... ... ... ... ... ... 39,537 

Total ... 83,554 

The total number of births for the same period was — 

Males .... ... ... ... , ... ... 55> 2 75 

Females 1 ... ... ... ■•* ■■■ ... 5 X ,845 

Total ... 107,120 

***** 
(I) Emigration and immigration. — That emigration must have taken place appears 
certain, the causes being (1) repeated scanty rainfalls and the attendant drawbacks to 
agriculture, particularly the, year 1895-96, and (2) fear of cholera in the bad years of 1892, 
1893, 1897, and 1899. Most of these emigrants have gone to swell the numbers in the 
delta districts. 



Note on Census Operations in the town of Prome. 



/. — Preparatory work. 

(a) The general town' register and circle lists were ready by the 27th August rgoo ; . 
Each ward in the town was called a circle. * * * 

(b) House-numbering. — House-numbering commenced on the 20th October 1900 and 
was completed on the nth November 1900. * * * 

(c) The agency employed. — All the Census officers engaged were unpaid. There were 
in all 1 Charge Superintendent, 1 1 Supervisors, and 213 Enumerators ; of the Supervisors 6 were 
ward headmen, 2 Government thugyis, 1 a Municipal clerk (Maung Sein), 1 a Municipal school- 
master (Maung Aung Dun), and 1 a Municipal tax-collector (Maung Po Lu) ; of the 219 Enu- 
merators, 170 were block elders and the remainder Government and Municipal Clerk*; Mauag 
San Pe, Head Clerk, Municipal office, was Charge Superintendent. 



XV111 APPENOICE&. 

//. — The Census. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration commenced on the 15th of January 196 1 and was com- 
pleted on the 25th of February 1 901. * * * 

(e) The final-enumeration. — No difficulty was experienced during the final enumera- 
tion, which commenced at 8 p.m. and was completed about 1 A.M. * * * The Census 
Supervisors and Enumerators worked well, but I specially wish to bring to notice the energy 
and zeal of Maung San Pe, Head Clerk, Municipal office, on whom, as Charge Superintendent, 
devolved the more arduous part of the work. 

(f) The circle summaries were received on the 2nd and 3rd March 1901 by the Charge 
Superintendent, and, after check at the Municipal office, were forwarded with the charge 
summary to the office of the Superintendent of Land Records on the afternoon of the 4th 
March 1901. 

(g) Nil. 

(k) No prosecution under the Census Act was necessary and the attitude of the people 
was acquiescent and friendly. 

ft) The total cost to the Municipality, * * * was Rs. 40-13-0. 

ft) Having regard to the intelligence and close supervision of the Supervisors and of the 
Charge Superintendent, who had some experience of the work during the last Census, the 
results of the enumeration may be accepted as very approximately correct. * * * 

(k) Vital statistics. — There has been no serious epidemic during the decade ending 
1901. The number of births amounted to 7,067 and deaths to 7,082. * * * 



From F. W. Martin, Esq., President, Paungde Municipal Committee, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma (through the Deputy Commissioner, Prome), — No. 461, dated the 21st March 1901. 

With reference to your Circular No. 24 of 190!, I have the honour to submit, as be- 
lowj a brief report on the Census operations. 

(a) The general register of villages or towns and of the circle list was prepared in the 
Deputy Commissioner's office, Prome. 

(6) The numbering of houses was commenced on the 22nd October and completed on the 
6th November 1900. 

(c) The agency employed consisted of 1 Charge Superintendent, 9 Supervisors, and 66 
Enumerators. 

The Charge Superintendent was the Municipal Secretary, the Supervisors were the head- 
men oi wards, and the Enumerators were mostly traders of the town. They were all engaged 
unpaid. "' 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 31st January and completed on 
the 25th February 1 90 1 . The record of the preliminary enumeration was tested by the Super- 
visors, who visited every house. 

***** 
I would select the following officers for special commendation, namely — 

(1) Maung Sein Da, Municipal Secretary and Charge Superintendent, who took an 

intelligent interest in the work and carefully instructed his Supervisors and 
Enumerators and finally had it accurately and expeditiously carried out 

(2) Maung Po Hlaing, thugyi of Kyundawhla circle and Supervisor of Okpo ward 

(3) Maung Tha Aung, headmen of Hinthagan ward and Supervisor. 

.(/ ) The charge and circle summaries were completed and submitted to the Deputy Com- 
missioner, Prome, on the evening of the 3rd March. 

(g) Nil. 

{h) The attitude of the people was good and there were no prosecutions under the Act 

(z) The total actual cost of the operations was Rs. 27-2-3. 

***** 

(/) The results obtained Were, I believe, correct. 

(k) According to the particulars that can be gathered from the births and deaths returns 
of the past 10 years (1891 to 1900), the population of the town should be 1 1,209 as against the 
present figures 1 1 ,044. 

But some of the inhabitants are said to have gone to the Pegu district, where work is 
more plentiful and better paid, and some have temporarily shifted outside the municipal limits 
in order to manufacture dilon on the Rangoon-Prome road-sides for the Public Works Depart- 
ment. v 



From M. Laurie, Esq., i.c.s., Deputy Commissioner, Bassein, to the Superintendent, Census Operations 

Burma,— No. 2281-5M., dated July 1901. ' 

In accordance with your Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the honour to submit a brief 
report on Census operations in the Bassein district. 

***** 



APPENDICES. 



XIX 



(a) Preparation of register. — The population of the district was estimated at 37S> 000 
and the operations for preparing the register were based on this estimate. An average of 
five persons to a household, 40 houses to a block, and 12 blocks to a circle was assumed. 
This estimate showed that approximately 1,800 Enumerators and 152 Supervisors would be 
required. For the purpose of selecting Enumerators printed notices and forms were issued 
direct to all village headmen by means of runners, who distributed the notices and forms 
over the area assigned to them and picked up the notices and forms on their return 
journey, 

* * * * * 

The forms and notices, when collected, were brought in to the Township Officer, who, 
in consultation with the Inspector of Land Records, checked the list of houses and selected 
Enumerators and Supervisors from amongst revenue surveyors, circle thugyis, thugyisayis, 
and village headmen. 

These lists, having been passed by the Township Officer and Inspector, were sent to 
the Superintendent of Land Records, who, in consultation with the General Department of 
my office, prepared maps, circle lists, &c. 

***** 

(5) House-numbering- — House-numbering began on the 15th October, and the last 
report of the completion of housernumbering in the remotest tracts was received on the 25th 
December. 

***** 

(c) Agency employed. — Exclusive of municipalities, railways, and ports, the number of 
Superintendents was nine, Supervisors 137, and Enumerators 2,101. Of the nine Superin- 
tendents seven were Inspectors of Land Records and two were Township Officers. 

The Supervisors consisted of about 70 revenue surveyors and circle sayes, the thugyis 
of circles, and a limited number of intelligent headmen. 

***** 
With the exception of the few village headmen who were selected as Supervisors, 
every village headman was an enumerator. The remaining appointments were filled by 
ten-house gaungs. 

***** 

The railway line was divided up into sections and placed under the separate charge of 
three Superintendents, 1 1 Supervisors, and 69 Enumerators, all being railway men or con- 
tractors. 

*t* ** *T* *» "t* 

(d) Preliminary enumeration. — The preliminary enumeration was begun on the 15th 
January 1901 and completed on the 27th February. The delay in completing the enume- 
ration was due to the non-receipt of forms from Rangoon, our later [indents being consider- 
ably in excess of the requirements anticipated earlier in the operations. 

The great bulk of the enumeration was finished by the prescribed date, namely, the 15th 
February. 

The shifting population of coolies on railway construction was enumerated at a later 
date than the 15th February. 

JJC 7T ^c JjC 5jC 

As a special difficulty to be provided against in subsequent Censuses might be mention- 
ed the probability of the number of sheets required being under-estimated. I myself had a 
careful estimate framed and added 20 per cent, to it; but even that was found quite inade- 
quate. 

***** 

{e) The final enumeration. — The 2nd Assistant in my General Department, Maung Ba, 
was placed on special Census duty for several months. 

***** 

Maung Ba did an enormous amount of useful and intelligent work and deserves special 
credit. 

Thanks are due to Commander Downes, who placed three steam-launches at my dispo- 
sal for trips lasting from sunset to sunrise on the night of the Census. 

***** 

Mr. Ryan, the Divisional Forest Officer, undertook to see that forest labourers should 
encamp for the night within reach of enumeration. 

Mr. Heywood of the Telegraph Department preferred to enumerate his camp himself 
and did so satisfactorily. 

***** 

It is to a great extent owing to the excellent organization of the Land Records Depart- 
ment under the charge of Mr. P. H. Beechey that the general work throughout the district 
was carried out efficiently. 



XX 



APPENDICES. 



Mr. F. D'Attaides, Chief Clerk in my office, superintended the heavy office work in a 
capable and methodical manner. 

***** 

(/) District, charge, and circle summaries —.The preparation of the summaries was the 
least satisfactory part of the work. Clear orders had been given, and there were no visible 
obstacles in the way, but it was like drawing teeth to get the books and summaries out of 
some of the men. 

***** 

(*) The total charges debited to Census were Rs. 260-7-0, which includes the cost of 
printing notices, engaging copyists and runners, and travelling allowance. 

***** 

(k) The vital statistics show that the worst scourge of the people is malaria * * * 
But, if malarial fever is the most widespread, cholera is the most dreaded. It is seldom 
prevalent to so great an extent as to deserve to be called epidemic, but it is constantly break- 
ing out here and there in isolated villages. Having done its work in one village, it dies out 
suddenly and appears next in some village many miles away. 

***** 

As regards small-pox, which holds the next place to cholera in the fears of the people, 
there are, 1 think, few working District or Medical Officers who would not recommend the 
introduction of compulsory vaccination among the rural population. 

***** 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — Towns have neither grown nor diminished to any 
marked extent. This district is not now considered by the Upper Burman to offer him the 
same chances as the new land now opening out in Myaungmya and Th6ngwa. Immigration 
from Upper Burma apparently follows the main river. There is not really very much room 
now in this district for the immigrant. 

* * * * * 



From M. Laurib, Esq., President, Bassein Municipality, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma, — No. 191-18G., dated the 20th July igoi. 

In terms of the instructions in Census Department Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the 
honour to report as follows. 

(a\ The General Town register referred to in Chapter III was prepared early in 
August 1900 and the abstract sent to the Superintendent of Census at the end of that 
month together with a map (4 inches to a mile.) * * * „ 

(&) House-numbering commenced from the 15th of October 1900 and was brought 
to completion about the middle of November, with the exception of Panding6n ward, which 
was numbered late in January 1901. * * * 

(c) Bassein Municipality forms one charge. There were 38 supernumarary Supervi- 
sors, who were clerks policemen, and school-masters in Government and Municipal employ. 
There were also 45 headmen of wards who acted as Supervisors. The Enumerators, who 
were policemen and elders appointed under the Towns Act, numbered 241, exclusive of those 
in charge of rice-mills, godowns, hospitals, jails, railway, and the port * * * 

(d) The preliminary enumeration in most of the wards and blocks commenced from the 
1st February 1901. It was completed before the 20th idem. 

***** 

(<?) The work done on the whole was fairly satisfactory. The burden of directing and 
supervising the work fell on Mr. Pandorff, Municipal Secretary, who practically relieved 
the Committee of .all trouble in the matter. * * * He has earned special mention. 
Mr. Hill, the Assistant Superintendent of Police, helped a great deal in boat enumeration 
work- Maung Suliman, the Head Clerk in the Municipal office, was of great assistance to 
me in carrying out the work. Mr. G. Daniell proved himself very useful in the enumer- 
ation work amongst the natives of India as interpreter. 

(/) The circle summaries were prepared by the Supernumerary supervisors and com- 
pleted on the appointed date except in one case. The charge summary was submitted to 
the Deputy Commissioner's office punctually on the 4th instant, the 3rd being a Sunday. 
***** 

(i) The total cost of Census work amounted to Rs. 57-9-0. This represents the cost of 
stationery and contingencies. 

***** 

(i) During the last decade the number of births was 9,959 and the number of deaths 
9> 6 77- 



APPENDICES. XXI 

From the President, Ngathainggyaung-Daunggyi Municipal Committee, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma, — No. ioEn., dated the 25th April 1901. 

IN accordance with your Circular No. 24 of 1901, Census Department No. 223-51C.O., 
dated the 8th January igot, I have the honour to submit the report on the Census operations 
of the Ngathainggyaung-Daunggyi Municipality. 

***** 

(a) The general register of the town was prepared according to Article 2, Chapter III, 
of the Burma Census Code, showing carefully the external boundaries of the Municipal limits. 
The town was divided into three circles under one charge, and also subdivided into 38 blocks. 

* * * The agency employed, such as Charge Superintendent, Supervisors, and Enu- 
merators, were appointed according to Article 4 of Chapter III, there being one Charge Super- 
intendent, three Supervisors, and 40 Enumerators. * * * 

The circle list was prepared according to Circular No. 8 of 1900 in manuscript form and 
the columns were filled in as instructed. 

* * * * * 

(b) The house-numbering commenced on the 25th October and was completed on the 
14th November 1900. The houses were numbered block after block and circle after circle. 
The substances used in numbering were white, red, and blue paint in each circle respectively. 

* * * The house list was written up and completed on the 25th November 1900. 

(c) The preliminary enumeration commenced on the 15th January 1901. The Enumera- 
tors were thoroughly taught and given full instruction by the Charge Superintendent and 
Supervisors.* * * * The preliminary enumeration was continually checked and com- 
pleted on the 25th of February 1901. * * * 

(e) The final enumeration was carried out on the 1st March 190 1 and completed on the 

2nd idem. 

***** 

The officers who performed specially good work are MaungSein and Maung Po Gywe. 
The first officer is Head Judicial Clerk in the Subdivisional Officer's Court, who performed 
the duties of Charge Superintendent. The latter is Secretary of the Municipality and was 
employed as a Supervisor. They rendered most valuable service during the Census operations. 

The names of the other officers selected for special commendation are as follows : — 

(1) Maung Myaing, Supervisor, II Circle. 

(2) Maung Po Min, Supervisor, III Circle. 

(3) Maung Nyaung, 

(4) Maung Po Hla, 

(5) Maung Aung San Hla Dun, 

(6) Maung Aung Gyaw, 

(7) Maung Nge, 

(8) Maung Shwe Yok 

(9) Maung PcGwe (2), 

(10) Maung Po Pe, 

(11) Maung Shwe Ku, 

(12) Maung Po Han, 

(13) Maung Maung, 

(14) Maung Po Han. 

(15) Maung Maung (2), 

(16) Maung Pha Aung, 

(17) Maung Po Lon, 

(18) Maung Maung (3), 

(19) Maung Gale, 

(20) Maung Saw, 

(/) The charge and circle summaries were carefully prepared and submitted to the 
Deputy Commissioner, Bassein, on the 4th March 190 1. 

***** 

(«) The total actual cost of the Census operations amounted to Rs. 75 only. 
***** 



Enumerators. 



From H. E. McColl, Esq., i.c.s., Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Myaungmya, to the Superintendent, 
Census Operations, Burma, — No. 902-3C. — 3, dated the 26th March 1901. 

AS requested in your letter No. 223-5 iC.O., dated the 18th January 1901, 1 have the honour 
to forward a brief report on the census operations in the district of Myaungmya. 

General Register of villages and toivns.— The preparation of this register was com- 
inenced immediately on the receipt of Revenue Department letter No. U2-3C. — 1, dated 
the 6th April igoo, from the Revenue Secretary to the Government of Burma, which was 

/ 



XX11 APPENDICES. 

received in this office on the 17th AprU 1900. The registers from the four townships 
were received in my office at the end of June, but they were returned for amendment about 
the middle of July and were received back at the end of September. 

* * * * * 

An abstract was prepared from this register and was despatched to the Superintendent 
of Census on the 5th October 1900. 

The circle lists were then commenced. They were completed by the end of October 
and were, with the maps, in the hands of the Supervisors about the 20th November. 

House-numbering. — This was commenced on the 1st November 1900, * 
and was not finally completed before the 15th January. 

***** 

Agency employed. — The district was divided into six charges (exclusive of towns). 
Pantanaw and Thigwin townships formed one charge each. Myaungmya and Wakema 
townships, owing to their size, were each divided into two charges. 

Four of the Charge Superintendents were Inspectors of Land Records. The Myooks 
of Wakema and Myaungmya had each one charge in their respective townships. 

There were 154 circles. The Supervisors were mostly Revenue Surveyors and thugyi- 

SCZjrGZi 

***** 

There were 2,169 blocks. The Enumerators were mostly village headmen, ten-house 
gaungs, and the most intelligent villagers that could be obtained. 

***** 

Preliminary enumeration. — The following forms were received about the middle of 
December : 27,000 general schedules in Burmese, 2,200 covers, 4,350 block lists. 

After the first abstract was forwarded it was found that some hamlets had been omitted 
from the register of villages and so a revised abstract was forwarded on the 27th November. 

***** 

The following forms were wired for on the 3rd January 1901 : — 1 1,000 general schedules 
1,000 covers, 600 block lists. 

These were received in two instalments on the 24th January and 5th February. 

***** 

Though the number of forms at first received was undoubtedly insufficient, still I doubt 
whether the number asked for by the Township Officers was necessary. 

***** 

The preliminary enumeration commenced on the 2oth January and was for the most part 
completed by the 15th February. 

The final Census was taken on the night of the 1st March. There Were no special diffi- 
culties, but in some cases it was not completed by midnight. 

***** 

The preparation of the district ', charge and circle summaries. — The circle summaries 
were for the most part received by the Charge Superintendents on the 3rd March, but in 
a few cases on the 4th March. The charge summaries were received in the district office on 
the 5th and 6th March. 

Orders had been given for summaries to be made for some circles difficult of access from 
the preliminary enumeration figures, so that the district provisional totals might not be delayed 
owing to the non-receipt of the final enumeration figures from these circles. These figures 
were received in the district office a few days before the final enumeration took place, but they 
were not used, as the summaries from the circles in question prepared from the final figures 
were received in time. 1 

The district summary was completed at 2 p.m. on the 7th March and the provisional 
totals were wired to Calcutta and Rangoon at 2-30 P.M. on the same day. 

***** 

Including the towns of Myaungmya and Pantanaw, there were eight Charge Superinten- 
dents, 161 Supervisors, and 2,617 Enumerators employed. 

jj* yfi *(» ?fi 3fC 

(if) There were no non-synchronous areas in this district- 

(h) There were no prosecutions under the Census Act. The people readily rendered as- 
sistance in the operations. 

(t) The total cost of the operations, excluding forms, stationery, &c, supplied from the Cen- 
sus office, was Rs. 78-10-0 up to 25th March 1901. 



APPENDICES. XXI H 

(/) The number of occupied houses and of males and females may, I think, be taken as 
very nearly accurate. The ages cannot be expected to be more than approximately accurate. 
* * * * * 

Immigrants come from all parts of Burma and from India, but chiefly from the districts of 
the dry zone of Upper Burma. The immigrants come chiefly to the Wakema township, the 
population of which has increased since 189 1 from 64,402 to 106,179 or 64 per cent. 
***** 



From H. E. McColl, Esq., i.c.s., Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Myaungmya, to the Superintendent, 
Census Operations, Burma, — No. 903-3C. — 3, dated the 26th March 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to forward a brief report on the Census operations in the towns of 
Myaungmya and Pantanaw. 

Town of Myaungmya. 

The general register for the town of Myaungmya was commenced about the 1st Sep- 
tember and completed about the 15th of that month. 

* - * * * * 

House-numbering was commenced on the 2nd December and completed by the 1 2th 
December. 

***** 

The number of Charge Superintendents appointed was one, Supervisors two, and 20 
Enumerators. 

Schedules and forms were received early in January and an additional supply, in com- 
pliance with the revised abstract, forwarded about the 25th of January 1901. Forms were 
first distributed on the 1 8th January and again at the end of January. The preliminary 
enumeration commenced on the 4th February and was completed in Circle No. 1 on the 16th 
February and in Circle No. 2 on the 1 2th February. 

***** 

The final enumeration commenced at 7 P.M. on the night of the 1st March, and was com- 
pleted by 11-30 P-M- in Circle No- 2 and by 2 A.M- on the 2nd March in Circle No. 1. 
***** 

The steamship Bandoola from Bassein came in at 11-30 P-M- on the night of the 
final Census, and the schedules of passengers and crew were handed over to the Supervisor 
of Circle No- 2 about 11-55 P-M. 

***** 

The number of Supervisors and Enumerators actually employed were — 

Circle No- 1 — Maung Gyi up to end of January ; Maung Lu from the 5th February 

to the date of final enumeration- 
Circle No- 2 — Mr- C- J- W- Donovan ; Maung Po Sin for moving and moored 
boats; and the number of Enumerators employed was 28 — 20 for 
the town and eight for boats. 
***** 
Mr- Fisher, Head Master of the Municipal School, took an interest in the Census as 
Charge Superintendent arid Mr. Donovan, Chief Clerk, did good work as Supervisor, and 
also in the office. 

Town of Pantanaw. 

The general register for the town was commenced in September and completed about 
the 20th of that month. 

* * . * * * 

House-numbering was commenced about the 1st November and completed by the end 
of that month- 

***** 

The circle lists were started at the beginning of October and completed in the first 
week of that month. 

***** 

Schedules and forms were received about the middle of December in accordance with 
the abstract forwarded on the 6th October and were found to be sufficient. The prelimi- 
nary enumeration was commenced about the 20th January and completed about the 15th Feb- 
ruary. The circle summaries were received by the Superintendent on the 3rd March and the 
charge summaries were received in the district office on the 6th March, and .were included in 
the district summary, which was completed by 2 P.M. on the 7th March, the provisicnal totals 
being wired to Calcutta and Rangoon at 2-30 P-M- on that date. 

The number of Supervisors and Enumerators actually employed on the night of the final 
Census was three Supervisors and thirty-three Enumerators. 

<! * * * if. 



XX1V APPENDICES. 

From Major F. D. Maxwell, Deputy Commissioner, Thdngwa, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma, — No. 4331, dated the 31st August 1901. 

IN compliance with your letter No. 62-51C.O., dated the 29th August 1901, I have the 
honour to forward the report written by Mr. English. 

***** 

Census Report. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages or towns and of the circle 

list. — On the 23rd April 1900 all Township Officers through Subdivisional Officers were 

asked for materials to prepare the register of villages. '1 heir reports were received in July 

1900, during which month columns 1 to 8 of the Register were filled up by the Chief Clerk. 

Speaking generally, the charges were unwieldy and the circles not formed with a view 
to the state of the things in March. 

On the 8th November 1900 the Subdivisional Officers were asked for information to pre- 
pare the register of towns. Their reports were received in December 1900, during which, 
month the register was completely written up. During the first fortnight of January 1901 
appointment orders, circle maps, and circle lists were prepared and finished. On the 22nd 
January icoi they were issued to the Subdivisional Officers for distribution. 

{b) House-niimbering. — House-numbering was commenced on the., rst November 
1900 and completed on the 15th November 1900. The difficulties experienced were the 
numbering of field huts and fisheries. 

***** 

Ultimately it was arranged that all occupants of temporary field huts should return to 

the vilhge on the 1st March. This was no hardship as harvest operations were nearly 

everywhere complete. Occupants' names were recorded at the preliminary enumeration 

as being in the village, and double enumeration or complete omission was, I hope, avoided. 

***** 

Special steps were taken to have fisheries inspected, houses numbered, and Circle lists 
corrected, and fishermen were enumerated in their fishery huts, where they remain till April 
and May. 

In towns the numbering was well and accurately done. 

(c) The agency employed, — There were 20 Charge Superintendents (1 1 for rural areas, 
7 for towns, and 2 for Municipalities) ; Supervisors 259 (221 for rural areas, 21 for towns, 
and 17 for Municipalities) ; Enumerators 2,918 (2,579 for suburban areas, 200 for towns, and 
139 for Municipalities). 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — 

Commenced in rural area — 15th January 1901. 
Commenced in town area — 1st February 1901. 
Commenced in -Municipalities — 12th February 1901. 

Loose schedules, &c, were issued to Subdivisional Officers on the 14th December 

1900. 

Preliminary enumeration commenced in rural areas about the 15th Januarv 1901 and was 

completed more or less (in many cases on rough paper) by the 15th February 1901. The 

tendency was to worry about the exact meaning of columns and the minor incidents, while 

forgetting that the primary object of a Census is to number the people. 

* * * * £ 

(<?) The final enumeration was, I think, well done. At any rate, most of the schedule 
books showed signs of red ink. Of Census officers Maung Ba Gyi and Po Ya, Township 
Officer and Inspector of Land Records of Danubyu, worked specially well and their check- 
ing was most complete. The following officers also worked well : — 

Maung Kyaw, Township Officer, Ma-ubin, and Maung Ni Aung, Inspector of 
Land Records, Onbin. 1 

Maung Aung Zan, Subdivisional Officer, Pyapon, had a very heavy subdivision (popu- 
lation 191,500), containing four town charges and seven rural charges. 

* * * * £ 

Mr. Tuck, Assistant Commissioner, was special officer entrusted with compiling dis- 
trict provisional totals and was assisted by Maung Kin, Myo6k, who also saw to and checked 
schedules as they came into headquarters. Both these officers were most energetic. Maung 
Kin was also Chief Superintendent of the Ma-ubin Municipality, and he especially deserves 
commendation. My thanks are due to Mr. Minus, Chief Clerk, on whom has fallen the heavy 
clerical work connected with Census. He has greatly contributed to keeping the Census 
and inspecting offices up to the mark. Lastly I must thank Captain Maxwell for the advice 
jmd assistance in Census matters which he has given me, and for helping me inordinary 
district work for a week from the 26th February to the 3rd March. 



APPENDICES. 



Scxv 



I arranged that all charge summaries for the Pyap6n subdivision, excluding Dedaye town' 
and township (except Onbin circle), should be checked by the Subdivisional Officer, r-yap6n, 
before submission to the Deputy Commissioner. Most of the summaries had not arrived on 
the 4th, so I proceeded with four clerks by launch to Pyap6n, reached there at 10 p.m. and 
found everyone had adjourned to a pwe; started checking, and went on till 1-45 A.M., began 
again at 6 and left with all charge summaries complete at 9, reaching Ma-ubin at 5 P.M. 
The district total was then made out and sent in on the evening of the 5th. 

2jC yfi 3|% n» ^ 

(h) Six prosecutions were sanctioned (all in the Ma-ubin subdivision : four in the Ma-ubin 
township and two in Kyaiklat) for refusal to enumerate or slackness. 

JJS Jfc 5jC fl» «(» 

No prosecutions were actually held, as the threat proved sufficient in four cases and the 
recalcitrant enumerator left the district entirely in two cases. 

***** 

(J) On the whole I think the Census has been correctly taken as far as numbers are 
concerned. 

(k) Vital statistics. — 



Year. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Differences. 


1900 
1899 
1898 
1897 
1896 
1895 
1894 

1893 
1892 
1891 


13,757 

12,709 

12,816 

to,66+ 

8.930 

8,137 

8,625 

10,078 

8,539 

5.744 


10,058 
9,997 
9,32o 
9.237 
6,812 

6,495 
6,910 

7.134 
5,75i 
5.258 


3.699 
2,712 

3.496 
1,427 
2,127 
1,642 
i.7 1 5 
2,944 
2,788 
486 


Total 


100,008 


76,972 j 23,036 

i 



These figures are admittedly incorrect. The enormous increase of 149,000 odd is due 
to excess of births over deaths in a measure, but mostly to immigration from all districts 
of Upper Burma and Thayetmyo and neighbourhood. 

***** 



From A. E. English, Esq., i.c.s., President, Ma-ubin Municipality, to the Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma, — No. 403-1 (Census), dated the 31st March 1901. 

IN compliance with your Circular No. 24 of 190 1, I have the honour to forward a brief 
report on the Census operations in the Ma-ubin Municipality. 

(a) The General register of the town and the circle list were prepared according to the 
division of wards in the town, and the number of houses was taken from the Municipal assess- 
ment registers. 

(b) House-numbering commenced on the 6th November 1900 and was completed on the 
nth November 1900 and checked by the Secretary and Supervisors. 

(c) There were 27 Enumerators, four Supervisors, and one Charge Superintendent. * 
* * The Enumerators and Supervisors were almost entirely clerks of the Headquarters 

office. 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration commenced on the 14th January and was completed on 
the 28th February 1901. 

(e) There were no complaints of slackness. Special credit is due to Maung Khin, 
Charge Superintendent, who worked excellently. 

The Secretarv, Maung Shwe Ban, made the preliminary arrangements carefully. 
(/) Charge and circle summaries were prepared on the 2nd March 1901 and were 
complete before any of the district totals came in. 

* * * * * 

(/) The results were correct, I think. Boat enumeration went on till the evening of 
the 2nd. 

(k) The population has increased from 5,327 to 6,617. Tn,s 1S > " Vltal statistic figures 
are to be believed, entirely due to immigration. 

***** 

S 



xxvi 



APPENDICES. 



From G. F. S. Christie, Esq., i.c.s., Deputy Commissioner, Henzada, to the Superintendent of Census 
Operations, Burma, No.— 2ioo-4 r .— i, dated the 22nd April igoi. 

I HAVE the honour, in accordance with Census Circular No. 24 of 190 1, to forward the 
following brief report on the Census opcations in the Henzada district. 

(a) In accordance with the instructions contained in Revenue Department letter No. 112- 
3 CO., of the 6th April 1900, from the Revenue Secretary to the Government of Burma, the 
forms for the preparation of the preliminary register (Appendix A) which were received from 
the Superintendent of Government Printing, Burma, about the middle of April 1900 were 
compiled in this office. 

***** 
They were then sent out to Township Officers to be carefully checked and corrected 
whenever necessary. 

* * * * * 

After this was done, the registers were sent in for the preparation of abstracts showing 
the number of villages, houses, blocks, &c. 

***** 

When the whole of these registers and abstracts had been finished, circle lists were pre- 
pared in the District office and completed on the 22nd of October igoo, but not sent out for 
distribution to Supervisors till the 7th November owing to a slight delay in the preparation 
of the charge and circle maps. 

***** 

(b) House-numbering was begun on the 1st of October 1900 and completed on the 12th 

January 1901. 

* * * * * 

(c) The total number of Charge Superintendents, Supervisors, and Enumerators in the 
dist'ict (including the towns of Lemyethna and Okpo) was eight, 195 and 2,302 respectively, 
the Charge Superintendents being Inspectors of Land Records and the Supervisors and Enume- 
rators being circle thugyis, revenue surveyors, taiksayes, village headmen, and a few private , 
individuals. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was begun about the 15th of January and completed 
about the end of February. 

***** 

An almost universal error was the omission to enter the name Karen as a language in 
which a person might have literary knowledge. The large majority of Christian Sgaw- 
Karens can read and write this dialect and are accustomed in their ordinary daily life to use 
it in preference to Burmese. It is to be feared that by this omission the true extent to which 
the dialect is used may be insufficiently gauged. On the other hand, in this district at least, 
literary attainments of any kind are rare amongst the Pwo-Karens. In a note on the Census 
operations in Henzada Municipality the difficulties of classifying natives of India have been 
pointed out, and it may only be said that similar errors on a smaller scale prevailed in the dis- 
trict. It will be a long time indeed before Burmans begin to realize that there is no general 
language in use named kulak. Perhaps they will begin to give names of their own to the 
different dialects instead of trying to master the foreign pronunciation. 

***** 

For the next Census I would suggest that a longer period, at least a full two months, be 
allowed for checking the schedules. It is quite impossible for Subdivisional or even Town- 
ship Officers to get round the whole of their changes in a month and carry on their other duties 
at the same time, while the Charge Superintendents have generally failed to do the amount 
of work that is required. 

The Subdivisional Officer, Henzada, specially commends the work of Maung Po Thu 
Daw, the Myook of Okpo, and I should say that in all probability the work was better done 
in Okpo and Lemyethna townships than in any other portion of the district. Mr. Andrew at 
Myanaung took interest and gave careful instruction to his Township Officers. 
***** 

(<?) The final enumeration was carried out satisfactorily by the different officers concerned. 
The following officers deserve special commendation for the good work done by them : — 
Mr. G. P. Andrew, Assistant Commissioner, Myanaung. 
Maung Tin Gyaw, Subdivisional Officer, Henzada. 
Maung Po Kyu, Township Officer, Lemyethna. 
Maung Po Thu Daw, Township Officer, Okpo. 
Maung On Gaing, Township Officer, Henzada. 
Maung Po Shin, Township Officer, Kyangin. 

Maunf Yb Maung } Char g e Superintendents. 



APPENDICES. ?fXWJl' 

(/)• The preparation of the district summary was delayed by.- the circle summaries from, 
the Okpo and Kanaung townships not being sent in in time. The charge summaries from 
these townships came in about the 3rd March 1 go 1, but, owing to a misunderstanding of the 
orders on the subject, the circle summaries were not sent in till the 8th and gth. The District 
provisional totals could have been telegraphed on the 7th March 190.1 but for the delay in the 
submission of these circle summaries. As it happened, the totals were not telegraphed to Ran- 
goon and Calcutta till the 9th March 1901 . Mr. Buchanan was the officer who looked after the 
checking and submission of the District provisional totals. He was assisted by Mr. Morrison, 
a newly arrived Assistant Commissioner. Both these officers displayed commendable zeal 
and conscientiously performed their duties. 

* * * * * 
(A) There were no 'prosecutions under the Census Act. 

* * # * * 

(i) The total actual cost of the operations, exclusive of cost of forms, stationery, and the 
like, was Rs. 119-14-8. 

***** 

(J) The results obtained may be looked upon as accurate. 



From G. F. S. Christie, Esq., President, Henzada Municipality, to the Superintendent of Census Operations' 
Burma,— No. 15-15— 99, dated the 26th March 1901. 

(a) Preparatory leork.r— From the beginning of August 1900 Mr. D. Hormusjee, 
Officiating Municipal Secretary, was deputed to make necessary arrangements for the: prepara- 
tion of the general register of Henzada town, showing (1) charges, (2) circles, and (3) blocks, 
for the coming Census operations, and was directed to prepare a plan showing the boundaries 
of each in accordance with the instructions contained in Chapter III of the Census Code, para- 
graph 8 (2). Subsequently special blocks were formed for dealing with the boat population- 

(6) House-numbering. — The numbering of houses in the town was begun abo.ut the 

middle of October 1900, and completed on the 17th November 1900. * * *. For 

the purpose of Census operations, Henzada town was divided into 21 circles (of which one 
circle was for boat population). 

V vT * ¥ •* 

The following were employed in connection with the work : — 

Charge Superintendents, 4 (one boat). ) Supervisors (including boat blocks), Zi. 
Enumerators (including boat blocks), 103. 
No paid agency was employed in any case, the whole staff of Census operators being select- 
ed from Government and Municipal employes, consisting of Assistant Superintendent of 
Police, Municipal Secretary, clerks of the Revenue, Judicial and Municipal Departments, Police 
sergeants, as well as subordinates of the Municipality and other persons of respectable 
standing. 

(d) Preliminary enumer ation.^-Fxom the 15th January 1901 schedule books were supr 
plied to Supervisors who, at the same time, were instructed in detail as to how to carry out the 
work. The preliminary record was commenced on the 1st February and completed on the 
15th February 190 1. 

The entries were made in the first instance by the Enumerators in pencil on blank sheets 
of paper before entries in the schedules were made. They were subsequently checked by the 
Supervisors who, with the house-lists and schedule books in hand, compared the entries with 
the number of inmates. On the test proving correct they were entered in the schedule books 
in black ink. * * *. 

(e) Final enumeration. — The work done by the Charge Superintendents, Supervisors, 
and Enumerators on the whole was fairly satisfactory. * * *. I would especially 
bring to notice the work of Maung Nyein amongst the Charge Superintendents; Maung 
Po Yin, Maung Ba E, and Maung G6n Ban amongst the supervisors; and Maung Sein 
Thi amongst the enumerators. Mr. Phillips, Head Master, also worked hard in the most 
important and difficult charge. * * * . 

(/) The preparation of district, charge, and circle summaries was completed on the 3rd 
March and forwarded for check on the 4th March 1901 to the district office. 

***** 

(A) There were no prosecutions, and the general attitude of the people was one of in- 
difference. 

(*) Rupees gg-n-o were expended on Census taking in this Municipality. 
***** 

(/) The result obtained is believed to be fairly correct, considering the precautionary, 
measures taken and the agency employed. The population of the area, which in 1891 com- 
prised the whole town of Henzada, has considerably decreased, a fact due principally to 
the erpsion pf the river, which necessitated the removal of a whole streetful of people. The 



XXVM 



APPENDICES. 



energetic measures, too, adopted by the Health Officer to prevent over-crowding have in 
many cases compelled residents to change their abodes, and settle again on the further side 
of the main embankment. * * * . 

{k) The following statement will show the total births and deaths within the Municipal 
limits from 1891 to 1900. 





Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Births 
Deaths 


3.343 
3.093 


3.2 » 5 
2.56 « 


6.558 
5.654 



From the President, Kyangin Municipality, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma (through 
the Deputy Commissioner, Henzada), — No. 308-42C. — 10, dated the 24th March 1901. 

With reference to Circular No. 24 of 1901 (Census Department No. 223-51C.O., dated the 
18th January 1901), I have the honour to submit my report as follows : — 

(a) The general register of towns was prepared in accordance with paragraph 4, 
Chapter III of Circular No. 7 of 1900. * * *. . 

(i) The house-numbering was commenced on the nth October 1900 and completed at 
the end of |December 1900. No difficulties occurred in house-numbering. The townspeo- 
ple took interest in the operations. 

(c) There are only one Charge Superintendent, two Supervisors, and 37 Enumerators. 
The Charge Superintendent is the Inspector of Land Records, one Supervisor is an advocate 
and the other the Municipal Secretary. The Enumerators are especially traders, teachers, 
and clerks. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 8th February 190 1 and com- 
pleted on the 15th February 1901. The work of testing the schedules took about ten days. 
* * *, 

{e) The work done by the Census officers under me is satisfactory. A list showing the 
names of the officers selected for special commendation is herewith submitted. 

if) The circle summaries were prepared on the 3rd March 1901 and submitted to the 
Charge Superintendent on the 4th March 1901. The total population within the limits of 
the Municipality was telegraphed to the Deputy Commissioner, Henzada, on. the 6th March 
1901. 

(g) There are no non-synchronous areas in this town. * * *. 

(h) There was no prosecution under the Act. The people took interest in the opera- 
tions. 

* * * * # 

(/) The population in Census of 1891 is 8,116, and during the past ten years the number 
of births that exceeds the number of deaths is 446. Therefore the population should be 
8,562. But according to the Census the population amounts to 7,186 only. * * *. 

List of the names of the officers selected for special commendation. 



No. 



Name of Supervisor. 



Maung Kyaw Zan Hla 



Maung So Gyi 



1 



Name of Enumerator. 



Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 
Maung 



San Ba ... 
San Hla Baw 
Kva Hla ... 
Po Han ... 
Po Saw ... 
Po Gyi ... 
Po Khan 
Aung Tha 
Po Hlaing 
Hmaw 
Kyauk Swa 
An Bwe ... 



Remarks. 



The Supervisors and the Enu- 
merators shown are selected 
for special commendation as 
they have done their work 
well and taken great interest 
in the operations. 



Census Report for the Myanaung Municipality 190 1. 

President. 



By G. P. Andrew j Esq., I.C.S., 



{a) The general register of the town and the circle lists were prepared according to the 
instructions given in Chapter II of the Census Code. 

There was only one Supervisor in the general register, but two other Supervisors were 
appointed after house-numbering was finished. Each Supervisor was supplied with a circle 
list and a map * * * 



APPENDICES. XXIX 

(b) House-numbering was commenced on the 5th October 1900 and finished on the 19th 
October 1900. * * * 

(c) For the Myanaung Municipality there was one Charge Superintendent, three Su- 
pervisors, and 35 Enumerators. I myself undertook the duty of Charge Superintendent and 
the three Supervisors were my Head Clerk, Municipal overseer, and Secretary. Ayat-oks and 
akviet-dks were generally appointed as Enumerators. * * *. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 15th January 1901 and com- 
pleted on the 30th January 1901. All the entries in the enumeration books were read and 
corrected by the Supervisors. * * * 

(e) The final enumeration was done well. * * * I am glad to select Maung 
Daik, Overseer and Census Supervisor, and Maung Ba and Maung Myo, Census Enumerators, 
for special commendation. 

(/) Oa the morning of the 2nd March private and household schedules distributed to 
Europeans and Eurasians were collected and Enumerators' abstracts were prepared in the 
presence of Supervisors. 

Charge and circle summaries were immediately compiled and the total number of 
houses and males and females was wired to the Deputy Commissioner, Henzada. 
* * . * * * 



From G. F. S. Christie, Esq., I.c.s., Deputy Commissioner, Henzada, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma, — No. 2934-4C. — I, dated the 20th May 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith the report of the Zalun Municipal Committee on 
the Census operations in their Municipality. 

Report. 

(a) The general register of villages or towns and of the circle lists were prepared on the 
1st November 1900 and submitted to the Superintendent of Census Operations on the 8th 
November 1900. 

(b) The house-numbering was commenced in the middle of the month of October 1900, 
which was completed about the 26th October 1900. 

(c) There were one Charge Superintendent, 10 Supervisors, and 36 Enumerators, who 
were all Burmans. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 15th January 1901 and com- 
pleted by the end of the same month. It was tested by the Charge Superintendent and 
inspecting officers till the end of February 1901. 

(e) The Census work was satisfactorily done by the Census officers, of whom Maung Po 
Kya, who tried his best in dealing with the preparation of the Census work till it was over, is 
the best man. 

(/) The charge and circle summaries for the provisional totals were prepared on the 
morning of the 2nd March and submitted on the same day. 

(g) Nil. 

{h) Nil. 

(i) The sum of Rs. 7-15-0 was expended for purchase of nibs, pen-holders, and lanterns 
for the Census work. 

* * * * - * 



Report on the Census operations in the Toungoo district in igoi. 



Toungoo Subdivision. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages or towns and of the circle list 
was conducted under the immediate supervision of the Deputy Commissioner. * * * 

(b) House-numbering started about the 12th of October 1900 and was completed about 
the 23rd of November. 

***** 

(d ) The preliminary enumeration. — The total number of Supervisors and Enumerators 
employed in the subdivision were 1,580 Enumerators and 426 Supervisors. 

Supervisors were chiefly village headmen and clerks ; Enumerators were taken chiefly 
from amongst the ten-house gaungs. * * * 

The preliminary enumeration commenced about the 15th January igox. 
***** 

(e) The final enumeration. — Myo6k Maung Kan Tha, Myoma township, did the best 
work in this subdivision in my opinion. He took great interest and pains in his Census 
duties. Myo6k Maung San We of Oktwin, however, had the heaviest work. The final 
enumeration was on the whole very creditably done throughout the subdivision. 

_h 



XXX 



APPENDICES. 



(/) The preparation of the district, charge, and circle summaries.— The charge and 
circle summaries were prepared under the direct supervision of the Charge Superintendents, 
who distributed themselves at appointed centres to receive them from the Supervisors. 
***** 

The Myatsawnyinaung Pagoda, 7 miles south-east of Toungoo, has its annual Pagoda 
festival which attracts some 1,273 visitors to it. This year the big day happened to fall on 
the 1st March. Mr. Field and myself (the Subdivisional Officer) had a preliminary survey 
of the pagoda, its surroundings and approaches and made arrangements accordingly to 
cope with the expected crowd by enlisting' 88 Enumerators from amongst the pagoda lugyis, 
trustees, and office clerks. These were allotted their respective blocks and Supervisors their 
circles round about the pagoda armed with passes. The Deputy Commissioner and myself 
visited the pagoda on the morning of the 1st March and satisfied ourselves as to the arrange- 
ments made. 

Myself, Myooks Maung Gyi and Maung Kyaw, together with Mr. Molloy, the District 
Superintendent of Police, remained throughout that day and night at the pagoda and its 
neighbourhood, inspecting and checking the work done. 

***** 

Shwegyin Subdivision. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages (Appendix A) was conducted 
under the direct supervision of the Deputy Commissioner. * * * 

(6) The numbering of the houses began from the 15th January 1901 and was not com- 
pleted in some parts of the Kyaukkyi township till the 15th February 1901. * * * 

(c) There were two Charge Superintendents, one for each township. * * * 

(d) The* preliminary enumeration commenced from the 15th January and was for the 
greater part completed by the end of that month. 

***** 
[f) The charge and circle summaries were prepared under the direct supervision of 
the Charge Superintendents. 



Karen Hills. 

(a) The preparation of the general register and circle list was done personally by the 
Deputy Commissioner. * * * 

(b) The numbering of houses was commenced at different periods in the Karen Hills 
during November and December 1900. * * * 

(c) There were two Charge Superintendents. * * * 

The Supervisors and Enumerators employed were chiefly village headmen, sayas or 
pastors of villagers, and ten-house gaungs of villages in the plains. 

{d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on or about the 15th January and 
was completed at different periods. * * * 

(e) The final enumeration was well done by both the Charge Superintendents, but the 
Leiktho Myook showed the most zeal and was the first man in the Toungoo district to 
submit his returns. 

(/) The charge and circle summaries were prepared by the Charge Superintendents 
or under their direct supervision. 

***** 



From Maung Law Tat, Vice-President, Shwegyin Municipality, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 

Burma,— No. 81-4— 1, dated the gth April 1901. 

j . W'TH reference to your Circular No. 24 of 190 1 (Census Department No. 223-51 CO., 
dated the 18th January r 901), I have the honour to enclose herewith a report as requested therein. 

Report on the Census work in the Shwegyin Municipality. 
... i.<%The preparation of the general register of villages or towns and of the circle 
/«/.— The general register A was prepared by the Charge Superintendent, Mr. CM. Lazarus, 
and completed on the 24 th November 1900, and extracts from the above register showing the 
different blocks were given to all Enumerators on the same date. 

***** 
(b) House-numbering.- The house-numbering was commenced immediately on the com- 
of e December ReglSter A ' '•*' °" the 2 « th November 1900, and completed by the middle 



APPENDICES. XXXI 

(c) The agency employed. — There was 1 Charge Superintendent, 6 Supervisors, and 
41 Enumerators employed, all unpaid. 

(d) Preliminary enumeration, — The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 
25th January 1901 and completed by the middle of February, and the testing work was taken 
in hand by the Charge Superintendent and the.Circle Supervisors at the completion of the pre- 
liminary enumeration and completed by the 27th February 1901. 

***** 

(e) The final enumeration.— -The -final enumeration was taken on the night of the 1st 
March 1901. 

*K !t» w Jt* * 

(f) Preparation of the district, charge, and circle summaries, &c. — The charge and 
circle summaries were prepared on the 2nd March and the results obtained were wired to the 
Deputy Commissioner, Toungoo on the 3rd instant, in accordance with the instructions re- 
ceived from the Superintendent, Census Operations. 

***** 



From R. B. Hawkes, Esq., Deputy Commissioner, Salween, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 

Burma, — No. 169-102, dated the 1st April 1901. 

With reference to Circular No. 24, dated the 18th January 1901, 1 have the honour to for- 
ward herewith a brief report on the Census operations in this district. 

***** 

Salween District. 
Brief report on the Census operations. 

(a) The preparation of the General Register of villages or towns and of the circle 
list. — The general register of villages was prepared on the basis of the recent revenue 
assessment-rolls with the assistance of the circle thugyis and completed on the 26th July 
1900. 

The Census circle lists were written up in the office by the clerks and forwarded to the 
Supervisors on the 10th November 1900. 

(6) House-numbering. — The numbering of houses in Papun was commenced on the 2oth 
November 1900 under the supervision of the Township Officer and completed on the 22nd 
November 1900. 

(c) The agency employed. — The following agency was employed : — 

Charge Superintendents ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Supervisors ... ... ... ... ... ... 44 

Enumerators ... ... ... ... ... ... 145 

Supervising Census officers were selected from the following classes, — Police officers of 
higher grades, clerks, thugyis, petition-writers, and intelligent non-officials. In rural districts 
Enumerators consisted of police constables, yasawutgaungs, kyedangyis, and traders. 

There was much difficulty in procuring qualified Enumerators in the district owing to the 
illiterate condition of the people. In many instances the Supervisors accompanied the 
Enumerators to their blocks and made the entries themselves in their schedules. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — The general schedules were received here on the 
3rd January 1901 and despatched to the Supervisors on the 8th January 1901 for distribution 
to their Enumerators. 

The work of preliminary enumeration was commenced as each Enumerator received his 
schedules. The earliest date on which the work commenced was on the 16th January igoi. 

During the progress of the preliminary record the work was tested by the Charge 
Superintendents, who visited a number of villages and made corrections where necessary in the 
general schedules. They have also given to the Supervisors and Enumerators all the advice 
and assistance on the difficult points which they could not understand. 

(e) The final enumeration. — On the night of the final Census the Supervisors visited each 
house in large villages in their circles accompanied by the Enumerators. The entries were 
read over to the chief member of the family and fresh entries and erasures made to correspond 
with the actual state of things on the night of the Census. 

(/) The preparation of the district, charge, and circle summaries. — The circle sum- 
maries from most of the Supervisors reached this office between the 2nd and 6th March 1901. 

There was considerable delay in the receipt of the summaries from Mewaing, Kadaingti 
and Kawludo, due to the outbreak of small-pox, and the Karens deserted their villages and hid 
themselves in almost inaccessible places. Both the Supervisors and Enumerators experienced 
the greatest difficulty in finding them out. 

It was also found that in some cases illiterate men had been appointed as Enumerators 
and in consequence the work of Census enumeration was thrown entirely on the Supervisors, 
as no local agency was available. 



XXXH APPENDICES. 



(A) Prosecutions under the Act, if any, and the attitude ^^dLtE'tople 
oferations.-Theie were no prosecutions under the Census Act. The attitude ot the people 
was satisfactory, as they rendered every assistance to the Enumerators. 

(i) The total actual cost of the operations, exclusive of the cost of forms f J*'™^' 
&c— No expenditure of any kind was incurred in this district in connection with the Census 

°P era ( ^ on ^ corredness or 0therwise f the results obtained.-l consider the results very 

good. 

(k) Vital statistics.— -Not collected in this district. 

(/) Emigration and immigration.— I do not consider this has been affected by roads, 
but is due to the steady yearly increase. 

From R. C. M. S?mns, Esq., i.c.s., Deputy Commissioner, Thatfin, to the Superintendent of Census Opera- 
tions, Burma,— No. 1156-20H.— i, dated the 4th April 1901. 
I HAVE the honour to forward a report on the Census operations of this district in ac- 
cordance with Circular No. 24 of 1901 as follows: — 

(a) Preparation of general village register and circle list.— Copies of the register 
were received here during the third week of April and distributed to the Subdivisional Officers 
the same week, with clear and definite instructions as to the proper and correct method of 
preparing the same. * * * The completion of the register in July was followed by 
the preparation of circle lists by the Charge Superintendents and Supervisors in concert, which 
was got through with sufficient rapidity. 

(b) House-numbering.— -This was taken in hand on the 15th October in Kyaikto sub- 
division and completed on the 15th November. In Thaton subdivision it was begun on the 1st 
October 1901 and got through about the 16th November, while in Pa-an it started on the 1st 
November and ended on the 22nd December. 

***** 

(c) Agency employed. — Land Record Inspectors were appointed Charge Superintendents 
in their respective townships, while the revenue surveyors, taikthugyis, and ywathugyis 
were employed as Supervisors, and the ten-house gaungs and comparatively intelligent vil- 
lagers were selected to undertake the work of enumeration. 

***** 





\d) Preliminary enumeration 




Name of subdivision. 


Date of commencement. 


Date of completion. 


Kyaikto 

That8n 

Pa-an 


15th January 1901 
4 th February 1901 
15th January 1901 


15th February 19,01. 
15th February 1901. 
23rd February igoi. 



From the above it will be seen that, except in the Thaton subdivision, it took over a month 
to complete the preliminary enumeration. * _ * The testing work done by the 

Charge Superintendents and Supervisors was quite satisfactory and was as complete as could 
be expected of them. They were not only hampered by their legitimate duties of hwin inspect- 
ing and preparing land revenue assessment-rolls, which demanded their equally prompt atten- 
tion, but also they were put to considerable inconvenience and trouble by the absence of the 
majority of the villagers in the fields. 

* * * * * 

[e)- Final enumeration. — This was done on the night of the 1st March everywhere in 
the district, starting from 6 p.m., till, in some cases, the small hours of the following morning. 
All Census officers from the Charge Superintendents downwards have, I understand, done 
their best from first to last. * * * The Subdivisional Officer, Kyaikto, com- 
mends the following officers to my notice as having done good Census work, — Maung Po 
Yeik, Township Officer; Maung Shwe Win, thugyi; Maung Ba Kyaw, head clerk; and 
Maung Shwe Paw, tuiksaye- The Subdivisional Officer, Pa-an, mentions Maung Bya and 
Maung Ba Pu, Land Records Inspectors, Maung San Tu, head clerk, and Maung Ba Thein 
and Maung Thin, clerks, as having taken great pains in the work. The following officers have 
done well in the That6n subdivision,— Maung Po U, Land Records Inspector, and Maung Po 
Thein, Land Records Inspector. 

(/) The charge and circle summaries were received in the district office between the 
3rd and the 7th March. The instructions contained in Circular No. 16 of 1900 were follow- 
ed and special messengers employed in cases of remote tracts where delay in the receipt of 
summaries was anticipated. The preparation of the district summary was taken in hand by 
Mr. Godber, Additional District Judge, as soon as the charge and circle summaries were in 



APPENDICES. XXX111 

and the preliminary figures of three townships had to be worked upon for the " provisional 
totals," as the final were not received in time. By 9 o'clock at night on the 7th March the 
required telegrams were ready and despatched to Rangoon and Calcutta. 

(g) Operations in non-synchronous tracts — Hlaingbwe. — Commenced on the 1st Febru- 
ary and ended on the 26th February ; some Supervisors and Enumerators had to be engaged 
at a cost of Rs. 219-12-0. 

The services of one chief head constable and three police sergeants were utilized as 
Supervisors and Enumerators. 

***** 

(h) No prosecutions under the Act were instituted in this district. A few cases of re- 
missness and neglect of Census duty were, however, brought to my notice, but they were not 
of such a nature as called for punishment. * * * The total actual cost of the opera- 
tions in this district amounted to Rs. 344-12-6 up to date, and the results appear to me to be 
satisfactory and correct. 

(k) Vital statistics. — There have been no epidemics of any note in the district during 
the past decade. 

(/) Emigration and immigration during the past 10 years. — The native population will 
be found to have increased in the Thaton subdivision as native coolies have gradually ousted 
the Burmans to a large extent. 



From R. C. M. Symns, Esq., i.c.s., President, That6n Municipality, to the Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma, — No. 56-32, dated the 9th March 1901. 

In compliance with your Circular No. 24 of 1901 (Census Department No. 223-51C.O., 
dated the 18th January 1901), I have the honour to report as follows: — 
(a) Circle lists were prepared in accordance with the rules. 

(6) House-numbering commenced from the 3rd October and was completed on the 
20th November 1900 in the town. For the Tabaung festival the numbering 
of stalls commenced on the 26th February 1901 and was completed on the 
same date. 

(c) There were two charge Superintendents, both were Gazetted "officers, seven- 

Supervisors, five Weird headmen and the other two the Subdivisional Police 
Officer and the Municipal Secretary. There were 94 Enumerators employ- 
ed in the town and Tabaung feast ; 23 were clerks, school-masters and 
policemen, the remaining 71 were selected persons. 

[d) The preliminary enumeration commenced on the 16th January 1901 and was 

completed on the 31st January 1901. 
{e) The final enumeration was carried out under the superintendence of the Presi- 
dent and Charge Superintendents. 
(/) The summaries were completed and despatched on the 6th March 1901 to the 

Deputy Commissioner, That6n. 
{g) Among the Charge Superintendents Mr. Godber and Maung Shaung did invalu- 
able work. Among the Supervisors Maung Wuna, a ward headman, was 
conspicuous in dealing with the Binhlaing quarter. The festival was under 
Maung Chit Tun's charge. He, as Secretary, had a great deal of super- 
vision beyond this. It was owing to his exertions that the streets were 
deserted during the Census and that the enumeration was so quickly conclud- 
ed. 
Owing to preliminary hitches, I found it necessary to appoint a number of headquarter 
clerks as Enumerators in Lewe-in and other circles. Among these the following were pre- 
eminent, though all worked well : — 

Maung Ba Thaw. 



Maung Po Yin. 
Maung Cho. 
Maung Po Yin. 
Maung Po Maung. 
Maung Chit Swe. 



Maung Aung Gyi. 
Maung Sein Thwin. 
Maung Tun Hla. 
Maung Chan Nyein. 



From K G. Borne, Esq., Deputy Commissioner, Amherst, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma,— No. 2864-10—47, dated the 23rd April 1901. 

I HAVE the honour, with reference to your Circular No. 24 of 1901 (Census Department 
No. 223-5 iC, of the l8th J anuaf y last )» to submit the following report. 

# % * * * 

MOULMEIN TOWN. 
The town for Census purposes was divided into two charges under two Charge Superin- 
tendents the Secretary and Engineer to the Municipality being the one for the northern por - 
tion and Mr E C S. "Shuttieworth being the other for the southern portion. 
' * * * * * 



XXXIV APPENDICES. 

•Each Supervisor was supplied with a map of his circle. Circle lists with maps were 
prepared in accordance with the instructions given in Circular No. 8 and were in the hands ot 
the Supervisors by the 1 5th November. Both the abstracts of the general town register 
and the map were submitted to the Superintendent, Census Operations, in August 1900. 

* * * * * 

(6) House-numbering commenced in November and was completed by the end of No- 
vember. The numbering carried out for Municipal purposes was found not to be generally 
suitable for Census operations, so houses had to be re-numbered. * 

(c) Agency employed.— The town was divided into two charges— northern and southern 
—one Superintendent for each, with a total of 275 Supervisors and Enumerators, mostly con- 
sisting of officials and headmen of wards, but many of the latter proved, from insufficient edu- 
cation, useless for the work, and their places were taken by ordinary citizens, such as brokers 
and others. 

(d) Preliminary enumeration. — In the northern division the preliminary work commenc- 
ed oh the 6th February and was completed on the 10th, and thoroughly tested on the 12th and 
13th. In the southern the preliminary work commenced on the 15th, and was completed on the 
27th. 

As to testing, this was done by the Charge Superintendents and myself. 
***** 

In a future Census I think it would be better, if the Census taking is to be in towns in 
the busiest part of the year, to make mill-owners Census officers. It would also be well to 
make all occupiers of houses living in separate compounds fill up a schedule for their house- 
hold and servants. 

(e) Final enumeration. — The work was, I think, satisfactorily performed. * * * 

It gives me pleasure to mention the names of the following : — 

Northern. 
Mr. R. P Wilcox, Secretary and Engineer, Municipality. 
Maung Po Thaung, Akunwun, Municipal office (since resigned), who did excellent 

service. 
M. Mahomed Shah, H. Hutton, W. H. Gay, Maung Po Pe, G. Gwan Teik, Maung 

Chit Kaing, Maung Kyi Maung, Maung Po Kin, Maung Hman, Maung Kin, 

Maung Po Yin, Maung Tha Han. 

Southern. 

Mr. E. C. S. Shuttleworth, Assistant Superintendent of Police. 
Maung San Nyi, Inspector of Police. 
Thatia Naidu, Interpreter and Headman of ward. 
Maung Kaing, Maung Aung Myat, Mr. Abreu in charge of Distillery. 
(/) Preparation of the district, charge and circle summaries.— The'procedure laid down 
in Chapter XII was followed and everything was completed for the preparation of the district 
totals by the 5th March. 

v * * * ^. 

(h) There were no prosecutions. 

* * * * 
(i) The total cost of the operations amounted to Rs. 21-15-5. 



* * * * 



* 



Amherst District. 
(a) Preparation of general register of villages or towns and of circle lists * * 

% # ^ :*; " 

On receipt of Revenue Department No. 1 12-3C— 1, dated the 6th April, after carefully 
digesting its contents, Subdivisional Officers and Township Officers were summoned to head 
quarters and the preparation of the register discussed. After return to their respective charges 
the register was prepared, but before the register was accepted as satisfactory several more 
meetings took place and references had to be made to correct errors and omissions 

* * * :f: J, 

Village maps were prepared by Revenue Surveyors in the settled tract, and, as well as 
could be done, for the unsurveyed tract. * * * 

Each Supervisor was provided with one and they had to see that in going round a villas 
no house or building likely to be inhabited on the night of the Census was omitted from the 

IT13.p. 

***** 

When the general register was completed an abstract was submitted to the Superinten 
dent of Census. F ««lcu 

The circle list was, before final adoption, subjected to much testing. 



APPENDICES. XXX JT 

(b) House-numbering. — The date of commencement and completion in each case was as 
follows :— 

Moulmein subdivision. 
Commenced on the 30th November; completed on the 14th December. 

Amherst subdivision. 

Commenced on theist October as regards Wagaru and Bilugyun, on the 15th October as 
regards Zaya and Yelamaing; completed on the 15th November. 

Kawkareik subdivision. 

Commenced in October for synchronous and non-synchronous tracts; completed at the 
end of November for the former and the middle of December for the latter. 

(c) Agency employed. — Eleven Charge Superintendents, 99 Supervisors, and 1,112 
Enumerators. 

As regards Charge Superintendents and Supervisors, they consisted of officials, Town- 
ship Officers, Inspectors of Land Records, revenue surveyors, &c. ; and for Enumerators, 
village headmen and ten-house gaungs ; but when the latter were illiterate, then teachers 
and literate agriculturists, &c. 

(d) Preliminary enumeration. — This commenced on the 15th January and was over by 
the 31st. The work done in testing was not only extensive but thorough. 

***** 

(e) Final enumeration. — It is difficult to select, as all, except two or three gave full 
satisfaction. Amongst those who deserve special mention are — 

Charge Superintendents. 

Maung Pe, Township Officer, Ataran. 
Maung Shwe Thein, pensioned Police Inspector. 
Maung Kauk, Headman, Kawkareik. 
Maung Po Ka, Township Officer, Wagaru. 

Supervisors. 

Maung Tun Tha, Forest Ranger. 

Maunf Shwe A Than} Ist class Constables. 

Maung Saik Te, Circle Thugyi. 

Maung Kin, Kyonkadat. 

Maung Auk Pan, of Budag6n. 

Maung Ta Dut, Thugyi of Tagundaing. 

Maung Po Hnya, Thugyi of Kalwi. 

Maung Po Hein, of Kamamo. 

Maung Po Kin, of Sebala. 

Maung Tha E, Thugyi of Kado. 

Maung Gyi, Thugyi of Kawtun. 

Enumerators. 

Muhammad Sultan, Clerk, Subdivisional Officer's Court, Kawkareik. 

* * * * # 

(/) Preparation 0/ the district, charge and' circle summaries.— The arrangements 
generally were as follows On the morning following the final enumeration the Enumera 
tors had to go to a selected " rendezvous," where they met their Supervisors, and checking was 
done. The Supervisors and Enumerators then met the Charge Superintendent, when check- 
ing was again gone through and the charge summaries prepared, and special messengers 
arranged beforehand, employed to proceed with the figures to the Subdivisional Officer who 
arranged that they should reach the hands of the Deputy Commissioner by wire. The result 
was, I was able to wire the district totals on the 6th. 

* * * * ;jj 

{g) The operations in non-synchronous tracts.— Having settled upon the tract and re- 
ceiving the approval of the Superintendent of Census, I was able to employ 43 police con- 
stables to assist as Enumerators in addition to others selected Lorn literate villagers. 

The Charge Superintendents and Supervisors were all, except four, Government servants. 

The difficulties that had to be combated were more difficulties of communication, owing to 
the wild nature of the country in parts, and it was necessary to employ police. 

The figures obtained may be regarded at any rate as approximately correct. 

* * * * # 



XXXV1 APPENDICES. 

(k) There were no prosecutions and the attitude of the people was quite satisfactory. 

***** 
(i) The total cost of the operations amounted to Rs. 407-10-6. 
(7) I believe the results obtained are fairly correct. 

***** 
In conclusion I beg to bring to notice the services rendered by Subdivisional Officer 
MaungNgwe Kaingin checking the schedules and totals, which enabled me to get the figures 
in by the 6th March. He worked early and late and thoroughly. 



From Commander G. A. Rose, R.I.M., Port Officer, Moulmein, to the Deputy Commissioner, Amherst, — No. 

2479-S. — 34, dated the 15th March 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge receipt of a copy of Census Circular No. 24 of 190 1, 
and to submit my report in connection with the Census operations on the river which came 
under my orders. 

{a) The preparation of the circle list necessitated no small amount of labour, as I had 
to obtain a sketch of the foreshore and demarcate same to avoid any mistakes about boundary 
limits on the Census night. 

(b) Boat-numbering. — None was made, as boats had been numbered when taking out 
licenses and they are constantly moving about. 

(c) The Port Officer was the Charge Superintendent. 

***** 
(e) The work carried out by each Supervisor and Enumerator was to my satisfaction. 

***** 
{f) The circle summaries, together with the charge summary, were sent to the President 
of the Moulmein Municipality on the morning of the 2nd and a supplementary one on the 5th 
March 1 90 1, the S. S. Maharants figures having only been received on the 4th afternoon. 
***** 
(h) There were no prosecutions. 

***** 
(z) The total cost in connection with the river Census is as follows : — 

Boat-hire 
Cost of lamps 
Cost of stores 
Cost of ink-bottles 
Cost of gharry-hire 



This was paid from the Port fund. 
* * 



Ks. 


A. 


p. 


... 61 


15 





... 5 


10 





1 


7 


1 


... 6 


4 





... 4 








79 


4 


1 



From Captain H. N. Warde, Deputy Commissioner, Tavoy, lo the Superintendent, Census Ooeraimnc; 
Burma,— No. 675-5C., dated the 25th March 1901. e 

IN compliance with Circular No. 24 of igoi, I have the honour to forward a brief report 
on the Census operations under the different heads called for. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages or towns and of the circle 
list. — No special remark is necessary. The orders were duly carried out without any difficulty 
The map was prepared by the Land Records Department. 

(b) House-numbering.— The house-numbering commenced about the 15th October iqoo 
and was completed throughout most of the district by the 30th November. It was noticeable 
that the love of art in the Burmese character showed itself in the making of carved boards in 
places for the house numbers. 

(c) The agency employed.— Seven Charge Superintendents (6 for the district and 1 for the 
town), 91 Supervisors, and 894 Enumerators were employed. 

The Charge Superintendents for the district were all Myooks and Inspectors of Land 
Records. The Circle Supervisors were mostly taikthugyis; some were village headmen rev- 
enue surveyors, taiksayes, police sergeants, and Myooks' clerks. The Enumerato-s were 
generally headmen, and ten-house gaungs, and respectable persons who could write and who 
were willing to take up the duty. 

* * * * „. 

(d) Preliminary enumeration.- -The enumeration was commenced on the 1 S th Tanuarv 
1901 1 and was completed m the first week of February. Much useful work was done in testing 
by the district officials. S 

* * * * . 



APPENDICES. XXX Vll 

..' (e). The final enumeration. — I consider the quality of the work performed was generally 
adequate. As to the Charge Superintendents, Maung Lu Han had the most important and 
populous, charge, namely, the town, and his work, which the Census Superintendent checked 
personally, is, I consider, worthy of special mention and p.aise. Of the other Charge Superin- 
tendents, Maung Tha Zan U, Maung Shwe Chaung, Maung Shwe Myu, and Maung Thein 
Maung, all deserve credit for the way they carried out their duties. 

(f) The preparation of district and charge summaries. — These were prepared accord- 
ing, to the orders and no serious hitch took place. * * * 

(g) The operations in non^synchronous areas. Central township. — For the villages of 
Aungthawara, Ayu, Amya, and Sinbyudaing the enumeration was taken on the 29th Decem- 
ber I goo and completed on the 15th February 1901. 

For the villages in the Kyauktwin arid Kamaungthwe circles the enumeration commenced 
on the 1st January and was completed on the 15th February 1901. 

South-eastern township. — For the non-synchronous villages in the South-eastern town- 
ship the enumeration commenced on the 1 1 th January and was completed on the 15th of the 
follfcwihg month. 

No special difficulty arose in the riori-synchronous enumeration, intelligent dfficers being 
appointed as Enumerators for each charge. 

(h) Prosecutions under the Act. — There were no prosecutions under the Act. * * * 

(i) -The total cost of the operations was Rs. 251-11-6. 

(j) The correctness or otherwise of the results obtained. — As the work was carried out 
with care and properly supervised, it is, I think, fair to hold that the figures for this district 
are as correct as_Census figures ordinarily are. 

(k) Vital statistics. — These statistics show that from the year 1891 the births have 
largely outnumbered the deaths, the figures being 27,380 births as against 15,012 deaths, 
which is very satisfactory. * * * 

In conclusion I desire to express my appreciation of my chief clerk Mr. Gallope's services. 
The Census has put a great deal of extra work on him, and he has worked loyally and inde- 
fatigably to ensure its success. 

Maung Po Thein, who was appointed as special officer to check the figures, gave a good 
deal of his time to the work. 



From D. Ross, Esq., Deputy Commissioner, Mergui, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma, — 

No. 245, dated the 25th March 1901. 

AS requested in your letter No. 223-51 — C. 0., dated the 18th January 19O1, I have the 
honour to forward herewith a brief report on the Census operations generally in the Mergui 
district. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages or towns and of the circle 

list.- — This ^work was completed long before my time. It was carried out as directed in the 

instructions. * 

***** 

(b) House-numbering. — House-numbering commenced on the 1st October and was com- 
pleted by the end of November. 

***** 

(c) The agency employed. — Including the non-synchronous tracts we had eight Charge 
Superintendents, 39 Supervisors, and 543 Enumerators. 

The Charge Superintendents were the Township Officers, and for the Selongs and the 
pearling fleet the work was entrusted to the late Mr. Clogstoun, District Superintendent of 
Police, and the Akunwun Maung U respectively. 

The Supervisors were'Revenue Surveyors and Inspectors where available, arid in other 
places taikthugyis, clerks, &c, were employed. 

Enumerators were drawn from all classes. 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration ; work done in testing it, &c— The preliminary enu- 
meration was completed in most places, though not in all, by the 15th February. It was 
finally completed everywhere by the 28th February. 

***** 

(e) The final enumeration. — As regards the final enumeration there is little that I can 
usefully say, except that no pains were spared to make it a success, and both myself and my 
officers confidently expected to be able to despatch our telegram on the evening of the 5th 
March. The launch got back to Mergui on the 3rd, bringing the charge summaries from 
the Maliwun subdivision, the Bokpyin township, the Ye-e circle of Mergui township, arid the 
Southern and Central Selongs. * * * I found that the Palaw totals were delayed 
for want of the results from the Tanyet-kayin circle {Taikthugyi Maung Kya Yon). * * 
* The Township Officer of Palaw arrived on the 5th, but the Tanyet-kayin Supervisor 
did not produce his summary till late on the evening of the 8th. 

***** 



XXXVllI APPENDICES. 

For my officers I have nothing but praise. All the Township Officers, Revenue in- 
spectors and surveyors worked well and took the most lively interest in their duties. T aik- 
thugyis, when emploved, also did well. Mr. Carrapiett, Subdivisional Officer, Mergui, had 
much work to do and"did it well. Mr. Gahan, Treasury Officer, had charge of the Municipality 
and Port Census. He was also charged with the checking and preparation of the district 
summary. His work was careful and good throughout and he did not spare himself any 
trouble. 

The troublesome enumeration of the Selongs was carried out by the late Mr. K. f. 
Clogstoun, District Superintendent of Police, who made careful and successful plans. 
***** 

The pearling fleet was successfully censused under the orders of the Akunwun 
Maung U. 

Maung Maung, Township Officer of B6kpyin, and Mr. D. L. Richardson respectively 

carried out the non-synchronous census of the Bokpyin and Maliwun townships. I think 

that all the officers I have named, as well as Maung Ko, Township Officer, Mergui, Maung 

Shan Byu, Township Officer, Palaw, and Maung So, Township Officer, Tenasserim, are worthy 

of honourable mention. 

***** 

(g) The operations in non-synchronous areas. — The non-synchronous areas were — 
(i) The Maliwun township. 

(2) The Lenya township. 

(3) The Pawut circle of the Tenasserim township. 

(4) The Sejongs. 

In Maliwun the enumeration was commenced on the 1 ith February and was completed on the 
27th February. The villages from Hak-kok northward were enumerated by the Subdivisional 
Officer with the help of the Forest-guard, Maung San Dun ; from Maliwun tin-mines to 
Victoria Point by M. A. Musaji, the Customs clerk ; from Paluton-ton northwards along the 
sea-coast by Mr. Wakley, Subdivisional Police Officer, assisted by Sergeant Maung Ba Pe. 

The Township Officer, Lenya, has not reported fully on the points referred to in the 
heading to this paragraph. He employed nine Enumerators. The work was commenced on 
the 1st February and was completed by the 19th. A severe epidemic of small-pox raged at 
the time of enumeration, the people fled into the jungles, and there was much trouble in find- 
ing some of them. The. Pawut circle of Tenasserim was enumerated by the Myook's second 
clerk. He commenced on the 4th February and had finished by the 24th. The enumer- 
ation of the Selongs was carried out by the late Mr. Clogstoun. 

(h) Prosecutions under the Act.— There were no prosecutions. Some Chinese carpen- 
ters, probably from ignorance, were insolent to the Enumerator and their prosecution was pro- 
posed, but when Tdiscovered that the Commissioner's sanction was necessary before a prose- 
cution could be started the idea was abandoned. 

5J! >j* 3f -T- Sff 

(z) The total actual cost of the operations. — The actual amount of money spent and 
paid away in the district was Rs. 338-1 3-4. 



From Captain S. L, AplIn, Deputy Commissioner, Thayetmyo, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma, — No. 1676-Census, dated trie 18th March 1901. 

WITH reference to Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the honour to report as follows: — 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages and towns and of the circle lists 
Was carried out in accordance with the instructions. The Deputy Commissioner, Subdivi- 
sional Officers, and Township Officers verified a large number of entries. 

(b) House-numbering commenced on different dates in different parts of the district, 
the earliest date being the 10th October. It was all completed before the end of November. 

(c) Agency employed [excluding Cantonments and Sudder bazaar).~-The total num- 
bers were as follows : — 

Number. 
Charge Superintendents ... ... ... ... 10 

Supervisors ... ... ... ... ... 148 

Enumerators ... ... ... .., ... 1,776 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 18th January and completed 
on the 10th February. 

(e) The final enumeration.—^ officers did their best to ensure, accuracy and the 
prompt despatch of the final results to headquarters. The following officers, however, de- 
serve special mention: — 

Among the Subdivisional Officers Maung Tha No deserves special mention for the keen 
and intelligent interest he has taken in the operations from the commencement and for the 



APPENDICES. XXXIX 

excellent arrangements he made for the prompt submission to headquarters of the summaries, 
&c, from the more distant parts of his subdivision. All the Charge Superintendents did ex- 
cellent work, and it is difficult to select one in preference to another; but the following 
officers were specially noticeable for the pains they took to secure good results in their 
respective charges : — 

Mr. Murray, Assistant Superintendent of Police. 
Myo6k Maung Tha Mo. 
Myo6k Maung Ba Than. 

In addition I would specially mention my Chief Clerk Maung Po Lun, who has from first to 
last rendered me the greatest assistance. 

(/) The district, charge and circle summaries were prepared in accordance with the 
instructions. The arrangements made for the early submission of data for the provisional 
totals were most successful. Extensive use was made of the mounted police, who proved 
themselves most useful. Last Census part of the old Taingda township was treated as a 
non-synchronous area, but this year there were no special tracts. There was some danger 
of the figures for some of the more distant parts of the district not reaching the district 
headquarters in time for the district totals to be telegraphed to Rangoon and Calcutta be- 
fore the 7th March, and, in case the arrangements made should prove defective, copies of 
the preliminary record were, prepared for submission to headquarters. The arrangements 
made, however, did not fail in any single instance. Most of the circle summaries, &c, 
reached the district headquarters on Sunday, the 3rd March, and none (for the district) were 
later than Monday morning. 

(g) Non-synchronous areas. — Nil. 
(A) Prosecutions. — -Nil. 

The attitude of the people towards the operations was as a rule one of passive indiffer- 
ence. They did not give much assistance, but on the other hand did not create difficulties 
and, generally speaking, obeyed all the directions they received without murmur or com- 
plaint. 

(*') The total cost of the operations, exclusive of the cost of forms, stationery, and the 
like supplied by the Census office, was Rs. 34-5-6. 

****** 

(k) Vital statistics. — There have been no epidemics which affected the total popu- 
lation, and every year the births have been (except in 1894) far more numerous than the 
deaths. In spite of this the population for the district is some 10,284 less than when the 
last Census was taken. The reason for this is that at this season of the year large num- 
bers of men from this district flock to the delta, where they can find remunerative employ- 
ment as coolies. During the rains these men return to their homes. 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — Beyond the temporary emigration to Lower Bur- 
ma referred to in the last paragraph there has been little emigration from, or immigration 
into, this district. 



From J. D. FraSer, Esq., i.c.s., Deputy Commissioner, Pakokku, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma, — No. 1093-C. — 3, dated the 3rd April 1901. 

In accordance with the instructions contained in your Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have 
the honour to submit a report on the Census operations in this district. 

(a) Each Township Officer prepared a list of villages for his township immediately after 
the issue of orders last May, and, had the exact position of these villages been known, there would 
have been no difficulty in at once dividing the township or charge into circles. Unfortunately 
there was no accurate map of the district in existence, numerous villages did not appear at all 
on the map, and it was quite impossible to distribute into circles : in other cases hamlets ap- 
peared on the map at improbable distances from their headman's village with other intervening 
hamlets and villages. It was essential to obtain a map showing the real position of all villages 
in the charge, and with this object each Township Officer was supplied with a i-inch map of 
his charge with all known villages entered * * * to be brought up to date. The 
location of all villages and hamlets took "a considerable time, and it was only at the beginning 
of November that the Deputy Commissioner was in a position to mark off each charge into 
circles". 

*#*#*# 

(b) House-numbering was carried out in November. Some confusion occurred in Seikpyu 
township through the issue in September of separate instructions for numbering thathameda 
houses. * * *. 

(c) There are eight townships in the district and the Township Officer was appointed 
Charge Superintendent in each case. * * *. Supervisors and Enumerators were, with 
a few exceptions, village headmen. * * *. In all there were employed nine Charge 
Superintendents, 194 Circle Supervisors, and 2,245 Block Enumerators. 



A APPENDICES. 

(d) Preliminary enumeration commenced at the middle of January and was generally com- 
pleted by the 15th February. * * * I found an extreme reluctance to make a begin- 
ning on the printed forms ; in Tilin township all the entries were first made on spare paper and 
were all checked by the Charge Superintendent before transfer to the printed forms. 

(e) All the Charge Superintendents took a keen interest in their work. 

(/ ) Maung Po Hla, Subdivisional Officer, Pakokku, was put in charge of the special 
work of preparation of the district summary. 

The preliminary figures were adopted for the Gangaw, Tilin, Pasok, and Seikpyu charges. 
***** 

(h) There were no prosecutions ; the attitude of the people was generally one of absolute 
indifference. In Pakokku town, I was told, some of the low class natives of India gave trou- 
ble by reluctance to answer questions. 

(z ) The total cost of the operations was Rs. 149-6-0, comprised as follows: — 

Rs. A. P. 

(1) Cart and cooly hire, &c. ... ... 50 14 o 

(2) Freight ... ... ... ... 100 

(3) Travelling expenses ... ... ... 97 80 

(/) It is possible that a few travellers escaped Census, but I should put the proportion as 
low as 1 per cent. 



Census Report for the Minbu District by H. S. Pratt, Esq., i.c.s., Officiating Deputy Commissioner. 

(a) General Register, Form A.— The first 100 copies were received on the 17th April. 
On the 25th April a manuscript form of list of villages was sent to Subdivisional Officers with 
instructions for verification on the 7th June. General Register, Form A, with Census map 
and instructions, were sent to the Subdivisional Officers to verify and fill in omissions. 

* * * * * 

Census Circular No. 8 of 1900, regarding circle lists, was received on the 7th Septem- 
ber. * * * Circle list forms were received on the nth October 1900. Circle lists 
and maps were prepared and sent to the Subdivisional Officers, to be given to the Charge 
Superintendents, on the 20th October. 

I consider it was a mistake to attempt to prepare the general register in the district 
office in the rough. Had the Subdivisional Officers been instructed to draw up the register 
for their subdivisions at first instead of being asked to revise an erroneous and in some cases 
misleading list, the preparation of the register would have been completed much earlier 
than it actually was and would probably not have had to be returned. * * * 

(b) House-numbering. Circular No. 10 of 1900 and Chapter 7 of the Census Code were 
received on the 5th October 1900 and issued with instructions to Subdivisional Officers on 
the 1 8th October 1900. No difficulty was experienced in house-numbering as all houses 
had been numbered in 1899 f° r general purposes, and all that was necessary in most cases 
was to revise and re-arrange existing numbers. 

The numbering of houses began in October and was completed in December. 

* * * * % 

(d) 7 he preliminary envmtration. — In the Sidoktaya township and in a large portion 
of tr.e Salin township the preliminary Census was made roughly on parabaiks long before the 
receipt of the schedules, so that where this had been done, when the schedules came the 
entries had merely to be copied into them and the preliminary Census was complete. This 
was also done in places in the Minbu subdivision. 

* * * * jj, 

The preliminary Census began in the rural tracts in the beginning of January and was 
completed about the middle of February. 

***** 

(e) The final enumeration began on the 1st March at dusk and was completed before 
daybreali in all instances. 

The Salin Municipal charge summary, circle summaries, and block abstracts and sche- 
dules were received at Minbu on the 3rd March. The charge summary for Salin township, 
north and south, came in on the 4th March and the 6th March ; Minbu town, 7U1 March ; Sagu 
7th March; Ngape, 9th March ; and Le gain g, toth March. It will be seen that the whole of the 
summaries in the Salin subdivision were received in Minbu before anv for the Minbu subdi- 
vision. Even the figures for Sidoktaya, where arrangements for provisional totals, if neces- 
sary, had been made, were in good time. * * * Of Charge Superintendents by 
far the best work was done by Maung Aung Kho, Additional Township Officer, Salin, who 
was in charge of the operations for Salin town, and Maung Shwe Pon, Land Records Inspec- 



APPENDICES. 



xii 



tor, Charge Superintendent, Sidoktaya. Maung Aung Kho threw, himself, heart and soul, in- 
to his work, and both he and Maung Swe Pon deserve great credit. Mr. Beale, Subdivisional 
Officer, Minbu, practically took the whole control of the Census of the Shwezettaw festival 
into his own hands and spared no trouble to secure the accuracy of the returns. Mr. Stir- 
ling, Executive Engineer, in charge of Irrigation Works at Aingma, rendered invaluable ser- 
vice in personally superintending the Census of the irrigation employes and their dependents. 

(/) Mr. Beale, Subdivisional Officer, Minbu, was appointed special officer for the pre- 
paration of district charge totals. 

The Minbu subdivision totals were all late and the Ngape and Legaing charges kept the 
figures for the district waiting for an undue period. 

There was absolutely no reason why the totals for all charges in the district should not 
have been in in time had the Charge Superintendents done their work efficiently from the 
commencement. All Charge Superintendents and Supervisors were supplied with cyclostyled 
copies of the form for summaries in addition to the printed form to prevent mistakes. 
***** 

(h) No prosecutions were instituted under the Act. * * * The attitude of 

the people towards the operations generally was good, and I found every one asked willing to 
give assistance. The advocates in Salin gave great assistance and their services and tho^e of 
their clerks were freely utilized. 

***** 

(t) The total cost of the operations, so far as can be ascertained, is Rs. 1 2-14-0, contingent 
charges. * * * 

(J) There is every reason to believe that the general results obtained give as correct an 
account of the population of the district on March 1st as can be obtained. 

JflC ?[i Sp "Jr JJC 

(/) There appears to have been a movement of agricultural labourers from Salin town- 
ship to Lower Burma and a tendency to settle there permanently, but the data on this point 
are inadequate and I am unable to give any detailed information. 

7r 4* t* t» *» 



From H. G. Batten, Esq., Deputy Commissioner, Magwe, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Bur- 
ma, — No. U68-4.H., dated the 27th March 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to report that I am submitting my Census schedules for this district, 
and as requested in your Circular No. 24 of I got, beg to make the following remarks on points 
noted : — 

(a) The first intimation received regarding Census operations was the receipt of 100 
forms of the general register of villages from the Superintendent, Government Printing, Burma, 
on the 17th April 1900. 

***** 

By the 20th of June the general register of villages was completed for the whole dis- 
trict and despatched to each Township Officer for check and for filling in names of persons 
suited to be appointed as Supervisors and Enumerators, and for the division of the villages into 
Census circles. 

***** 

By the nth of August all the registers were returned to this office and a Census map 
was prepared showing the distribution of charges and circles. 

* * * * * 

Circle lists. — The orders for the preparation of the circle lists were received on the 7th 
September and the preparation of the lists and circle maps was at once taken in hand, as also 
the appointment orders for Supervisors and Enumerators. 

* * * * * 

Register of towns. — Orders for its preparation were received on the 27th July, and the 

Superintendent, Government Printing, was asked by telegram to 

(1) Magwe. _ supply the necessary forms. On receipt, the necessary entries were 

M Yeran^aung' made and the re g isters issued on the 8th August. On return from 

13J e B y s- Charge Superintendents with the names of Supervisors and Enu- 

merators selected and division into circles, maps were prepared and submitted to the Superin- 
tendent with abstract of General Tqwns Register on the 1 2th September. 

Circle lists. Towns. — On the 15th October forms were received; they were duly pre- 
pared and distributed with maps and appointment orders for Supervisors and Enumerators on 
the 19th October. 

/ 



xlii 



APPENDICES. 



(b) House-numbering.— The orders regarding this were received on the 8th October, 
though the circle lists had only been received on the 4th October, having been indented lor 
on the Jth September. I, however, at once issued orders for the commencement of the house- 
numbering. 

***** 
In Natmauk and Myothit the numbering was kept back till I had myself personally in- 
structed the Supervisors and Enumerators, myself numbering certain villages in the presence 
of all concerned. 

***** 

(c) The agency employed— Charge Superintendents were the Township Officers, ex- 
cepting the Agents, Bombay Burma Trading Coporation, Limited, and Burma Oil Company, 
and Military Police, Magwe. 

■ Supervisors were chiefly village headmen or Government employes, and Enumerators were 
chosen from amongst the sharpest men of the villages chosen by the Supervisors or Charge 
S uperintendents. 

***** 

On the whole I found that both Supervisors and Enumerators worked willingly and well, and 
that the result is more satisfactory than could have been expected from the material available. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — This was considerably delayed owing to the non- 
receipt in sufficient time of forms and instructions and stationery. 

The general schedules, front and back covers, and block lists were not received till the 
2nd January 1901, though despatch was advised on the 19th December 1900. 
***** 

The preliminary enumeration was ordered to be commenced on the 1 5th January. 

***** 

The forms were distributed as soon as received, and Charge Superintendents were directed 
to allow of no delay in the forms reaching the hands of the Enumerators. 

a * * * * 

For future Censuses it would be advisable to arrange for the issue of ink in small bottles, 
the black in bottles of a shape common for sale in every bazaar, or better still, indelible ink 
pencils as used in the telegraphs, and the red ink in small narrow-necked bottles which could 
be suspended by a string to the Enumerator's jacket, the string being passed through the cork 
by which to extract the same. 

***** 

I would also suggest that all orders and circulars and fo.ms should be printed both in 
Burmese and English, and a sufficient number issued, so as to prevent the necessity of copies 
having to be made in district offices. 

***** 

(e) The final enumeration. — The quality of the work performed has been on the whole 
very satisfactory, and I do not think that it will be found that the returns are unsatisfactory. 

***** 

Thanks are specially due to Mr. Heald, I.C.S., Subdivbional Officer, Taungdwingyi, for his 
supervision of the work in the Taungdwingyi subdivision, and to Maung Po Sein, Township 
Officer, Taungdwingyi. 

***** 

Maung Kyaw Kaing, Headquarters Myook, Magwe, took special pains in supervising the 
work in Magwe town, and Maung Bo, Township Officer, Myingun, who had to take up the 
work after it was started in Myingun township, did extremely well. 

I am indebted to Mr. Ameen, Agent, Burma Oil Company, Yenangyaung, for his assistance. 
* * .* * * 

All Government clerks have had extra work thrown on them and have responded loyally 

Mr. Robson, my Chief Clerk, who has had charge of the Census work generally, has given 
me very great assistance and has added much to the general efficiency by his supervision and 
for thii he has my best thanks, as also his assistants, Maung Po Han, Maung Khwet,' and 
Maung Bo. 

■J* *P *r* •}• *k 

(/) The preparation of the district, charge and circle summaries.— Special arrange- 
ments were made for the early collection of the charge and circle summaries. Charge 
Superintendents waited at convenient centres, and the circle summaries were collected and 
sent in by mounted messengers. The totals from NatWuk and Myothit were sent in by spe- 
cial messengers to the Subdivisional Officer, Taungdwingyi, who wired totals for his subdivision 
generally. 



APPENDICES. 



xliii 



The totals from Yenangyaung were wired direct, and the totals for Magwe town and 
township and Myingun township were received direct. 

***** 

I was able to submit my district totals, excepting the Bombay Burma Trading Corpora- 
tion, Limited, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Rangoon, and to the Census Commis- 
sioner, Calcutta, by the afternoon of the 4th March, and next day was able to wire the 
complete total. 

***** 

(g) The operations in non-synchronous areas.-— There were no non-synchronous areas, 
and the whole final enumeration was practically completed on the night of the 1st March. 

(h) Prosecutions under the Act. — There were no prosecutions necessary and the atti- 
tude of the people towards the operations was friendly and showed a certain amount of 
apathetic curiosity. 

***** 

(i) The total actual cost of the operations. — The expenditure under this head was Rs. 
1 57-10-0 for the whole district. 

***** 

(/) The correctness or otherwise of the results obtained. — I would note that, as far as 
possible, I myseh did what I could to push on and check the Census operations. 

***** 

As far as my own experience goes, and this being my fourth Census, I consider the work 
has been very satisfactory. 

***** 

The district total is an increase of 27,000 over the returns of 1891, and, in my opinion, 
this is about what the increase has been. 

***** 

(k) Vital statistics. — During the decade there has been only one serious outbreak of 
cholera. 

***** 

There is no registration of births in this district except within the municipal limits of 
Taungdwingyi, and the registration of deaths only commenced in April 1 899. 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — During the past 10 years there has been a constant 
emigration and immigration throughout the district, but chiefly in the Taungdwingyi subdi- 
vision. 

***** 



From Major W. A. W. Strickland, Deputy Commissioner, Mandalay, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma, — No. 2273-1C, dated the 6th May 1901. 

With reference to Census Department Circular No. 24, dated the 18th January 1901, I 
have the honour to report as follows on the Census operations in this district. 

(a) The general village registers and circle lists. — These were prepared at Man- 
dalay at the office of the Superintendent of Land Records and sent to Subdivisional Officers 
for check and return, and finally distributed to Charge Superintendents between the 7th and 
13th November 1900, with full instructions in detail for their guidance, explaining the nature 
and importance of the work devolving on each of them. 

(b) House-numbering. — The following table gives the date of commencement and com- 
pletion of the house-numbering both in the town and district. 

* . * * * * 



Charge. 


Date of commencement. 


Date of completion. 


Mandalay Town, north 
Mandalay Town, south 
Mandalay Town, east 
Mandalay Town, west 
Mandalay Cantonments ... 
Maymyo subdivision 
Amarapura subdivision 
Madaya subdivision 


27th November 1900 ... 
27th November 1900 ... 
27th November 1900 ... 
25th November 1900 ... 
1st December 1900 
13th September 1900 ... 
17th November 1900 ... 
8th December 1900 


4th December 1900. 
21st December 1900. 
4th December 1900. 
23rd December 1900. 
17th December 1900. 
28th Pctober 1900. 
20th November 1900, 
31st December 1900. 



xliv 



APPENDICES. 



(c) Agency employed. — The Charge Superintendents in Mandalay were the Easte.n and 
Western Subdivisional Officers, the Akunwun of the Deputy Commissioner's office, the Re- 
gistrar of Town Lots, and the Cantonment Magist ate (for the civil portion of the Canton- 
ments). Captain R. J. Savi of the 30th M. I. (5th Burma Battalion) was the Charge Superin- 
tendent of the Military portion of the Cantonment. 

In this district Township Officers were appointed Charge Superintendents. 
The Supervisors and Enumerators were Government clerks, thugyis, revenue surveyors, 
village thugyis, thugyis' clerks, cultivators, traders, and villagers. 

***** 

(d) Preliminary enumeration. — The following table gives the dates of the commence- 
ment and completion of the preliminary enumeration: — 



Station or subdivision. 


Date of commencement. 


Date of completion. 


"Mandalay Town 

Mandalay Cantonments 

Maymyo 

Amarapura 

Madaya 


1st February 1901 
2nd February 1901 
20th January 1901 
1st Februarj' igol 
1st Februarj- 1901 


22nd February 1901. 
15th February 1901. 
20th February 1901. 
2 1 st February 190 1. 
25th February 1901. 



In the rural tracts of the Amarapura subdivision the preliminary enumeration commen- 
ced on the 15th January and was completed on the 20th February. 

* * * * * 

With regard to the enumeration in the district some trouble was experienced in the 
Maymyo and Amarapura subdivisions. In the former difficulties arose when Burman Enu- 
merators had to enumerate natives of India. There was trouble in getting entries at all and, 
when obtained, the data as regards race, religion, and birth-place were invariably wrong. The 
Charge Superintendents were unable to correct these errors and the Subdivisional Officer and 
his Clerk had therefore to question each native of India personally to obtain accurate inform- 
ation. Even those Enumerators who were themselves Natives of India had to be closely 
supervised to ensure accuracy. Apart from this the only other difficulty that presented itself 
was in filling up the occupation columns of the schedules ; this was unfortunately increased 
by the mistranslation of a circular which directed Enumerators to enter the household occu- 
pation of women and children. In many enumeration books this column had to be entirely 

re- written. 

***** 

(e) Final enumeration. — I am of opinion that the Census operations of this district were 
carried out in a most satisfactory manner. * * * I do not think better results could 
have been obtained had a specially paid staff been employed. 1 attach a separate list giving 
the names of those who have been selected for special commendation and trust that their 
good work will be suitably noticed. 

(f) Preparation of district, charge and circle summaries. — In Mandalay the schedules 
were checked on the morning of the 2nd March by all Charge Superintendents and Super- 
visors and the circle and charge summaries prepared and completed on the 3rd. 

In the district the following procedure was adopted: — 
In the Maymyo subdivision all Enumerators were ordered to take in their enumeration 
books to the Supervisor's headquarters as soon as the final enumeration had been completed. 
* * * The summaries and schedule books were then brought into the township 

headquarters on the morning of the 2nd March, and the final checking and totalling carried 
out. They were then sent on to the subdivisional headquarters, where they were scrutinized 
closely by the Subdivisional Officer and then sent on to Mandalay, where they arrived at noon 
on the 3rd March. * * * 

In the Madaya and Amarapura subdivisions no special measures were adopted ; the returns 
of these subdivisions were promptly dealt with by the Subdivisional Officers, by whom they 
were carefully checked and despatched to Mandalay, where they were received at noon on the 
3rd March. 

(g) Operations iii non-synchronous areas. — There were no non-synchronous areas in 
this district. 

(h) Prosecutions under the Act. — There were no prosecutions under the Census Act. 
The people appeared to be indifferent as regards the operations. * * * 

(i) Total cost of operations. — The total cost of the operations, excluding petty contingent 
charges, amounts to Rs. 177-0-8. * * * 

(7) Correctness of the returns. — I have no reason to doubt that the work has been 
thoroughly and well done and that the results obtained are cirrect. 

(k) Vital statistics. — There have been no epidemics of such a nature as to cause a 
material and noticeable decrease in the population prevalent in this district during the last 
decade. 

***** 



APPENDICES. 



xh 



(I) Emigration and immigration. — No details can be furnished in this connection. The 
percentage of natives of India in this district, especially in the town of Mandalay, has vastly 
increased during the past decade, but there appear to be very few who come here to settle 
permanently. Those that are here are merely birds of passage. * * * 

List of Census officers and others selected for special commendation in the 

Mandalay district. 



Name. 


Occupation. 


Remarks. 


Mandalay. 






MaungTha Nyo 


Akunwun, Deputy Commissioner's office. 




Maung Po Ni 


Western Subdivisional Officer. 




Maung Chit Maung 


First Revenue Writer, Deputy Commissioner's office. 




Maung Ba Thin 


Stamp Clerk, Deputy Commissioner's office. 




Maung Po Chit 


Second Judicial Clerk, Deputy Commissioner's office. 




Maung Khin 


Ayat Lugyi of Pugyikyetthaye quarter. , 




Maung Ngwe Bu 


Ay at Lugyi of Megageri quarter. 




Maung Kywe 


Head Clerk, Western Subdivisional Officer's office. 




Maung Tha Dun 


Ayat Lugyi of Aungnanyeiktha quarter. 




Maung Myaing 


Ay at Lugyi of Aungnanyeiktha quarter, west. 




Maung So 


Ayat Lugyi of Aungnanyeiktha quarter, centre. 




Maung Cassim 


Ayat Lugyi of Aungnanyeiktha quarter, centre. 




Maymyo. 






Maung Po Yit 


Second Clerk, Subdivisional Officer's office. 




Maung Po 


Thugyi of Maymyo. 




Pyintha. 






Maung Po Tok 


Township Officer. 




Amarapura. 






Maung Su 


Head Clerk, Subdivisional Officer's office. 




Maung Tun Le 


Second Clerk, Township Officer's office. 




Maung Lu Gyi 


Head Clerk, Township Officer's office. 




Maung Myat Min 


Revenue Surveyor. 




Maung San Nyun 


Second Clerk, Subdivisional Officer's office. 




Maung Hla 


Apprentice Clerk," Subdivisional Officer's office. 




Maung Se 


Apprentice Clerk, Township Officer's office. 




Madaya. 






Maung Thin 


Township Officer, Madaya. 




Maung Swe 


Revenue Surveyor. 




Maung Thaik 


Revenue Surveyor. 




Maung Po Tu 


Head Clerk, Subdivisional Officer's office. 




Maung Ba Gyi ... ,„ 


Revenue Surveyor. 




Maung Tha D6k ... ... 


Revenue Surveyor. 




Patheingyi. 






Maung Paw U 


Revenue Surveyor. 




Maung Thaung 


Revenue Surveyor 




Maung Tu 


Revenue Surveyor. 




Maung Gale 


Township Officer. 


1 



From N. G. Cholmeley, Esq., l.C.s., Deputy Commissioner, Bhamo,;tothe Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma, — No. 380-41, dated the 28th March 1901. 

With reference to your Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the honour to submit a brief re- 
port on the operations connected with the Census in this district. 

***** 

The district was divided into four charges, comprising Bhamo town, the subdivisions of 
Bhamo, Shwegu, and the Kachin Hill Tracts. The latter, which at the time, of the previous 
Census were estimated merely, were now treated as non-synchronous areas and were under the 
superintendence of Mr. Rae, the Officer in charge of the Kachin Hill Tracts. The "Bhamo 
and Shwegu charges fell to the care of their respective Subdivisional Officers, Mr. Skinner and, 
for Shwegu, Mr. Scott and Maung Sein Yo, the latter taking over a fortnight only before the 
Census. Mr. Skinner was only relieved of his treasury work in January, before which time 
he was unable to visit his charge. It will be seen, therefore, that the whole district, and each 
subdivision individually suffered from changes of officers at a critical time, which necessarily 
hampered the work. The chief difficulty to be overcome, however, -lay in the difficulty of 
obtaining intelligent literate Enumerators. The Supervisors were almost all officials and 
thugyis, the former predominating, and the Enumerators almost all thugyis. 



W 



vlvi 



APPENDICES. 



{a) The preparation'of the general register of villages or towns and the circle lists was 
completed for the rural areas by the middle of July, and for the town of Bhamo by the middle 
of September. 

•=•«■ * * * * 

(i) House-numbering commenced in Bhamo in October and was finished by the end of 
November. In Shwegu it commenced in the beginning of November and finished during the 
same month. 

***** 

(c) The total number of Charge Superintendents for the synchronous tracts was three, of 
Supervisors 41, and of Enumerators 324 ; of Supervisors 13 were clerks, seven were police 
officers, nine were village headmen, and the remainder various officials, such as district 
surveyor, Veterinary Assistant, bazaar -gaung, &c. The Enumerators were nearly all thugyis 
and akwetoks. The Charge Superintendents were two Myooks for the rural area, and the 
Subdivisional Officer, Bhamo, for the town. The operations generally were in charge of 
Mr. Skinner, the Subdivisional Officer, Bhamo. 

(d) Great delay occurred in supplying printed schedule forms to the district, owing ap- 
parently to the non-synchronous tracts having absorbed the entire provision for the district. 
The result was that the preliminary enumeration did not start till the 7th February, and was 
only completed on the 24th of that month. Considerable preliminary work had, however, been 
done on manuscript forms. 

{e) The greater part of the Supervisors did their work well and showed interest. The 
Bhamo Myook, Maung Tun Gywe, the Shwegu Myofik, Maung Pyu, and the Subdivisional 
Officer, Shwegu, Maung Sein Yo, worked very well indeed, and Mr. Skinner, Subdivisional 
Officer, Bhamo, who supervised the whole operation, deserves high commendation. 

(/) No special arrangements had to be made for the early submission of data for the pro- 
visional totals, but Subdivisional Officers and Township Officers had to work day and night to 
get the schedules properly checked in time. 

(g) The non-synchronous and estimated areas formed about two-fifths of the total population 
of the district, 31,000 out of 79,000, but the estimated portion only amounted to some 1,500, 
and this was due to a mistake. The enumeration was conducted by seven special clerks, four of 
whom were half-educated Kachins, one a Shan clerk to the Civil Officer, Sinlum, and two Bur- 
mans. These went round either with the Civil Officer or with the taungoks as they collected 
the tribute, and enumerated as well as they could. Operations commenced on the 1st De- 
cember and finished by the 20th February. The Kachins at first viewed the whole thing with 
grave distrust as a thinly veiled attempt on the part of Government to extort more tribute out 
of them, but they ended by submitting to it without active opposition, though they never liked 
it much. The Enumerators all returned safely, bringing their schedules with them by the mid- 
dle of February, with the exception of one Laby Naw, a Christian Kachin of Mr. Roberts' 
fold, who, after starting forth, completely disappeared, except for vague rumours that he had 
been heard of in various places preaching the Gospel. He eventually, on the 27th February, 
turned up, having enumerated less than half his circle, and being sent out again did not return 
till the middle of March. The result was that 49 villages had to be estimated. 
***** 

(A) and (2) There were no prosecutions under the Act, and the attitude of the people was 
quite passive, except as mentioned above in the non-synchronous tracts. The total cost of the 
operations amounted to Rs. 1,209-6-1. 

(_/) The results obtained in the synchronous area ought to be within a very small per cent- 
age of correctness ; as pointed out above, the same cannot be said of the non-synchronous area. 

(k) No vital statistics are kept. No epidemics affecting the total population have occur- 
red in the last 10 years. 

(/) A steady tide of immigration has been setting into the district during the last few 
years from the Chinese Shan States, especially from Mongwa and Santa, which are overcrowd- 
ed and troubled by internal dissension. These States are peopled by a race consisting of 
Chinese blood grafted on a Shan stock, as the people of Bhamo district consist of Burmese 
blood grafted on a Shan stock. The former produces a much finer result. There is already 
a movement of Chinese and Shan State Shans into the small piece of country, called the tri- 
angle, which the late delimitation of the Frontier brought under our control, and this will conti- 
nue until the tract is filled. 



From Captain E. C. Townsbnd, Deputy Commissioner, Myitkyina, to the Superintendent, Census Oper- 
ations, Burma, — No. 899-140., dated the 1st April 1901. 

IN reply to your Census Department No. 223-51C.O., dated the 18th January 1901, I 
have the honour to submit the following report on Census operations in this district : — 

(a) Instructions for the preparation of the general register of villages were issued on the 
2 1st April 1900. * * * The registers were ready in this 'office on the 17th June. 
The circle lists were prepared and issued with maps on the 4th November. 



APPENDICES. 



xlvii 



(b) House-numbering commenced on the 1st November and was practically completed by 
the 25th December with the exception of the Jade Mines and Ruby Mines. Here the mining 
season does not commence until towards the end of December and, as new huts continue to be 
added until well on in March, the numbering did not commence until January and continued 
until the night of the Census. In Kamaing town itself several new houses had to be num- 
bered after the preliminary enumeration. The material most generally used was lime or 
charcoal mixed with kerosene oil and this was found to be effective. 

{c) The agency employed. — There were four Charge Superintendents. * * * 

Of the 22 Supervisors five were Military Officers (for the Military Police and the 5th 
Burma Regiment), one an Assistant Engineer of the Burma Railways, and the rest kayaingdks, 
clerks, assistant school teachers, and one Deputy Forest Ranger. * * * 

Two hundred and six Enumerators were employed ; 32 were Native Officers and Non-com- 
missioned Officers of the Military Police and 5th Burma Infantry, and the remainder were vil- 
lage headmen assisted by their clerks. * * * 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — In most parts of the district this commenced on 
the 15th January and was completed by the end of that month. 

*I* *F 3f» *P *l* 

I personally tested the preliminary enumeration in nearly all the villages round Lake 
Indawgyi and at Kamaing and Nanyaseik in the beginning of February, but was unable to visit 
any other synchronous tracts in the district. 

(e) The Change Superintendents remained at Myitkyina, Mogaung, and Kamaing re- 
spectively on the night of the Census and, assisted by every available clerk, supervised the 
Enumerators in the final enumeration. *• * * It is difficult to choose any for 
special mention, but the following did the lion's share of the work :— 

Maung Po Maung, Subdivisional Officer and Township Officer, Myitkyina. 
Maung Myat Tha Gyaw, T.D.M., Township Officer, Mogaung. 

***** 
Maung Maung, Itinerant Teacher, Maung Shwe Tun U, Assistant Teacher, Mogaung, and 
Maung On, Clerk in the Subdivisional Officer's office, Myitkyina, made themselves extremely 
useful. 

, Among the Enumerators Maung Baw, of Nanyaseik (Ruby Mines), and Maung Paw, of 
Zigon, Kamaing, are specially mentioned by Charge Superintendents. My thanks are also due 
to Captain A. G. Crocker, Assistant Commandant, for the trouble he took over the Census of 
the Military Police. 

Jp *p v* 3p *)» 

With the exception of the Jade M ines circle none of the preliminary summaries were used 

in compiling the district summaries, as all the other final summaries were received in this office 

by the morning of the 5th March and the telegrams to the Census Commissioner, Calcutta, and 

Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma, were despatched that afternoon. * * * 

(g) Operations in non-synchronous tracts. — These tracts comprised the following: — 

{a) The Kachin and Shari-Chinese villages which are for the purposes of revenue 

under myothugyis in the Myitkyina township. 
(b) The Sinbo Hill tracts, in the Myitkyina township, from which tribute is paid 

through the Sinbo Kayaingok. 
{c) The Kachin Hill Tracts in the Mogaung township. 
(d) The Kachin Hill Tracts in the Kamaing township. 

In (a) the Shan-Burman myothugyis were Enumerators, but in the other non-synchronous 
tracts special paid Enumerators had to be appointed. 

***** 

In addition to this each Kachin Duwa (or superior headman) was paid Re. 1 per 
village for going round with the Enumerators to assist them and see that they came to no harm. 
As Kachin headmen receive no remuneration from Government, it was thought advisable to 
pay them for the extra trouble thus involved. The sum thus expended was Rs. 288. In the 
Mogaung subdivision this enumeration began on the 1st February and, with the exception of 
very distant circles, the schedules were received by the Subdivisional Officer by the 25th 
February. None were submitted before the 20th. The schedules from the Kadon Tract on 
the northern border were not handed in to the Township Officer until the 27th, those from the 
Jade Mines Kachin Tracts until the 26th February, and those from Lama (on the north-west- 
ern border) until the 4th March. It appears that the Kansi Duwa was to blame for delaying 
the last two. 

In the Sinbo Hill Tracts of the Myitkyina subdivision * * * the enumeration was 
not commenced until the 5th February and was completed in the different circles on the 14th, 
19th, 20th, and 23rd respectively. 

* * * * * 

In the Kamaing township the Kachins were at first suspicious, but soon overcame this feel- 
ing, and the Extra Assistant Commissioner reports that the totals are fairly accurate and the 
result of the Census much more satisfactory than he thought possible. In the Mogaung town- 
ship the Duwas gave every assistance and there was no trouble anywhere. * * * 



xlviii APPENDICES. 

The purely Kachin Hill Tracts on the east of the Irrawaddy were treated as .'' excluded/ 
tracts and the population estimated only. The people here are much less civilized than in 
other parts of the Kachin Hills in this district, the villages are at greater distances from bnan 
villages and travelling is more difficult, and it was not possible to obtain Enumerators who 
could be relied on to fill in the ordinary schedules with any degree of accuracy. 1 he work 
had therefore to be left to the Civil Officers, Sadon and Sima, who were directed to prepare 
lists giving the number of males and females of each tribe (according to the list given on page 
viii, Appendix A, Volume IX, Census of 1891). This work was commenced towards the end 
of December and completed a few days before the end of February. * 

{h) There were no prosecutions under the Census Act. Generally speaking the attitude 
of the people towards the operations was one of utter indifference, but they willingly gave as- 
sistance when called on. 

(z) The total cost of Census operations in the Myitkyina district has been Rs. 1,151-6-0. 
* * *. In-synchronous tracts, each step of the operations was punctually and carefully 
carried out. Full provision was made for the Census of travellers, &c. 

(k) No vital statistics are recorded in this district. There have been no epidemics during 
the past ten years. 

***** 

(/) Immigration. — There has been considerable immigration into this district since 
the last Census. This commenced with the construction of the Railway about five years ago. 
On this work a large number of men were of course employed. The majority were Uriyas and 
Chinese-Shans ; of the former a few have settled as cultivators near Mogaung. * -* * 

Myitkyina town, 466 houses. — The original Shan-Burman population has not increased 
and only a few Burmans from the lower districts have settled here. The population consists 
of a medley of Surati, Bengali, and Punjabi petty traders and shopkeepers and a few Hindu- 
stani cultivators. 

***** 

Kamaing, which might now almost be called a town, has increased from some 50 to 
nearly 250 houses in the past five years. 

The increase of population at Mogaung has been slight only and is of the same description 
as that at Kamaing. * * * 

There is no doubt that the population in this neighbourhood would have been much 

greater than it is, had it not been well known that the Railway Company is incapable of 

carrying away the paddy which is even now produced. * * * 

The high freights and the unsatisfactory running of the Railway is distinctly retarding progress 

in this district. 

***** 



From B. Houghton, Esq., i.c.s., Deputy Commissioner, Katha, to the Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma, — No. 865-5 — D., dated the 16th March 1901. 

In accordance with your Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the honour to submit a report 
on the Census operations in this district. 

(a) General register of villages. — Orders were given for the preparation of this 

immediately on receipt of Revenue Secretary's letter No. 1 12-3C. — 1, dated 
the 6th April 1900 (received on the 27th April 1900), but it was not finally 
completed till the middle of October, the delay being due to the Kawlin and 
Pinlebu Myooks. 
The circle lists and maps were taken in hand immediately after and were completed on 
the 19th November. The preparation of the maps caused some delay. 

***** 

(b) Although the house-numbering was postponed till the 15th December in order to 

avoid confusion with the thathameda house-numbers, some little confusion 
did arise between the two, but this was soon obviated by the Inspecting 
Officers. * * * The house-numbering was completed on the 1st Janu- 
ary. The house lists were received on the 13th November and distributed 
on the 15th November. 

{c) There were in all 10 Charge Superintendents, who were mostly the Myo6ks of 
the townships concerned. * -* * There were 172 Supervisors. 
Th'ese consisted for the most part of revenue Surveyors, clerks, myothugyis, 
and selected thugyis. The Enumerators numbered about 1,884, and con- 
sisted of thugyis, gaungs, and villagers selected for their intelligence and 
education. 
***** 

(d) The first batch of schedules was received on the 20th December and distribut- 
ed the same day. 



APPENDICES. 



xlix 



With some exceptions, the Enumerators and Supervisors did their best according to 
their lights, but it may be safely said that practically every mistake possible was made. The 
schedules for natives of India gave the most trouble, even educated Burmans being igno- 
rant of the geography and ethnology of that country. I accordingly issued a short circular 
explaining matters as regards religion, race, and district (zillah). The Chinese were, with 
the approval of the Census Superintendent, entered as " Nat " by religion, though their real 
religion is ancestor worship.' There is, however, no word for the latter in Burmese. 

The question of below what age people should be considered as workers gave some 
trouble and caused a good many corrections. The mistake in the Burmese corrigendum on 
the subject of women and children, with domestic occupations only, caused also a similar 
result. 

On the subject of occupation it may be mentioned that one thugyi, who was deter- 
mined that every person should have some occupation entered against him, showed all in- 
fants as " suckling.'' This same thugyi entered a child not yet born in his lists, and showed 
it as a girl. On being questioned he said that the child would be born before the ist March. 
So it was, but it turned out to be twins. 

***** 

(e) The final enumeration went off without a hitch on the night of ist March, the 
various Charge Superintendents helping chiefly in their headquarter towns. 
Special arrangements were made for checking carts on the Wuntho-Pinlebu road and 
boats on the Irrawaddy. 

***** 

The best work as regards the Census was done by the three Subdivisional Officers, but 
the Myooks of Mawlu and Tigyaing (Maung Shwe Po and Maung Kyaw Dun) were also 
zealous and painstaking. The office work was expeditiously and well done by my Chief 
-Clerk, Mr. Turner. 

(/) The preparation of the district, charge and circle summaries was carried out in 
accordance with instructions. 
***** 

The entire district total was ready for telegraphing early on the afternoon of the 4th 

instant. 

***** 

(g) The Kachin Hills were on this occasion enumerated for the first time (non- 
synchronously). Three Shans who could talk Kachin and write Burmese 
were employed on the work for two months in all (January and February). 
They were supervised by the Civil Officer, Mr. Jennings, Subdivisional 
Police Officer, Katha, who was on tour in the hills at the time. The work 
was easily done in the allotted time. 
***** 

(h) No prosecutions were found necessary under the Census Act. 
In a few places the people thought that the Census was a step towards further taxation. 
The attitude of the people as a whole, however, towards the Census was one of indifference. 
***** 

The total actual cost of the operations may be put down as Rs. 259-13-6. 

(/) The result of the Census may, I think, be accepted as accurate. A few units 
may have escaped enumeration here and there, but their total would be mi- 
croscopical. 

(k) Vital statistics are not collected in this district. 

(/) There has been a fair amount of immigration into this district during the past 
10 yearsj but not so much as might have been expected if one considers 
the large areas of land available for cultivation. The reason for this is that 
the climate is unsuitable for most people from the more southerly districts. 
Population is increasing most rapidly along the Railway line and least so 
in the land-locked area in the west of the district and along the Irrawaddy. 
In the latter case the high rates and fares charged by the Irrawaddy Flotilla 
Company, Limited, which has a monopoly of the river, prevent an extension 
of trade'except in the more valuable kinds of merchandise. In the case of 
the Kachins the movement is from the north to the south. 



From C C T. Chapman, Esq., Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Ruby Mines District, to the Superin- 
tendent, Census Operations, Burma,— No. 647G.-1— D., dated the 30th March 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit the report called for in your Circular No. 24 of 1901. 
***** 



1 APPENDICES. 

Brief report on the Census operations in the Ruby Mines district. 
There were, for the Census of 190 1, three townships for synchronous enumeration and 
these were allotted to three Charge Superintendents. 

{a) The preparation of the general register of villages was commenced in July last. I 
found, on taking over charge of the district towards the close of October, that it had practi- 
cally been completed, but, owing to the nomadic habits of the Palaungs and Lisaws of Charge 
No. Ill, many alterations had to be made and consequently the preparation of the circle lists 
was delayed, and they were not finally distributed until the third week in November. 
***** 
(6) House-numbering was commenced and completed in the month of December. In 
the town of Mogok the date of completion was the 28th of that month. 

***** 



(c) The following table shows the agency employed : — 






Charge No. 


Superintendents. 


Supervisors. 


Enumerators. 


I 

II 

III 


1 

1 

1 


7 
7 

21 


88 
.68 
•57 



(d) Owing to the main supply of general schedules, covers, &c, going astray the preli- 
minary enumeration in these three charges had to be done on manuscript forms and the fact 
that Enumerators and others did not hesitate to dip their hands into their pockets to purchase 
the necessary paper, which, like everything else in the Mogok district, is an expensive com- 
modity, speaks well for the keenness displayed by all hands. 

In rural areas the preliminary enumeration was commenced about the end of January and 
completed in Charge No. Ill in about a week, in the other two charges by the middle of Febru- 
ary. In the town of Mogok it was thought better, owing to the large number of persons 
who Come to and leave the town daily, to defer the preliminary enumeration to as late a date 
as possible. It was commenced on the 20th of February, the entries were tested, as made, by 
reliable officers, and all was ready on the 28th February for the final enumeration. In 
Charges I and II * * * j.}, e w01 -k vvas aD ]y carried on by Myooks Maung Po 
Kin and Maung Kyaw Zaw and the Subdivisional Police Officer of Tagaung, Mr. Nicholson, 
to whom my thanks are due for the assistance he gave in checking. 

***** 

(e) Amongst Charge Superintendents Mr. H. L. Stevenson, I.C.S., was indefatigable and 
it is owing entirely to his personal and unsparing efforts that the figures obtained in his 
extremely difficult charge are as nearly accurate, I feel certain, as they well could be. He was 
ably assisted by all his Supervisors, and has specially brought to notice the services of 
Maung Po Maung, Myothugyi of Mogok, and Maung Htin, Thugyi of Kyatpyin. 

In Charges I and II Myook Maung Po Kin rendered especially good service. 

He worked hard and successfully until relieved-a few days before the final enumeration 
by Myook Maung Po Hnit, T.d.m. This latter officer * *' * did most valuable work. 

(/) The circle and charge summaries of the areas non-synchronously censused reached 
me on the last day of February, those of Charges I and III on the 4th and 5th of March re- 
spectively. 

As reported in my letter No. 1056.-1 — D., of the i:th January, arrangements were made 
for the despatch from Charge II of the charge and circle summaries based on the preliminary 
enumeration, in time to enable me to include the figures in my provisional totals. The Charge 
Superintendent, however, by wiring from Tigyaing was able to give me the totals of the final 
enumeration by the 3rd of March and consequently the figures wired by me to the Super- 
intendent, Census Operations, on the 6th were the final ones for the whole district. 
***** 

{£) The areas non-synchronously censused were the Momeik State and the Kachin Hill 
Tracts, commonly known as the Kodaung. The State was divided into two circles and in 
these the Census was superintended by the Subdivisional Officer, Maung Cho, and the Township 
Officer, Maung Myat Thin. In the early days of the preparations for the taking of the Census 
it was thought that it would be necessary to employ two paid assistants to assist these two 
officers, on a salary of Rs. 50 per mensem each, and sanction was obtained to do so. Subse- 
quently it was found, thanks to the cordial assistance rendered by the police, that their services 
were not required, and the Census, which I believe to have been a very thorough and accurate 
one, was taken without a hitch and without any extraneous assistance. It was commenced on 
the 16th of January and completed by the 2nd of the succeeding month. Much credit is due to. 
the Subdivisional and Township Officers. 



APPENDICES. " 

In the Kodaung, peopled entirely by illiterate Kachins and Palaungs, the non-synchronous 
Census was conducted by the Civil Officer, Mr. Walter, Extra Assistant Commissioner. It 
was commenced on the 4th of January and completed by the 25th of February. 

3|C IfC 3f» 3|C *p 

(k) In the areas non-synchronously censused, with the exception of a slight difficulty 
experienced at the start with the Palaungs, the attitude of the people towards the operations 
was all that could be desired. They readily gave all the information required. In the areas 
synchronously censused the same may be said of the attitude of the people generally. 

The Lisaws in Charge No. Ill were inclined at first, like the Palaungs of the Kodaung' 
to look on the proceedings with suspicion, smelling fresh taxation in the lists, and the 
Maingtha coolies, of whom large numbers are employed in the Ruby Mines at Mogok and on 
the Ruby Mines road, were also actuated by the same unworthy motive. Apart from these the 
conduct of the people was exemplary. 

***** 

It was not found necessary to resort to proceedings under the Act. 

(2) and ( j) The total cost of the operations amounted to Rs. 29 1 - 1 i-o, and I have no hesita- 
tion in saying that a very accurate estimate of the population of this district, as it stood on 
the 1st of March, has been obtained. 

(k) Vital statistics are not registered. 

***** 

(/) With the exception of that of Charge No. Ill, the population of the district may be 
said to be fairly stationary. 

***** 



From Captain O. J. Obbard, Deputy Commissioner, Shwebo, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma, — No. 1387-6C, dated the 14th May 1901. 

With reference to your Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the honour to report on the 
Census operations of this district as follows : — 

(a) The preparation of the general list of villages in Form Appendix A was undertaken 
and completed about the end of May last. The number of houses as given in column 3 was 
not in the first instant correct, as the numbers were taken from the headman's thathameda 
lists • so when the actual numbering of houses was completed it was found that the number of 
houses in almost every village exceeded the numbers as shown in the village registers. * 

* * I would suggest that in future the instructions for numbering of houses should be 

issued at a very early stage anji that the village headmen be made responsible for carrying 
out the numbering of all houses in their charges. * * * The Supervisors and 
Enumerators would, of course, when appointed, check and correct the original numbering of 
the houses. * * * 

(b) The numbering of houses commenced about the 15th October and was completed 
by the I "jth November. No difficulty was experienced in numbering the houses, and on the 
whole it was carefully undertaken. 

(c) There were 10 Charge Superintendents, 212 Supervisors, and 2,084 Enumerators 
employed in the whole district. 

The Township Officers were the Charge Superintendents in their townships. The two 
latter were drawn from clerks, surveyors, village headmen, and others who were able to read 
and write. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced about the 2oth January and was 
completed about the middle of February- As a rule most of the Enumerators took the pre- 
caution of making the original record on blank paper or parabaiks, and after they were 
inspected by the Supervisors and in many cases by the Charge Superintendents the entries 
were then recorded in the printed schedules- 

* * * * * 

(e) The final enumeration was strictly carried out on the night of the 1st March between 
7 P.M. and midnight- The work was on the whole intelligently done, as the Enumerators and 
Supervisors had been carefully instructed in the work- 

I would bring specially to notice the gooi work performed by Shaik Safdar Hussain. 
He-was on the 7th March 1901 placed in charge of the Census operations in the Shwebo sub- 
division, where, owing to neglect of orders about distribution of schedules, &c, the arrange- 
ments had fallen into great confusion. It is largely due to his energy that s.itisfactory 
arrangements had been made before the date of the final enumeration. 

Maun°- On Gaing, Subdivisional Officer, Kanbalu, also did very good work. * * 
* Maung Po Than, Kanbalu Myo6k, also took great pains with the Census arrange* 
ments in his township, which were very complete and well arranged. 



Hi 



APPENDICES. 



(/) The circle summaries were prepared by Supervisors in the presence of the Charge 
Superintendents and from their lists the charge summaries were made up by the Charge 
Superintendents themselves- All Supervisors had orders to bring their schedules to a conven 1- 
ent centre of the township, where the Township Officer had arranged to meet them on the 
3rd March. For distant and outlying circles preliminary summaries had been prepared, but 
it was not found necessary in any instance to make use of. them, as all Supervisors arrived 
with their schedules in time to have the final figures incorporated in the charge summaries. 
By the 5th March all schedule books, together with circle and charge summaries, reached 
the district office, and on the 6th March the provisional totals were telegraphed to the Cen- 
sus Commissioner, Calcutta, as well as to the Superintendent, Census, Rangoon- 

* * * * ~ * 

(k) No prosecutions were instituted- The people were more or less prepared for the 
operations and no difficulties of any kind were offered. 

(*) The total cost of the operations in this district amounted to Rs. 354- 

(7) Judgiug from the number of books examined personally by myself and the Subdivi- 
sionaland Township Officers, there is every reason to suppose that fairly accurate results 
have beer, obtained- 

(k) I do not think that emigration or immigration has been going on to any great ex- 
tent in this district. 

* * * * * 



From T. J. Metcalfe, Esq., Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Sagaing, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma,— No. 624-3M.M., dated the 20th March 1901. 

I HAVE the honour, with reference to your Circular No. 24 of igoi, to submit the fol- 
lowing brief report on the Census operations of 1901 :— 

{a) There was a little difficulty experienced in the preparation of the general register 
of villages or towns, as, owing to the houses not having been numbered, many were found to 
have been omitted, and in many cases the number of houses were found to have been taken 
from the last thathameda assessment-roll- It would simplify matters at the next Census if, 
in Upper Burma, the numbering of the houses was carried out simultaneously with the pre- 
paration of this list. 

(b) House-numbering. — The house-numbering was commenced about the 4th Sep- 
tember and practically finished by the middle of November. * * * 

(c) Supervisors, &c. — There were nine charge Superintendents, 208 Supervisors, and 
4,559 Enumerators. Supervisors were generally clerks and thugyis of circles, and in some 
cases efficient ywasayes. v 

*(• ifi "7F *J» •» 

{d) Preliminary enumeration. — The date of the commencement of the preliminary 
enumeration was between the 15th and 20th January. The date of completion, however, 
was not until about the 15th to 25th February. 

* # * * * 

(e) The final enumeration. — Every available officer was made use of on the night of 
the final enumeration. Every one gave their cordial assistance. No difficulty was ex- 
perienced from the Burmans, and the thugyis as a rule gave all the assistance they could. 
The two officers whom I think deserve to be especially mentioned are Maung Lu Maung, 
the Padu Myo6k, and Maung Ket, Chaungu Myook. 

* * * * * 

(/) The district, charge, and circle summaries were carried out as a rule according to 
instructions. 

* * * * * 

The district summary was telegraphed on the 6th March. 

* * * * * 

(k) No prosecutions under the Act were necessary. 

* * * * * 
The attitude of the people was good. and no difficulties were experienced. 

* # * * * 

(») The total actual cost of the operations is Rs. 1 10-14-0, being charges for special 
messengers' hire, telegrams, and other contingencies. 

* * * * * 

(;') The results obtained are, I think, as correct as could be expected. Every care was 
taken to make them as correct as possible. 

* # * * * 



APPENDICES. llil 

From Captain C. L. O. Reid, Deputy Commissioner, Lower Chindwin, to the Superintendent, Census 
Operations, Burma,— No. 516-1C, dated the 4th April 1901. 

Census report of the Lower Chindwin district. 

(a) General register of villages and circle lists. — The general register of villages for 
the district was prepared in the district office. * * * 

***** 

As the circle and block arrangements proposed in the register might be found unsuit- 
able when put into practice, and to obviate the necessity of correcting and re-correcting the 
entries in the circle list, if prepared in the District office from the village register, extracts 
were sent to Township Officers for careful scrutiny and check and revision, if necessary, and as 
they were revising the register they were ordered to prepare circle lists in their own offices 
to save the delay in distributing the circle lists to the Supervisors who, without such material, 
would find it difficult to start numbering houses. 

By this means I was able to maintain a register of villages corrected up to date and to 
furnish the Supervisors with circle lists in time for them to commence house-numbering. 

(d) House-numbering. — This work was started in the Monywa township (Charge No. 
I) on the 17th October and completed on the 15th December 1900. The revision of circle 
and block arrangements continued till the end of December 1900. 

In the Budalin township (Charge No. II) house-numbering commenced on the 26th Oc- 
tober and was completed on the 15th December 1900, and the work of revising circles and 
blocks continued till some time after the completion of house-numbering. In the Pale and 
Kani townships house-numbering was started on the,25th October and completed on the 17th 
November 1900 and in the Salingyi township on the 29th October and completed on the 19th 
December 1900. 

***** 

(c) The agency employed. — Excluding the Charge Superintendents and Enumerators ap- 
pointed for the Railway Census, there were five Charge Superintendents, 313 Supervisors, and 
-2,242 Enumerators appointed for the Census in the rural areas of the district. 

Each township was treated as a separate charge and the appointment of Charge" Super- 
intendent was held by the Township Officer in charge. Each revenue circle was, in all but a 
few cases, treated as a Census circle and the headman or myothugyi, in all but a few cases, was 
appointed Supervisor of the circle. Literate headmen of subordinate villages were appointed 
Enumerators of the villages under their control. 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — The preliminary enumeration in the rural areas of 
the district was started on the 15th January and completed on the 31st January 1901. While 
this work was in progress Subdivisional, Township, and Police Officers were ordered to 
move about in their respective charges to check the work done by Supervisors and Enumera- 
tors. 

(e) The final enumeration. — The work at this stage was done with care and I expect 
that, 'apart from the correctness of the entries relating to occupation, &c, the totals will be 
fairly correct. * * * The work was done willingly by all who were employed 
as Charge Superintendents, Supervisors, or Enumerators. 

***** 

Maung Dwe, A.T.M., Myook of Monywa and Superintendent of No. 1 Charge, took a keen 
interest in Census work and was untiring in his efforts to bring the work to perfection. 
***** 
(/) Immediately after the final Census was over and after the schedules had been checked 
by the Supervisors, arrangements were made with the Charge Superintendents to have all 
schedules brought into district headquarters by the Supervisors of circles. 

.On their arrival the Municipal office was vacated and there the necessary checking and 
preparation of circle, charge, and district summaries, were carried out. 

1* *F flt *p 3|C 

■(g) There are no non-synchronous areas in the district. 

(A) There were no prosecutions under the Census Act, as the attitude of the inhabitants 
did not warrant such steps being taken. 

(«') The total actual cost of the operations in this district amounted to Rs. 88-8-0. 

***** 
(/) The results obtained may be said to be fairly correct. 

(k) Vital statistics. — Only registration of deaths was introduced into this district from 
1st January 1899, so that there is nothing important to report under this head. 



•Census report for the Municipality of Monywa. By the Municipal President. 

(a) General register of the town and circle lists—The general register of the town 
was prepared by treating the blocks under each akwetok as a Supervisor's charge where 
this was convenient, except the civil lines and Old Cantonment 

* * » * * * 



liv 

* v APPENDICES. 

As the town of Monywa is the headquarters of the district there was no difficulty in 
securing qualified men for appointment as Charge Superintendents, Supervisors, and Enu- 
merators. Government servants as a rule were selected for these appointments. Circle maps 
were prepared from the Municipal map and supplied to the Supervisors with circle lists. 
• * * 

{b) House-numbering.— -This work was started from the 15th October and finished on the 
15th November 1900. * * * , 

(c) The agency employed.— Excluding the Charge Superintendents, Supervisors, and 
Enumerators for the railwav and survey camps, there were three Charge Superintendents, 13 
Supervisors, and 52 Enumerators appointed for the Census. The area of the Municipality, 
each myothuayiship, that is, Monywa and Hlegu, and the civil station, including the military 
and civil police and the Old Cantonment, was treated as a separate charge, and the appointment 
of Charge Superintendent for the civil station and the Old Cantonment was fjield by the Civil 
Surgeon, the Treasury Officer for Hlegu, and the Akunwun for Mdnywa. * 

All the myothugyis and akwetoks, excepting those akwetoks who were incompetent for 
Supervisors, were appointed as Supervisors. * * .* Most of the traders and clerks 
were selected to be Enumerators for the blocks in which they had their residence. 
***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration.— -The preliminary enumeration of the town was 
commenced on the night of the 15th January 1901. 

***** 

(e) The final enumeration. — The work at this stage was done with care under the 
control of the Charge Superintendent and Supervisors, who were moving in their respective 
charges till the enumeration was entirely finished on that night, and I may say that the work 
was done satisfactorily. The work was' done willingly by all those who were employed on 
this work. With the exception of Mr. B. Krishna, my Chief Clerk and Supervisor of Kadoyat 
block, and Maung Ne Win, Enumerator under Mr. Krishna, no one deserves special men- 
tion for the Census work. * * * Enumerator Maung Ne Win deserves credit for the 
correctness and neatness of the entries in his schedules. 

***** 

(k) There were no prosecutions under the Census Act. 

(z) The total actual cost of operations incurred in this Municipality amounted to Rs. 
10- 1 0-0 only for supplying stationery to the Census employes. 

***** 

(k) Vital statistics. — The registration of births and deaths was introduced only in 
1897. * * * " 



Census report for the Upper Chindwin District, — No. 764-jN. — 2, dated the 18th April 
igoi . By W. J. Smithj Esq., I.C.S., Deputy Commissioner. 

(a) Preparation of Appendix A and of the circle lists. — Appendix A was completed 
early in January. The Superintendent, Census Operations, on going through the list at the 
beginning of September 1900 found many of the blocks too large and in some cases unsuitable 
persons proposed as Enumerators. The appendix was therefore revised. Circle lists and 
maps were sent out on the 31st October 1900, together with the instructions, to Supervisors. 

(b) House-numbering. — Circular No. 10 of 1900 was received on the 13th October igoo 
and Charge Superintendents were instructed to have the work of house-numbering completed 
as early as possible in November. It commenced on the 1st November 1900 and was complet- 
ed on the 1 2th January 1901. 

* * * * * 

(c) The agency employed. — Twelve Charge Superintendents, 181 Supervisors, and 1,407 
Enumerators were employed. The Charge Superintendents were in every case Township 
Officers, except in the case of the Thaungdut and Kanti States, where the Charge Superinten- 
dents were the Saiebwas of those States, and the old Seywa circle, where the Charge Superin- 
tendent was Maung Kyaw Gaung, Head Constable. The Supervisors were mostly subordi- 
nate officials, clerks, and myothugyis. Among the Enumerators were clerks and policemen, 
but the large majority were ywathugyis. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — This commenced on the 10th January igoi and was 
completed on the 15th February 1901. * * * Owing to the great distances and 
deficient communication of the district it was considered advisable to have the preliminary 
figures for use in the event of the summaries of the final Census not reaching headquarters 
in time. The preliminary figures were actually used for the whole of the Legayaing subdivi- 
sion and for the Kale township. * * * 

(e) The final enumeration. — All officers worked well and hard, and I believe that very 
few persons have escaped enumeration. 

***** 
The best work was done in the Kindat subdivision, and I have to thank Mr. Kenny, 
Subdivisional Officer, and Maung Po Hla, Township Qfficer, Kabawchaung, for the excellent 
work they did. Maung Ba, Gyaw, Treasury Officer, who had the most difficult circle in the 



APPENDICES. 



Iv 



district to supervise, namely, Kindat town, also did conspicuously good work. Maung Nyo, 
Akunwun, Maung Lat, District Surveyor and Maung Tun Byu, Chief Head Constable, also did 
good work as Supervisors, and Maung Aung Thin, Head Clerk, Subdivisional Officer's office, 
Maung Ba, Treasury Accountant, and Maung Kyaing, Head Judicial Clerk, as Enumerators. 

I have also to thank Maung Pe, Subdivisional Officer, Mingin, for his unflagging energy 
and zeal throughout the operations. 

* * * * * 

In order to get the provisional totals in quickly, Subdivisional Officers were instructed 
to send in their charge and circle summaries by the 5th March at latest and for the purpose 
the two launches at my disposal were despatched one to Mingin and the other to Homalin. 
* * * On receipt of the charge and circle summaries the whole staff of the district" 
office was put on to prepare the district summary, which was telegraphed to the Census 
Commissioner, Calcutta, and the Superintendent, Census Operations, Rangoon, on the 6th 
March. 

(g) The operations in non-synchronous areas. — It was originally proposed to hold a non- 
synchronous Census in the Chin villages in the Thaungdut State, the Chin and Theinbaw 
(Kachin) villages in the Kanti State, and the Theinbaw villages between the Kanti State and 
the Uyu. The Thaungdut Sawbwa was, however, able to take a synchronous Census of the 
whole of his State. The only non-synchronous tracts were therefore in or on the border of 
the Kanti State. Now for some little time past the Kanti Sawbwa has been trying to exer- 
cise a more direct influence over both the Chins and Theinbaws, and imposed on the latter this 
year for the first time a tax of Rs. 2-8-0 per house. They strongly protested against this both 
to me and to the Deputy Commissioner, Myitkyina, who stated that the Kachins on the 
border were somewhat disaffected and the Sawbwa was ordered to desist. When the Enu- 
merators came round the Theinbaws at once suspected fresh designs on the part of the 
Sawbwa and refused to be enumerated. The Sawbwa wisely abandoned the enumeration. 
These tracts have been estimated as follows by the Subdivisional Officer : — 





Houses. 


Males. 


Females j 


Total. 


Ngapaw 


3 


6 


° i 


12 


Lakyein 


4 


8 


8 1 


16 


Nanpaw 


5 


10 


10 


20 


Ukah 


IS 


3° 


50 1 


60 


Pemkaw 


20 


40 


40 i 


80 


Total 


47 


94 


94 ! 

1 


188 



These figures were included in the provisional totals. 

{hj With the above exception the attitude of the people towards the operations has 
been good. * * * 

(i) The total cost of the operations in non-synchronous tracts was estimated at Rs. 
125 ; as the non-synchronous enumeration did not take place, in all probability none of this 
has been expended. 



From Major J. J. Cronin, Deputy Commissioner, Kyaukse, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma,— vNo. 1709-5C— 2, dated the 23rd April 1901. 

***** 

With reference to Census Circular No. 24 of 1901, I have the honour to report on 

the following points seriatim. 

(a) Preparatory work. — The preparation of the general village register A for the 
Kyaukse and Myittha subdivisions started early in May 1900 in township offices and 
was finally completed at headquarters, together with the map of the area to which the ab- 
stracts relate, on the 20th July, and copies were sent to you with this office letter No. 238- 
5C. — 2, dated the 25th July 1900. Subsequently this was found to be incorrect, and revised 
abstracts of the general village register and map for the whole district excluding the town 
of Kyaukse and railway were made out and copies sent to you with this office letter No. 
2892-5C. — 2, dated the' 20th October 1900. * * * 

(b) House-numbering. — The numbering of houses was commenced and completed on 
the following dates : — 



Name of township. 


Numbering com- 
menced. 


Completed. 


Kyaukse 
Singaing 
Myittha 
Dayegaung 


10th October 1900 
12th October 1900 
15th October 1900 
16th October 1900 


3rd November igoo. 
4th November 1900. 
14th November 1900. 
15th November 1900. 



lvi 

vl APPENDICES). 

(c) The agency employed. — There were in all nine Charge Superintendents, namely, one 
Township Officer, one triyothugvij one akunwun, one Assistant Engineer, Railway Depart- 
ment, and five Land Records Inspectors ; 73 Supervisors ; and 1,044 Enumerators. None of 
these were paid. The Supervisors consisted of revenue surveyors and thugyis, and the 
Enumerators consisted of villagers, and in Kyaukse town Government clerks. * * 

(d) Preliminary enumeration. — The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 
15th of January and completed on the 15th February 1901. * * * 

{e) Final enumeration. — * * * On the night fixed for the taking of the final 
Census, the Enumerators visited each house and in many cases were accompanied by the 
Supervisors. The head of each house was called, then the entries read over to him, arid 
names erased or added where necessary. * * * Among the Charge Superintend- 
ents, the Singaing Myook, Maung Tha Bu, Charge Superintendent of his 'township, and the 
Akunwun, Maung Tun Ya, Charge Superintendent of the Kyaukse Municipality, took great 
pains in Census work and deserve special commendation. * * , * 1 wish specially 
to commend U Po, T.D.M , Subdivisional Officer, Kyaukse, and Mr. Wakefield, my Chief 
Clerk, on whom the brunt of the preparation for the Census in "the district fell. My 
thanks are also due to Mr. Tilly, District Superintendent of Police, and Mr. Robinson, 
Assistant Superintendent of Police, Myittha, for their willing assistance in checking the 
Census work in the Myittha subdivision. 

* * * * * > 

(/z) Most of the people having been previously informed of the object and purpose of 
the Census, their minds were not in any way disturbed and no difficulty was experienced in 
taking the enumeration. People of every class willingly gave all the information required 
by the Census officers, and consequently no prosecution under the provisions of the Census 
Act was necessary. * * * 

At the previous Census many headmen have informed me that the children and youths 
in numerous instances were hidden in the jungle to avoid enumeration till after the Census 
or, as the people in some cases believed, to avoid being enlisted as soldiers. 
***** 

(i) No expenditure was incurred in the district in connection with the taking of 'the 
Census. 

(y) From the careful way in which the work of the Census was carried out all over the 
district I have every reason to believe that the result obtained is as correct as it could pos- 
sibly be. 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — There is no record in this office as to emigration 
and immigration within the last ten vears. 

***** 



From E. C. S. George, Esq., c.i.e., Deputy Commissioner, Meiktila, to the Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma, — No. 1712. iC. — 6, dated the 31st March 1901. 

IN reply to your Circular No. 24 of 190 1, I beg to repo.t as follows -. — 

(a) Everything was very late in this district and matters had to be rushed through at 
great speed. 

A kind of general register had been started, but early in December on arrival I found 
that— 

(a) the villages of the district had been numbeied serially throughout the district ; 

(b) villages or rather hamlets which were not villages in the meaning of the Upper 

Burma Village Regulation had received independent numbers ; 

(c) the grouping of villages into circles was impe.fect, some circles consisting of 2 

or 3 areas not contiguous, with other circles interposed. In Meiktila town 
division into wards had not always followed natural features so as to be clear. 

The whole therefore of Appendix A had to be revised. 

***** 

(b) House-numbering. — There was little difficulty about this, as in previous years I had 
insisted on the houses being numbered for the purposes of thatka//:eda-check\ng and the peo- 
ple were well used to the system, the advantages being obvious in large villages even to the 
people themselves. . 

1* *•* *P *T* JJC 

I may mention that the best solution for painting numbers is lamp black off the 
bottom of cooking pots mixed with earth-oil. Lime is useless; it easily gets obliterated and 
was barred accordingly. 

***** 



APPENDICES. 



Ivh 



(f) Agency employed. * * * So far as the district proper was concerned, it 
was divided into 1 1 charges under 1 1 Charge Superintendents, * * * Omitting 
Meiktila town and Cantonments, the district was divided into charges following the lines of 
the townships. 

***** 

There were 137 circles and therefore 137 Supervisors, excluding Railway and Survey par- 
ties, and 1,785 blocks and consequently Enumerators. Of the 137 Supervisors, 75 were 
thugyis, 33 were Land Records surveyors, 1 1 Government clerks, and the rest were local 
men. Of the 1,785 Enumerators, 201 were thugyis, 408 were village elders, 79 were traders, 
19 were Government clerks. The rest were ordinary cultivators locally resident who had 
sufficient knowledge to read and write. 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration, as explained in paragraph (a) above, was much de- 
layed, nor did we actually receive a whole supply of forms till the 13th January 1901. 
* * * * * 

In charge No. II * * * the Charge Superintendent was ill most of February 
and finally had to go on casual leave. * * * The result was that Mr. H. C. Moore 
had to be deputed to hurry to Thazi. All the Supervisors and as many Enumerators as 
possible were called in to Thazi and their books written up under Mr. Moore's personal 
supervision. 

Preliminary totals were received from — 

Charge I on 24th February 1901. 
Charge II on 22nd February 1901. 
Charge III on 18th February 1901. 
Charge IV on 20th February 1901. 
Charge V on 20 th February 1901. 
Charge VI on 19th February igoi. 
Charge VII on 19th February 1901. 
Charge VIII on 16th February 1901. 
Charge IX on 16th February 1901. 
Charge X on 1 6th February 1901. 
Charge XI on 1 6th February 1901. 

Every available officer was put on to testing duties and- a weekly return was prescribed 
of villages tested by them. 

***** 

As regards difficulties to be dispensed with in future Censuses there were several. 
To begin with and foremost the Superintendent of Census himself should be held 
personally responsible for the proper translation of every single vernacular order, code, or 
circular isssued. * * * The Census agency in its subordinate branches is none 
too intelligent, and every effort should be made in issuing manuals and instructions to see 
that— 

(i) they are presented in the form of a mental pap which requires the least 
amount of trouble in assimilation ; 

(ii) the language in which they are conveyed should be of the simplest nature ; 

(iii) no terms which are similar in sound or form and thereby liable to confusion 
should be used to designate different details. 

As regards the points above I pointed out several inaccuracies by letter in December 1900 
to the Superintendent of Census in the translations of the manual, and it is needless to re- 
peat them here as by next Census it is trusted revised translations will be available. 

But I may observe that it is not sufficient to have an actual literal rendering of the Eng- 
lish version as the Government Translator seemed to erroneously imagine. What was wanted 
was a translation conveying in homely language the spirit of the instructions. 

It surely should have been obvious moreover that just as the words' charge, circle, block, 
Superintendent, Supervisor, Enumerator are clear and distinct and not to be confused in Eng- 
lish the same care should have been taken to have these terms distinguished in Burmese. But 
they were not. It is not obvious why, if " $oSn" was chosen to indicate a " charge," the 
circle should not have been designated by a term that did not have " $o5« " in it. Again 
block was called 330go5ii Obviously an Enumerator being the man who had to write up the 
schedule book in the block should have been called something that would connote his con- 
nection with the block, while differing entirely from the terms used for Supervisor and Su- 
perintendent. 330go5oDGGp seemed the right term to convey the spirit of the man's duties to 
the dullard, yet the translation goes out of its way to call the Enumerator ©DG^SgCOTOoSajja, an 
instance of what I have before remarked on. 

* * * * * 

The next point is in regard to the forms. 



1VlW APPENDICES. 

It cannot too often be urged that for Burmese Enumerators everything must be made 
plain sailing ; therefore in the inside of the schedule book cover the most important directions, 
where a fool would naturally go wrong, should have been printed in red. 

For instance in Rule (i) it might have been stated in red that the word "empty" was to 
be written in this column below the number of the house. The use of the term " after" led 
many Enumerators to write e^u in column 3 for empty houses, which was evidently what was 
not intended, as this might lead to mistakes at the final enumeration. Again the prohibition 
to enter anything at all in column 2 till after final enumeration might well have been in red 
ink. The utmost difficulty was experienced in preventing too zealous Enumerators from 
trying to fill up column 2 before its due time : it was a natural error. Again in this district, 
except where Mr. Porter issued contrarv instructions, the Enumerators were made to use a 
page per house. They were quite too stupid for the most part to make it at all certain that 
the system of only leaving one line blank between each house would work. 

As regards the block lists it was intended {see Chapter I, section 15 of the Manual) they 
should contain only 25 houses each ; it would have been advantageous to have had them 
printed only on one face and 25 faint lines ruled thereon. 

{e) There was no special difficulty abour arranging for the final enumeration. The town 
returns were in first, of course. Of the district returns Charge III was in most promptly, 
followed closely by Mahlaing. 

All returns were in by the evening of the 3rd March, except Charges Nos. I and II and 
the Railway returns. 

All officers worked zealously, but I would place on special record the services of Mr. 
Greenstreet, District Superintendent of Police, and Maung Po Thein, Subdivisional Officer, 
Meiktila, who were of very great assistance in hurrying up laggard Supervisors. 

Of Mr. Moore's services I have made special note above. Mr. Macfarlane, Assistant Su- 
perintendent of Police, Thazi, worked Charge III, the most difficult charge in the district from 
the nature of the country and the scattered disposition of its villages, single-handed, taking it 
over just about the middle of February. He deserves great credit for the promptitude with 
which his returns were sent in. 

Of the Myooks, Maung On Thi, of Mahlaing, and Maung Po Thin, of Meiktila, deserve 
special notice ; and of the other Charge Superintendents Maung Ye Din, Inspector of Land 
Records, was most conspicuous. In Meiktila town Maung Po Te, Additional Township 
Myook, and Maung Ne Dun, the- Akunwun, ran the Census between them and did it excel- 
lently. Mr. Ross, Assistant Commissioner, was also of much assistance. Both Mr. Porter, 
Subdivisional Officer, Thazi, and Mr. 'Richardson worked very hard, but the latter was in- 
capacitated from sickness from going round his charge. * * * Captain Barnett. the 
Officer Commanding, Meiktila, assisted by the Station Staff Officer, Captain Smith, made 
most satisfactory arrangements for the Census of cantonments, which was taken without any 
hitch. 

My Chief Clerk, Maung Pyu, was invaluable throughout the Census operations. 
* * * * * 

(/) The preparation of the district summary was supervised by Mr. Ross, Assistant 
Commissioner, who was in special charge as directed by paragraph 6 of Chapter XII of the 
Census Code, the provisions of which were carried out. 

***** 

(g) There were no non-synchronous areas in the district. 

{h) There were no prosecutions under the Act. 

***** 

The people of course connected the Census with the newly imposed rates under the settle- 
ment now being introduced and look fo.ward to increased taxation. 

***** 

(7) I think that the total may be relied on as fairly- correct, except for the Railway 
figures. Details of caste, &c, will probably be wrong. It would have been more to the point 
if a table in Burmese had beeri drawn up of the most common of the various native castes, tribes, 
and sects, so that the Enumerator might run through the list with each native of India that 
he had to Census and see that he got the right details. 

(£) The collection of death returns only stated in i8~g, and so far are too imperfect to 
convev any useful information. 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — i here is constant annual and increasing migration 
from this district to Lower Bu ma, brought about by the facilities for rapid transport afforded 
by the railway which now intersects the district both from north to south and west to east. 
***** 

Though there are traces still in the district of abandonment of areas on account of 
movements during the famine, it may be taken that the large majority have by now returned, 
the favourable season of 1900-1901 giving an impetus to the stream of immigration. 



APPENDICES. 



lix 



There has been practically no immigration from the Shan States ami the emigration 
thereto from this district is too small to be worth considering. Natives of India are the only 
people who seem to evince a desire to move upwards to the .plateau, chiefly because they 
are petty traders and there is almost a virgin field in which to start cheating the Shans. 



From A. L. Hough, Esq., Deputy Commissioner, Yamethin, to the Superintendent, Census Operations, 
Burma,— No. 1550-3M. — 1 of 1900, dated the 22nd April 1901. 

With reference toCensus Department Circular No. 24 of 190 1, I have the honour to 
forward below a brief report on the Census operations in the Yamethin district. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages was commenced on the 24th May 
and completed on the 28th July 1900. * * * The circle lists with maps were com- 
pleted on the 15th October igoo and were distributed on the same day to the Supervisors 
through their respective Charge Superintendents. 

(b) The house-numbering in the rural areas was commenced on the 1st October and com- 
pleted on the 15th November. The numbering was carried out strictly in accordance with 
the instructions given. 

(c) The agency employed was as follows : — 

Charge Superintendents ... ... ... ... ... 17 

Supervisors ... ... ... ... ... ... 91 

Enumerators ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,751 

The agency employed was generally very efficient, consisting of numerous ministerial offi- 
cials in all departments who, on the whole, worked exceedingly well. There were a large num- 
ber of headmen, their clerks and villagers who were also employed as Enumerators. 

(d) The preliminary enumeration was commenced on the 15th January 1901 and com- 
pleted on the 23rd February 190 1. There was no difficulty in taking the enumeration as the 
people on the whole gave willingly what information was required of them. 

(e) The final enumeration was carried out without a hitch. I have pleasure in recording 
that Mr. R. A. Gibson, Settlement Officer, rendered me valuable assistance in preparing the 
Census map and giving instructions to his Inspectors and Surveyors, who' were appointed 
Change Superintendents and Supervisors, and in supervising their work. 

The men of the Settlement and Land Records staff who may be mentioned as having 
done good work are — 

Charge Superintendents. 

Maung Pu, Inspector. I Maung San U, Inspector. 

Maung Tun Myaing, Inspector. ' Maung San Ya, Inspector. 

The Subdivisional Officers, Messrs. C. S. Pennell, H. H. Duff, and latterly E. J. Colston, of 
Pyinmana, and W. G. Bowden, of Yamethin, worked hard in the way of supervision. So also 
did the following gentlemen, namely : — 

Mr. H. P. Pedler, District Superintendent of Police. 
Mr. C. A. Munro, Assistant Superintendent of Police. 
Mr. R. C. Whiting, Assistant Superintendent of Police. 

Of the Supervisors and Enumerators the following did exceedingly good work, name- 
ly- 

Maung Gyi, Head Constable, Lewe. 

Maung Shwe Min, Head Constable, Kyidaunggan. 

Maung Tha Dun, Police Sergeant, Ela. 

Maung Po Thet, Myothugyi, Ela. 

Maung Lu Gale, Myothugyi, Yezin. 

Of the Township Officers, who were all Charge Superintendents, the following I mention 
as having done their work zealously and well, namely — 

Maung Po Mya, Pyinmana. | Maung Min Naing, Pyawbwe. 

Maung Po Tun, Pyinmana. I Maung Pu Le, Yamethin. 

Maung Po Gyi (Officiating Myook), Yamethin, who carried out the latter portion of 
the Census work in the Yamethin. township charge for about one month. 
***** 
In connection with the office work, Mr. E. J. Ezekiel, Chief Clerk of my office, worked 
most commendably. He worked really hard and faithfully. 

(/") The district, charge, and circle summaries were commenced on the 2nd and com- 
pleted on the 6th March igot, when the district total was telegraphed to the Commissioner of 
Census, Calcutta, and the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma. 

{£) There were no non-synchronous areas in this" district. * * * 

(h) No prosecutions were instituted under the Census Act, or necessary. * * * 

(*) The total actual cost of the operations, exclusive of the cost of forms aud stationery 
supplied from the Census office, is *¥ * * Rs. 211-14-0. * * * 



lx 



APPENDICES. 



(/) The result* obtained may, I think, be accepted to be as correct as it is possible to make 
a Census. Every effort was made to make it complete, and I think we can claim to have suc- 
ceeded. 

(k) The registration of deaths was introduced into this district from the 1st January 1899. 
No epidemic of any kind affected the population during the last ten years. The increase in 
the population is attributable chiefly to natural causes and partly to the growing importance 
of the district, and the facilities afforded by the railway. 

In 1896-97 a part of this district was subject to scarcity, which was officially declared to 
be famine, and a great many people went to other districts ; but I think the increase shown in 
the population indicates that nearly all have returned. 

* * * # * 



From A. L. Hough, Esq., President, Yamethin Municipal Committee, to the Superintendent, Census Oper- 
ations, Burma, — No. 18, dated the 22nd April 1901. 

With reference to your Circular No. 24 of 1901, 1 have the honour to submit the Census 
report of the Yamethin Municipality. 

(1) In preparing the general register of the town of Yamethin the names of villages 
and the number of blocks were compared with the register maintained in the Municipal 
office showing the names of headmen of wards and blocks, and on the 2nd of October an 
abstract of the Yamethin town register was forwarded to you. * * * 

(2) The numbering of houses was commenced on the 10th October and in some blocks 
on the 12th, and the earliest date of completion was the 14th October and the latest the 
23rd October. 

(3) Excluding the railway, there were 41 blocks within municipal limits, for which 
three Supervisors and three Charge Superintendents were appointed. * * * 

There were 41 Enumerators and one Assistant Enumerator. * * * Of the 41 

Enumerators appointed, 22 were clerks and licensed copyists, one was a Municipal office 
peon, 1 1 were ayatoks and akwetoks, and seven were traders and others. 

***** 

(4) Preliminary enumeration. — The earliest date on which the preliminary enumera- 
tion took place was the 1st February and the latest on the 9th, and the testing by the Super- 
visors was completed on the 20th February. * * * 

(5) The work performed by the Supervisors and Charge Superintendents was on the 
whole satisfactory. 

The following persons deserve special commendation for Census work in the town of 
Yamethin : — 

Mr. E. J. Ezekiel, Chief Clerk, Charge Superintendent of No. 3 circle. 

Maung Tun On, Akunwun, Charge Superintendent of No. 1 circle. 

Maung Tun Win, Treasury Officer, Charge Superintendent of No. 2 circle. 

Mr. F. J. Ellis, Secretary, Supervisor of No. 2 circle. 

Maung Po Tun, Revenue Record-keeper, Supervisor of No. 3 circle. 

Maung Pe Khin, Clerk, Supervisor of No. 1 circle. 

Maung Ba Thet, Clerk. 

Anantaran, Hospital Assistant. 

Maung Po Thein, Clerk. 

Maung Hok, Clerk. 

Maung Po Nyun, Clerk. 1 „ 

Maung Po Ka, Bailiff. }" Enumerators. 

Maung Gyi, Clerk. 

Maung Po Kun, Clerk. 

Maung Shwe Bin, Ayatok. 

Maung Bah, Municipal Overseer. 

***** 

The district, charge, and circle summaries were submitted by the Supervisors on the 
and and 3rd March respectively. 

***** 



From E.J. Colston Esq. i.c.s, Vice-President, Pyinmana Municipality, to the Superintendent, Census Oper- 
ations, Burma (through the Deputy Commissioner, Yamethin), -No. 68-31, dated the 4th April 1901. 

" IN accordance with Circular No. 24 of 1901, 1 have the honour to submit a brief report on 
the operations generally. r 

(b) House-numbering.— -The house-numbering was commenced on the 1st November 
1900 and completed by the 7th November 1900. 

_ fcj The agency employed.— There were two Charge Superintendents, eight Super- 
visors, land 101 Enumerators employed for taking the Census, and the majority were selected 
from the educated and respectable class of men in the town. 



APPENDICES. 



lxi 



(d) The preliminary enumeration commenced on the. 20th January iqoi and was completed 
on the 22nd February jgoi. The Charge Superintendents and Supervisors personally tested 
the work daily, and the general schedules were personally examined by the Deputy Commis- 
sioner. Some difficulty was at first experienced in the native quarter in obtaining the castes 
and tribes, but, as the Charge Superintendents understood the language thoroughly, they over- 
came this difficulty by attending to those blocks personally. 

(e) Final enumeration. — The quality of work performed by the Census officers was 
good and I specially recommend Maung Po Myaing, Maung Po Tu, Maung La Pe (2) and 
Bailiff Maung Gyi, Supervisors, for giving valuable assistance. 

(h) Prosecutions under the Act. — Nil. The people at first did not wish to give thei 
names, thinking they were to be taxed, but when the reason for this operation was explained 
to them they politely and most willingly gave every information. 

(i) The total actual cost for numbering houses, including stationery and excluding printing 
forms, was Rs. 42-10-0. 

(k) Vital statistics. — There were no outbreaks of any epidemic during the past 10 
years. 

(I) Emigration and immigration. — During the year 1,897 immigrants from the famine- 
stricken districts in Upper Burma settled here for a short time, but they returned to their homes 
in the following year. 



From L. M. Parlett, Esq., i.c.s. Officiating Deputy Commissioner, Myingyan, to the Superintendent, 
Census Operations, Burma, — No. 1218-5 — 6, dated the 25th March 1901. 

I have the honour to submit herewith a brief report on the Census operations in this 
district as called for in your Circular No. 24 of 1901, dated the 18th January igoi. 

(a) The preparation of the general register of villages or towns and of the circle list. 
— The general register of villages was prepared in the General Department of the Deputy 
Commissioner's office, also the circle list and map. 

Jf» *t* *P *v *j£ 

The registers and circle lists were subjected to the closest examination by the Deputy 
■ Commissioner, the Akunwun, and the Township Officers. 

***** 

(6) House-numbering commenced on the 1st October and was finally completed on the 
15th November. The people rendered every assistance and the work was accomplished 
without difficulty. The difficulty, however, was to keep the numbers on the houses. 
People earth-oiling their houses would daub out the number and children selected number- 
boards as playthings in preference to all else. It was curious to find that the thugyis were 
very anxious that their own houses should bear the No. 1 — the first and chief house in the 
village. The people generally considered that it was a harmless freak 011 the part of an 
energetic Government to count houses in this way, when the that ham eda-ro\\s furnished 
really all the information which could possibly serve any useful purpose. 

(c) The agency employed. — There were six townships dealt with. 

# * * * # 

The charges were as follows : — 

Myingyan ... ... ... ■•• ■•■ Township Officer. 

Natocryi ... ... ... ... ... Township Officer. 

Taungtha (half) ... ... ... ■•■ Township Officer. 

Taungtha (half) ... ... ••• — Inspector of Police. 

Pagan ... ... •■■ ■■• ••• Township Officer 

Kyaukpadaung (half) ... ... ••• — Township Officer. 

Kyaukpadaung (half) ... ... ... — Sergeant of Police. 

Sale ... ... ••• ••• ••■ Township Officer. 

The Supervisors were generally myothugyis and the best educated thugyis. 
The Enumerators were merchants, ywagaungs, thugyis, clerks, leading villagers, and in 
fact the best men in the villages. 

***** 

(d) The preliminary enumeration. — Owing to the schedules not being received till 
the second week of January, the preliminary enumeration commenced at the end of Janu- 
ary and was finished by the 10th February. 

The work was first done on blank paper, which was checked thoroughly by the Myooks 
(Charge Superintendents) and the Subdivisional Officers of Myingyan and Pagan. 
# * * * * 

(e) The final enumeration. — The quality of the work done by all Census officers was 
goop, in some cases particularly so. The following deserve special commendation :— 

Maung Me, Sudivisional Officer, Myingyan. 



lxii 



APPEN DICES 



Charge Superintendents. 

Maiing Tin, Township Officer, Natogyi. 
Maung No, Township Officer, Taungtha. 
Maung Tin, Township Officer, Pagan. 
Maung Kyin Han, Inspector of Police. 
Maung Aung Myat; Sergeant of Police. 

Supervisors. 

Maung Twa, Thugyi of Sunlun. 
Maung Me Gyaw, Thugyi of Thinbyun. 
Maung Maung, Thugyi of Lethit. 
Maung Po Hlaing, Thugyi of Tanaungdaing. 
Maung Po An, Thugyi of Gyokpin. 
Maung San Myin, Thugyi of Taungtha. 
Maung Maung Gyi, son of Thugyi of Sameikkon. 
Maung So Min, Thugyi of Tazo. 
Maung San U, Thugyi of Ywagyi. 
Maung Pyan, Thugyi of Tabe. 
Maung Hme, Thugyi of Busonywa. 
Maung Po Saw, Thugyi of Kyanso. 
Maung Po Bwin, Thugyi of Tawa. 
Maung Po Than, Thugyi of Kyatywa. 
Maung Waik, Thugyi of Tingan. 
Maung Ba O, Thugyi of Ngathayauk-Tingyikan. 
Maung Po Gaung, Thugyi of Taungbileya. 
Maung Pe Gyi, Myothugyi of Taungsin. 
Maung Myin, Thugyi of Taungnyo. 
Maung Chet, Thugyi of Chaungshe. 
Maung Po Ta, Myothugyi of Taywindaing. 
Maung Shwe Ka, Thugyi of Taungbitawleywa. 
Maung Ba, Head Clerk to the Mvook of Taungtha, also rendered valuable assistance, 
though not actually appointed a Census officer. 

(/) The preparation of the district, charge, and circle summaries, and the ar- 
rangements made for the early submission of data for the provisional totals. — In order 
to expedite the despatch of provisional totals, it was arranged that all Supervisors should 
meet their Charge Superintendent in a suitable centra on the and March, and prepare and 
deliver to him their circle summaries and thus enable him to compile and submit his charge 
summary. 

On the 2nd March the Deputy Commissioner himself checked all the circle summaries 
from the town of Myingyan and as many circles as had come in from the townships. 
***** 
All figures were in on the 5th March, on which date the provisional totals were tele- 
graphed to the Census Commissioner and Superintendent of Census, Burma. 

***** 
(zj The total actual cost of the Census operations is Rs. 106-4-0. 
(;") The correctness or otherwise of the results obtained — * * 

It is hoped that the results on the whole were substantially accurate. 

(k) Vital statistics. — There have been no devastating epidemics during the last 10 
years. The register of births is not maintained in the district. 

***** 

(/) Emigration and immigration. — Emigration and immigration in Myingyan follow 
the barometer. It has long been an established custom in this district to migrate when scar- 
city threatens and to return when the rains promise a livelihood. 

***** 

This year the migration has not been quite so general on account of the better agricul- 
tural season which this district has experienced. 

***** 



From G. C. B. Stirling, Esq., Officiating Superintendent of the Northern Shan States, to the Superin- 
tendent, Census Operations, Burma, — No. 627-2P., dated the 28th May 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit a report on the Census operations in the Northern Shan 
States. * * * 

Report on Census operations in the Northern Shan States. 

The Census in the Northern Shan States was a non-synchronous one. The area dealt 
with embraced the whole of the Cis-Salween States, with the exception of West MangLon. 
This State and all Trans Salween territory were omitted from the operations, while the 
Kachin districts of North Hsenwi were treated as an " Estimated area." 



APPENDICES. 



lxiii 



2. (a) Non-synchronous area. — Enumeration began punctually on the ist December 
and was completed in the various States on the following dates: — 

In Tawngpeng ... ... ... 3rd January. 

In South Hsenwi ... ... ... 10th March. 

In Hsipaw ... ... ... 31st March. 

In North Hsenwi ... ... ... 22nd April. 

3. According to the original scheme the enumeration was to have been done by the 
local native officials and checked by Government officers. The latter included all the per- 
manent staff and two specially appointed Myooks, Maung Po Mya and Maung Bwa. 

Mr. Thornton, I.C.S. (Adviser to the Hsipaw Sawbwa), dealt with the Kodaung, Mong 
Long, MQng Tung, and the greater part of Eastern Hsipaw ; Saw Lon Saing. Town Magis- 
trate, with Hsipaw town and home district; Myo6k Hkun Mong with Hsumhsai ; Myook 
Maung Po Mya with Tawngpeng and the rest of Hsipaw ; Mr. H. J. Inman, Extra Assist- 
ant Commissioner, with South Hsenwi ; and Myo6k Maung Bwa with North Hsenwi, where 
he received some assistance from the Civil Officer at Kutkai and Myo&k Maung Po Mya. 

Lashio station was enumerated by Mr. W. Law, officiating Myook. 

The Railway Census was taken by the Railway authorities. 

4. For several weeks before the commencement of the actual enumeration much time 
was devoted to instructing the local officials in the work which was required of them. The 
schedule form was carefully explained, and the officials were called upon to fill up a specimen 
form in respect of their own families, or to enumerate the people in a house near at hand. 
In the majority of cases this was labour wasted. Those who succeeded in getting some 
grasp of the work for the moment forgot what they had learnt in the short interval be- 
tween instruction and enumeration. Others were too illiterate to do the work themselves, 
and too stupid and indifferent to get' it done for them. It thus happened that the original 
scheme, by which the enumeration should have been carried out by the local officials and 
merely verified by Government Officers, had, to a great extent, to be abandoned. To this 
general rule there were of course many exceptions. In South Hsenwi, where the majority 
of the circles are large and prosperous, the local officials are usually of a superior type., 
Here they did good work, after they had once been started. In Hsumhsai also, where the, 
population is chiefly Danu and much Burmanized, the Myook got real assistance from the 
local headmen. But in the rest of Hsipaw State, in Tawngpeng, and in North Hsenwi a 
regular house-to-house enumeration had to be made by the Government officer, assisted 
only by clerks drawn from the Sawbwa's office. Apart from the scattered character of the 
population and the difficulties of travel, the only obstacle met with was the ignorance of the 
native officials. This, as has been explained, necessitated a departure from the original 
scheme over wide areas and added enormously to the labour of the Government officers. 

5. The attitude of the people towards the Census was generally that of resigned in- 
difference. They one and all regarded it as a preliminary to an enhanced revenue assess- 
ment. Assurances to the contrary were received with more or less polite incredulity. But 
there was nothing in the way of active opposition. In some cases the officials, even when 
quite incompetent to give any real assistance, showed a commendable though misdirected 
zeal. Thus one of them took a security bond from each village headman in his circle, in which 
the latter bound himself to submit to any punishment the Government in its wrath might 
inflict should there be a single name omitted from the village list. There were no prosecu- 
tions under the Act. 

6. The value of the figures obtained varies in the different States. In Hsipaw the 
Adviser thinks the errors of omission may possibly amount to 2 or 3 per cent. It is impro- 
bable that they exceed this in either Tawngpeng or South Hsenwi. North Hsenwi is the 
most backward of the States, and Census-taking here was most arduous and difficult. It is 
hard to say how far the returns are under the mark. Probably not less than 5 and not more 
than 10 per cent., taking all the enumerated districts together. 

The omissions made in the first instance, and subsequently detected, were chiefly the 
very young, the very old, pongyts, nuns, lunatics, cripples, and the afflicted generally. 
Recently born^children were not mentioned by the head of the house, perhaps through bash- 
fulness ; old people past work were not thought worth counting. Pongyts and nuns were 
left out because their lives are devoted to religion ; lunatics and cripples because they are 
below the level of ordinary beings. It is possible that the last column of the Census schedule 
will give but an inadequate conception of the numbers of the mentally or bodily infirm in 
the States. Due allowance must be made for omissions of the character indicated, and also 
of course for wilful concealments of other members of a family and for whole households 
left out. But on the whole I think the results are as good as could reasonably be expected; 

So far as is known there have been no very widespread or destructive epidemics- within 
recent years. Vital statistics are not maintained, and any remarks under this head are merely 
the personal opinions of officers. It can hardly be doubted that the infant mortality is high. 
The absence of young children is noticeable in many villages, and enquiries of heads of 
families seldom fail to disclose losses by death. It is believed that this is especially true of 
the pure Shan population, and it will be interesting to see if the view is borne out -by the 
present Census. Small-pox is endemic (rarely very virulent, rarely very mild), and it must 
fee responsible for a great many deaths in the year. 



Ixiv 



APPENDICES. 



8. During the past decade a goodly number of persons have returned to their native 
States, who had left them owing to the disturbances of previous years. No record is. avail-, 
able of the number of such people, and the fact can only be stated generally. There has 
been some migration to Hsipaw from Burma and to North and South Hsenwi from places 
beyond the Salween, both from British and foreign territory. The southern movement of the 
Kachin tribes continues. Here and there they have been checked, but on the whole they 
spread a little farther each year. Kachin villages are found in South Hsenwi, in Tawngpeng, 
and in the Mong Long sub-State of Hsipaw. They have settled on the fringe of I he Wa 
country and in Mang L6n and have begun to get a footing in Kengtung. These latter dis- 
tricts are beyond the area covered by Census operations in the Northern Shan States and 
are only referred to in connection with the southward movement of the Kachins. It is a 
serious matter for the Shan population. The more far-sighted recognize it as such, and all 
keenly resent it. But the Shans have neither the numbers nor the fighting qualities to check 
the tide. 

9. The railway has not yet been opened for traffic beyond Nawnghkio in the Hsumhsai 
sub-State of Hsipaw. Its influence on the population is still rather a question of the future. 
But it has already begun to be felt in Hsipaw State. Natives of India have settled at 
Nawnghkio and Hsipaw town, and stray bunniahs have penetrated to some of the larger vil- 
lages along the main cart-roads. Railway construction has of course attracted Indian and 
Chinese coolies. These are shown separately in the railway returns. The Chinese [locally 
known as Maingthas (Burmese) ; Tai No, Tai Na (Shan)] come from the Chinese Shan States. 
Men of this race visit the Northern Shan States every year. They work at road-making, 
irrigation, carpentering, sawing timber, blacksmithing, &c, and leave at the end of the dry 
weather. 

The immediate effect of cart-roads is often to reduce the number of the villages through 
which they pass. Demands for supplies and transport, the trouble of protecting their crops 
from mules and bullocks, &c, are cordially disliked by the ease-loving Shan. He takes 
time to realize that he can sell his produce at far better prices than he ever got before. It 
thus happens that small villages frequently move when a cart-road is opened, while on an 
established and well travelled route new villages and small bazaars spring up. Instances in 
recent years of both processes could be given. 

10. No tribe was discovered which has not already been reported on. 

11. The cost of the operations was as follows : — ■ 

Rs. A. P. 

(a) Contingencies ... ... ... ... 434 o o 

(b) Pay of two special Census officers from the 25th 

October 1900 to the 30th April 1901 ... 2,365 12 10 

(c) Travelling allowance of above ... ... 1,407 4 

(d) Pay of two interpreters, one from the 1st November to 

the 15th April (Rs. no), one from the 1st No- 
vember to April (Rs. 113-5-4) ... ... 223 5 4 

Total ... 4,430 6 2 

12. (b) Estimated area. — The Kachin districts of North Hsenwi were treated as an 
estimated area. A list of the various circles and the estimated population of each is append- 
ed. The latter was arrived at by applying the average ascertained number per household 
of actually counted villages to the total number of houses in the area. The result of course 
can only be regarded as an approximation to the true population. Neither the number of 
households nor the factor by which these have been multiplied has any claim to accuracy. 
The number of houses has been obtained (a) by actual count between November and April, 
(b) from returns made by headmen within the same period, and (c) from last year's revenue 
lists. Reliance can be placed only on the first named, but as the latter returns were connect- 
ed with revenue assessment it is obvious that they will only contain errors of omission. It 
may therefore be claimed that the population of the estimated area is at least tl.it stated, and 
perhaps a good deal more. 

The area included is not a compact block. It comprises settlements of Kachins in various 
parts of the State from North to South. Its extent in square miles can hardly be given, but, if 
desired, a map will be submitted roughly showing the localities embraced. 

People of other races living amongst the Kachins are included. Kachins living in Shan 
or Palaung districts and subject to the authority of the local officials are excluded. These 
have been enumerated in the standard form. The estimate therefore does not deal exclu- 
sively with Kachitis, nor does it include all Kachins. A table showing distribution by races 
is appended. 

The average number of persons to a house in the case of the Kachins was calculated 
from actual count of a small number of villages only. This is regrettable, but it was uuavoid- 
able. From the point of view of the Census (as well as for other considerations) the Northern 
frontier circles had to be visited first. These had not yet been brought under revenue assess- 
ment, and no information as to the number of houses, or even of villages, was available. By 
the time lists of houses had been obtained, but a few weeks remained before the close of Census 
operations to devote to more settled districts. The newly-administered districts were not 



A fPENDICfeS. 



hn 



the best places to make a detailed count of families, and time did not admit of any large 
number of households being dealt with elsewhere. The experience obtained, however, was 
that Kachin families averaged five persons— two males and three females. It will be interest- 
ing to see whether so great an excess of females is shown in the Census of Kachins elsewhere. 
The only explanation of it here is that many men die by violence, while the women die only 
in the ordinary course of nature. In the case of races other than Kachins living in the esti- 
mated area, the average population par house is based on an actual count of a large number 
of families. 

The Census of the estimated area was carried out by Mr. A. H. Duke, Assistant Politi- 
cal Officer, North Hsenwi. 

13. All officers in the Northern Shan States assisted at the Census. Until it was 
finished the Adviser and the Extra Assistant Commissioner, South Hsenwi, had hardly time 
for any other work. The special Census officers, Myooks Maung Po Mya and Maung Bwa, 
were indefatigable in their exertions, and often did not return to camp till long after dark. 
Travelling in the Shan States is very laborious, and it is no light matter to be out from 
morning till night on work like Census enumeration. I beg to submit the services of Mr. 
H. A. Thornton, I.C.S., Adviser, Hsipaw; Mr. H. J. Inman, Extra Assistant Commissioner, 
South Hsenwi, and of Myo6ks Maung Po Mya and Maurrg Bwa as worthy of special com- 
mendation. 



Appendix A. 
Northern Shan States. Estimated area. 



No. 


Circles. 


Houses. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1 


Na-ti ... 


200 


400 


600 


1,000 


2 


Nam Hkai 


155 


34° 


455 


795 


3 


Pang Kapna .. ... 


140 


280 


420 


700 


4 


Kang Mong 


298 


631 


909 


i,54o 


5 


Kawng Kaw 


200 


400 


600 


1,000. 


6 


Mong Leng ' 


90 


220 


270 


49o 


7 


Tai-Se 


82 


180 


203 


383 


S 


Law Naw [Part of 1 


9 


18 


27 


45 


9 


Pang-Yok [Part of 1 


92 


222 


258 


480 


10 


Se-No [Part of 1 


97 


194 


291 


485 


11 


Man Wun [Part of 1 


5° 


100 


150 


250 


12 


Loi Hawm [Part of ] 


33 


66 


99 


165 


13 


Pat Ma ... 


150 


300 


45° 


75o 


14 


Manssak 


'Part of 




27 


54 


81 


"35 


15 


Mu-Se 


Part of 


... 


18 


36 


54 


90 


16 


Mang Hang 


'Part of 


... 


40 


80 


120 


200 


17 


Ho-Tao ... 


394 


831 


1,180 


2,011 


18 


Kapna 


232 


497 


680 


'.'77 


19 


Mong Ko 


358 


823 


1,011 


1,834 


20 


Po-Wang 


271 


600 


810 


1,410 


21 


M6ng-ya [Part of ] 


202 


406 


596 


1,002 


22 


Mong Si ... 


1,013 


2,214 


3,t55 


5,369 


23 


Mong Paw 


286 


59' 


855 


1,446 


24 


Mong Htam ... ... ,... 


538 


1,387 


1,401 


2,788 


25 


Mong Wun 


758 


1,713 


2,089 


3,802 


26 


Ho-Pyet 


191 


414 


545 


959 


2/ 


Ti-Ma ... 


43o 


864 


1,039 


1.903 


28 


Sao-Pum 


164 


356 


488 


844 


29 


Pang-Kai 


•45 


407 


508 


915 


3° 


Pang Hok 


213 


426 


637 


1,063 


3 1 


Ho-Maw [Part of ] 
Hpak-Yai [Part of ] 


5o 


IOO 


>50 


250 


3 2 


1 So 


360 


54o 


900 


33 


Loi Kang 


50 


IOO 


150 


250 


34 


Konghsa 


75 


150 


225 


375 


35 


Nga-Kyem 


i>9 


239 


335 


574 


36 


Ta-hkai [Part of ] 
Pang Kut [Part of J 


70 


170 


210 


380 


37 


417 


830 


1,099 


1,929 


38 
39 


Hsai-Hkao 


178 


349 


426 


775 


Hao-Kang 


81 


156 


229 


385 


40 


Hsam Pu 


34 


71 


95 


166 


41 


Hpa-Sawm 


103 


195 


259 


454 


42 
43 


Nam Nak 


77 


163 


199 


362 


Tunso ... 


60 


120 


180 


300 


44 


Loi Lai [Part of ] 


90 


220 


270 


490 


45 
46 

47 


Loi Pe ... 


150 


300 


45° 


750- 


Man-Aw 


40 


80 


120 


200 


Ing-M6ng 


80 


160 


240 


400 


48 


Nam Paklong 


5° 


100 


15° 

218 

332 


250 
358 
548 


49 
_5° 


Warrapum [Part of J 
Ning Lom [Part of ] 


7' 
in 


140 
216 








Total ... 


8,962 


- 19,269 


25,858 


45,127 



I XVI 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix B. 
Distribution by Races. 



No. 


Race. 


Houses. 




Population. 






Males. 


Females. 


Total. 




Kachins 

PalaungS 

Shans 

Chinese 

Lisaw 

Total ... 


5,702 

1,439 

1,046 

7.6 

59 


11,404 

3.454 

2,307 

1,938 

166 


17,1^6 

3,948 

2,929 

1,732 

143 


28,510 

7,402 

5,236 

3,670 

3°9 




8,962 


19,269 


25,858 


45.127 



From A. H Hildibrand, Esq., c.i.e., Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States, to 
the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma,— No. 910-4C— 1, dated the 19th April 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to forward copy of the report of the Extra Assistant Commissioner, 
Myelat division, together with his charge and circle summaries in original, and copy of his 
letter No. 457-10., dated the 8th instant. 

***** 

Mr. C. E. Browne has taken immensetrouble to obtain a reliable Census, and from 
what I saw in my tours in his division in November and December 1900, I can confidently 
accept his figures as the nearest to absolute accuracy as are to be obtained. He is to be 
commended for the result of his personal care, assistance, and supervision, without which 
the figures would have been of no value. 

The Chiefs and clerks specially mentioned by him in Part II of his report are also 
worthy of commendation. 



Census of the Myelat States and Loilong. 
/ — Preparatory work. 

On the 17th August the fifteen chiefs in this charge were informed of the orders of 
Government regarding the non-synchronous Census of their States and were given full in- 
structions as to what they were to do to get a correct enumeration of their people. Be- 
tween that date and the 1st of December all the States were visited by me and the clerks 
were instructed what to do and how to fill up the standard schedule. House-numbering 
was done satisfactorily in most of the States and many persons took pains to paint their 
numbers and decorate their boards. 

In Loi-ai nrat tin-plates were supplied to all the houses. In Loilong State the number- 
ing of houses was very backward ; and in a few villages in Namhkai State the numbers were 
all wrong, due to the families being enumerated before the numbers were put up. When 
the number boards were sent out from the Chief's court the people, bein<* ignorant 
Taungthus, were unable to decipher them and put up the boards which took their fancy. 
Steps Were taken to put them right as soon as the confusion of numbers was detected. In 
not a few cases numbers were put where they could not be seen and others were carefully 
s towed away inside houses to prevent their being damaged by rain or by children. 

The Enumerators were clerks attached to the Chiefs' offices and clerks temporarily 
engaged for the purpose. They were men who belonged "to the States and were assisted in» 
their work by the village and circle headmen. Rupees 400 was sanctioned towards the ex- 
penses of the extra establishment entertained in each State, of which a sum of Rs. 40 remain- 
ed unexpended. 

//. — The Census itself. 

(a) Enumerators started work on or shortly after the 1st of December Tie rolls in 
the first instance were prepared on Shan paper and were produced for my inspection when 
1 visited each State. Villages here and there which showed a preponderance of males or 
a paucity of children were visited and checked. Bazaars were also visited and people called 
up indiscriminately and examined as to the entries shown against them. 

lb) There was no final enumeration on the night of the 1st March. After the 
schedules written on Shan paper had been scrutinized and passed thev were re-written on 
the printed forms and done up into books, village by village, and despatched to m v office 
with an abstract similar to the " circle summary." All the schedules of the fourteen Myelat 



APPENDICES. 



lxvii 



States reached my office by the 1st March, but the last of the Loil6ng schedules did not 
reach my office till the 23rd March, due to the failure of some of the clerks to properly 
enumerate the Karens and Taungthus in out-of-the way parts of the State. The Myoza, when 
he discovered how inaccurate some of the rolls, were, ordered a fresh enumeration and did 
not get the revised rolls till the 27th February. The State (Loilong) is an extensive one 
of 1,600 square miles, the country is very hilly and difficult to get over, and the Karens in 
the southern parts are no more advanced then the Karens of Karenni who have been ex- 
cluded from Census operations. 

In the Loi-ai State the first enumeration appeared faulty. A second was made at my 
request and resulted in an increase from 5,388 to 5,553. In the Namhkai State there was 
a tendency to omit infants and children of tender age. The clerks were sent round a 
second time and on their return were able to show an increase from 6,576 to 6,779. 

The Chiefs were expected to supervise the work in their respective States, but as some 
were old and decrepit and unable to read or write, and one (the Maw Ngwegunkmu) was 
incapacitated through illness, very little could be expected from them beyond using their 
influence in seeing that a proper Census was made. 

Of the other Chiefs I think the Ngwegunhmu of Pwehla, A.T.M., and the Myoza of 
Hsamonghkam, A T.M., displayed the greatest energy and did all they could to get a correct 
enumeration of their States. Among the clerks I should especially commend the services 
of Maung Po Taik, Maung Po Thit, and Maung The of the Pangtara State, Miung Po Mya 
of the Mawnang State, Maung Sein of Loimaw State, and Maung Ba of the Pangmi State 
and Maung To, Maung Hlaing, and Maung Lat of the Loilong State and Amat U Yan Shin 
of the same State. 

Hkan Yon, the Hsamonghkam Myoza's brother-in-law and right-hand man, took an 
intelligent interest in the Census work of the Hsamonghkam State and assisted also in com- 
pleting the work of the Kyawkku State. 

(c) The Enumerators' and Supervisors' abstracts were prepared in the Chiefs' offices and 
stamped with their Court seals. All the abstracts and village Census books were checked 
by me as far as possible and signed. 

(d) The Census of the whole charge was taken non-synchronously and was completed 
on the 27th February. 

(e) No part of the charge was excluded from Census operations. 

if ) There were no prosecutions under the Census Act and, as the work was done by 
local agencies under the direct supervision of the Chiefs, there was no friction and no un- 
pleasantness displayed by any of the races inhabiting the States of the Myelat. It might 
have been otherwise had Burmese clerks been imported for the purpose. 

(g) Rupees 400 was sanctioned for extra establishment for taking the Census, of which 
Rs. 360 was actually paid. 

At the Census-taking of 1891 the Maw State was under the Deputy Commissioner of 
Kyaukse and was censused synchronously with the rest of the district. The other States 
were excluded from the regular Census operations, but were, during the dry weather of 1891, 
subjected to a rough enumeration conducted by the local officers and native officials. Since 
then each State has been twice enumerated for the quinquennial tribute arrangement ; 
making in all, with the present Census, four enumerations during the past ten years. The 
people have thus come to understand what a Census is and the local officers and native 
officials have less difficulty in getting correct statistics. A comparative statement is attach- 
edt show ing the variations in population, from which it will be seen that at the Census of 
1891 the estimated population was only 58,375, in 1892-1893 it was estimated at 104, 991, 
in 1896-1897 (when rolls were prepared of each household) it rose to 105,563, and at the 
present Census to 119,415, which, takiug everything into consideration, is as accurate a 
non-synchronous Census of the Myelat and Loilong States as it is possible to make it. 
***** 

{£) Eight thousand five hundred Census schedule forms in Burmese and 5 in English 
and 1,500 outer covers were received from the Press, out of which 8,400 Surmese schedules, 
two English schedules, and 1,400 outer covers were used in the States. 

The enumeration books were checked by me with the circle lists and done up into 
bundles in accordance with the Census Superintendent's letter No. 2I4-2C.O., dated the 
2oth February. Regarding the compilation of the Census schedules, I should like to make 
the following remarks : — 

(a) The rule requiring a blank line to be left between each household has not been 
rigidly observed by all the Enumerators. 

(b) The block numbers have not been entered, as villages were not divided into blocks. 
(<r) The ages of Karens, Palaungs, Taungthus, &c, are entered approximately only, 

as these people keep no horoscopes and keep no account of the years. 

t Not printed. ~ 



lxviii 



AfPEN DICES. 



In some cases, especially in Loilong, infants under one year have been shown as one 
year of age instead of as " infants." 

(d) The septs of the Karens are shown in column 8 as Karenni, Zayein, Karenbyu, 
Kalasfe, Gaungto, and Palaung. 

The other races, Danu, Taungthu, Taungyo, and Shan are not divided into septs. 

(e) Of the languages shown in column 13, Taungyo, Intha, and Danu may be con- 
sidered as dialects of Burmese. 

Palaung is a dialect of Shan as well as Danaw. 



From A. H. Hildebrand, Esq., c.i.e., Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States, to 
the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma,— No. 1322-4C— 1, dated the 29th May 1901. 

In continuation of my letter No. 1 186-4C. — I, dated the 17th instant, I have the honour 
to forward you copy of letter No. 412-44M. — 1900-01, dated the 27th May 1901, together 
with a copy of report and the divisional charge and the charge summaries in original from 
the Extra Assistant Commissioner in charge of the Central division. The schedules are 
being sent separately. 

2. From a personal visit to almost every State in the division while the Census was 
going on, I consider that the Census as a whole may be regarded as correct, and that, owing 
to the exceptional trouble taken by Mr. Kiernander, in which I was also able to render 
some assistance, as I happened to be inspecting there at the critical time, the columns of 
"Occupation" and " Subsidiary occupation " are more reliable than in any of the other 
divisions. 

3. The houses and population in this division are considerably in excess of those in 
any of the others. The expenditure is far below that of the other divisions, and, with the 
exception of the Myelat, the figures for " Occupation," both permanent and subsidiary, are 
by far the most reliable. 

The extra time and trouble given to it and the better system of working is to a great 
measure responsible for these better results. 

The work was a heavy one in every division, but the heaviest probably in this. 
Mr. D. W. Kiernander is to be congratulated on having done it so efficiently. 



From D. W. Kiernander, Esq., Extra Assistant Commissioner, in charge Central Division, Taunggyi, to 
the Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States, — No. 412-44M.— 1900-01, dated the 
27th May 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit my report on the Census of the Central division, Southern 
Shan States, with the divisional charge and the charge summaries for the 12 States. 
% * * * * 

Census of the Central division, Southern Shan States, 1901. 

/. — Preparatory work. 

During the rains the twelve Chiefs in the charge were informed of the orders of the 
Government regarding the non-synchronous Census of their States, and were given full 
written instructions on the subject. 

Instructions were issued that between the dates of the 1st December 1900 and the 13th 
February 190 1 the Census had to be started and finished on Shan paper. During the 
months of August, September, October, and November 1900, I personally visited all but 
the two States of Sa Koi and Mong Pai and further instructed them how to fill in the standard 
schedule which had been ordered to be used for the non-synchronous Census. They were 
also instructed how to arrange the villages into blocks, circle by circle. 

The officials of Mong Pai and Sa Koi States during September came in with their budgets 
and the standard schedule was explained to them and printed instructions given. 

(a) The Enumerators were all local men and were the clerks of the Chiefs and were 
assisted by village and circle headmen. 

A sum of Rs. 800 was sanctioned for the entertainment of extra establishment, of which 
Rs. 29-0-6 was all that was expended for the entertainment of one clerk to generally assist 
the Chiefs and to aid me in supervising the Census returns. '• 

//. — The Census itself. 

Though instructions were given to start house enumeration on the 1st December 1900 
the only States that actually started on the day were Lai Hka and Mong Kiing, where I 
personally was at the time on the nth December 1900. I arrived at Lawk Sawk town and 
found the Census on Shan paper written up for the town. It was so carelessly done that I 
stopped and personally took the Enumerators round and had the town written up by them in 
my presence. On the 24th December I visited Yawng Hwe town and found the Census for 



APPENDICES 



lxix 



the town completed. A few mistakes in the column of workers were pointed out and 40 
Enumerators and 10 Supervisors were each set to start the work in the outside villages. I 
then proceeded to Samhka town and found the Census had beeii completed, except for two 
circles. They had made the same mistakes as Yawng Hwe, which were duly corrected. 
Then proceeded to Sa Koi and found Census had not been started {9th January 1901.) As 
the State was a small one I decided to personally write it up with my clerk and the State 
Enumerator, 150 houses. This was done in two days by us and the State Enumerator left 
to finish the remaining houses. On the 1 ith January 1901 1 arrived at Mong Pai and found 
nothing done, or any arrangement made to take the Census The Sawbwa was instructed to 
bring up ten men who could read and write, and I stopped three days and, with the assistance 
of my clerk and Veterinary Assistant, wrote up six villages with the men produced by the 
Sawbwa and arranged that they should at once start work on Shan paper and finish it up all 
before the 13th February 1901. I then left and crossed over to Hsa Htung State and found 
that the Tabet circle had been written up and on checking found many houses and people 
left out; therefore I took away the enumeration papers and started it afresh by personally 
taking each enumerator and making him write up a village in my presence. From here I 
proceeded on to Wanyin and found that no attempt had been made to start the Census owing 
to the annual festival going on. 

The administrator was instructed to bring up an Enumerator for each circle, and I per- 
sonally with my clerk went out and had a village written up bv each Enumerator. From here 
I went on to Nawng-wawn and found the Census completed, except for one circle. I per- 
sonally went round and checked two circles and found the subsidiary work column was not 
understood and wrote it .up and sent out each Enumerator to correct his charge. From 
Nawng-wawn I went to Namhkok and found the Census finished and the abstract for pre- 
liminary figures ready. On checking the same I found a few mistakes which were rectified. 
Then went on to Hopong and found the'Census had been finished. On checking the same from 
house to house found over 300 people in one circle had been left out owing to the laziness 
of the clerk, who would mt write up the names of each person given by the house-owner 
(30th January 1901). On looking through the other circle lists further mistakes were made. 
I therefore took away all the papers and asked the administrator for nine Enumerators and 
put on one man to each circle and personally with my clerk spent three days with the Enu- 
merators, writing up each house in every village, and then left with instructions to finish 
their work in ten days. I then went in to headquarters for a few days and returned to 
Hopong and checked the circles that had been finished and found them well and correctly 
written up. I then proceeded on to Lai Hka State and checked the Census all the way to the 
town and found every house properly written up, but they had gone wrong in the subsidiary 
work columns, so it was arranged that the Enumerators were to go out again and correct 
them. 

I then proceeded to Mong KGng State and checked three circles on r the way and found 
the schedule properly entered up and the abstract given in. At Mong Kiing all abstracts 
were received and the charge abstract sent in to the Superintendent of the Southern Shan 
States for incorporation. 

(5) There was no final enumeration or check on the 1st March 1901. 

(c) The Enumerators and Supervisors' abstracts were prepared in the office of each 
Chief and were checked by myself and my two clerks. Ea;h Supervisor's abstract is 
stamped by me and also stamped with my office seal and attached to the circle Enumerators' 
books. 

(d) The Census of the whole divisional charge was taken non-synchronously and com- 
pleted on Shan paper on the 13th February 1901. The copying from the Shan paper on to 
printed schedules was completed for eleven States by the 10th April 1901. The schedule 
from the State of Yawng Hwe was finished on the 15th April and received by me on the 
21st April. The delay is due to the durbar and the Census schedules intended for this State 
being sent to Kengtung. 

(e) No part of the divisional charge was excluded from the non-synchronous Census. 
(/) No prosecution was made. The administrator of Hop6ng dismissed one of the 

clerks for careless work. 

(g) The 12 States in 1900 showed an estimated population of 281,116 souls. 

The divisional and 12 charge summaries attached give the details of the population, 
State by State and circle by circle, also the grand total for the twelve States in the charge. 

(h) Originally 12,000 schedules in Shan and 12,000 in Burmese with 2,000 covers of 
both kinds were received. Shan schedules were only required for one State, i.e., Mong 
Kiing ; consequence being a further supply of 6,000 Burmese schedules had to be indented 
for, the last 2,000 for Yawng Hwe being sent to Kengtung. I did not receive them till the 
22nd March 1901. 

The enumeration books were checked by me with the assistance of my two clerks and 
were all done up into bundles and circle summaries attached thereto. 



lxx 



APPENDICES. 



Comparative Statement of the estimated population of i goo and non-Synchronous Census 

of igoi. 



No. 


> 

Name of State. 


Estimated popu- 
lation 1900. 


Census of 190 1. 


Remarks. 


i" 

z 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

IO 

It 
12 


Sa Koi (Sagwe) 
Samhka (Saga) 
Mong Pai (Mobye) 
Lawksawk (Yatsauk) ... 
Hop6ng (Hcpon) 
Namhkok (Nankok) ... 
Nawng Wawn (Naung Mun) 
Laihka (Legya) 
Hsahtung (Thaton) 
Wanyen (Banyin) 
Mong Kiing (Maingkaing) 
Yawng Hxe (Nyaungywe) 

Total 


i,3 l6 
11,640 

22,975 

27,810 

10465 

6,965 

5-430 

25,340 

8,465 

10,005 

34,005 

1,16,700 


',387 
17,640 
19.328 
24.614 
10,804 

6,686 

4,804 
25,793 

9,784 
10,192 
30,308 
92,645 






281,116 


253,985 





The State of Mong Pai has never been enumerated and the estimated population is 3,547 
in excess of the Census. ' 



Endorsement by A. H. Hildebrand, Esq., c.i.e., Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan 
States, — No. 1186-4C. — I of 1900, dated the 17th May 1901. 

Copy of the following forwarded to the Superintendent, Census Operations, Burma, with 
the regret at the delay in submission of the complete schedules, which was caused by the 
durbar held in Taunggyi on the 27th March last. 

The Census of houses and population I consider, froma personal visitation and enquiry 
'throughout the Eastern division, to be trustworthy. The details as to age and occupation 
may be considered as approximate only from ignorance on the part of the Chiefs and their 
Enumerators and of the people themselves. 

That Mr. Gordon deserves great credit for having been so successful in obtaining so cor- 
rect a Census I can testify from personal supervision in each State in his charge. 



From D. M. Gordon, Esq., Extra Assistant Commissioner, in charge Eastern division, Southern Shan 
States, to the Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States, — No. 260, dated the 10th May 
1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit the Census returns for the Eastern division, Southern Shan 
States. 

With the returns of each circle, circle summaries are submitted. 

The charge summaries, together with a divisional summary, tabulating the total figures 
of the various charges in the division, and a memorandum, as calltd for in your Circular 
memorandum No. 350-4C. — 1 of 1900, dated the 22nd February 1901, are submitted. 

Memorandum by D. M. Gordon, Esq., Extra Assistant Commissioner, on the Census in the Eastern division, 

Southern Shan States. 

THE Eastern division, Southern Shan States, comprises the n Shan States marginally 

noted, each under a separate ruling 
Chief. The area of the division is 



Mong Nai cum 
Kengtawng. 
Mawkmai. 
Mong Pan. 



Mong Sit. 
Mong Pawn. 
Kenghkam. 
Mong Nawng. 



Kehsi-Mansan. 
Kenglon. 
Mong Hsu. 
Mong Sang. 



computed at roughly 12,000 square 
miles, about as large as the kingdom 
of Holland. 

2. For Census operations the division was divided into 13 charges, the main State of 

_,. ., . , , , Mdng Nai and its sub-State of Kengtawng being worked as 

Distribution of work and agency „__ _, , ,, • -i .„.• „ r r> » ,., , ■, 

employed separate charges, the civil station of Bampon (the head- 

quarters of the division) and the Survey Party at work 
being considered also as separate charges. 

The undersigned was general Charge Superintendent, assisted by five Shan lads, one 
Taungthu (literate in Shan and Burmese), and one Gurkha. 

The actual Census, which was non-synchronous throughout, was carried out entirely by 
local agency, that is, by the Chiefs of the various States, excepting the enumeration of the 
natives of India in the Public Works Department employment, in which work the Gurkha 
was employed, the enumeration of the military police at Bampon, which Captain A. H. W. Lee, 
Assistant Commandant, kindly conducted, and the enumeration of the Survey camps, whic 
the clerk to the Survey Party compiled. 

* * * * if! 



APPENDICES. 



Ixxi 



3. The actual numbering of the houses and preliminary enumeration, in lead pencil 
Preliminary work. ? n ^ han P a P er > began in December and was completed 

in the more backward charges about the middle of February, 
the provisional totals being received on the 18th of February. 

Every charge was visited by the undersigned and general personal supervision and check 
of the work exercised up till the 27th February, the date fixed for the cessation of enumer- 
ation. 

4. Twenty-eight per cent, of the enumeration by the Chiefs was checked by the six 
Check and final work. local . men enjoyed (referred to in paragraph 2 above) in 

addition to the personal check by undersigned. 
After the actual enumeration was at an end, the interest flagged when the labour of 
copying on to the standard schedules began. The labour, entailing entries against over 
200,000 souls, was immense. In two charges (Mong Hsu and Mong Sang) the schedules had 
to be written up in lead pencil, the local officials being backward at the use of the pen. A 
durbar was held by His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in March at Taunggyi and during 
the absence of the Chiefs from their States till about the middle of April the underlings rested, 
the result being that the final schedules were only completed on the 8th May. 

5. On the whole the Census figures in population are fairly trustworthy, considering the 

Value of returns vast area of tlie div i s i° n > the a g enc y employed, and the 

paucity of reliable check. 
Practically it was only after the receipt of the provisional totals that leisure was found 
for detailed criticism of the entries in the village lists. What corrections could be made were 
then ordered, but most of the work is according to the lights of the local enumerators. 

The particulars under the "occupation " columns are the weakest items in the schedules, 
the average local comprehension of what was wanted having been very vague. 

The " birthplace " column raised considerable difficulties and in the schedules the entries 
" Shau country " or otherwise only are shown. 

The ages naturally amongst such primitive people are somewhat approximate, and it is 
feared that column 16 has been used sparingly. 

6. There was no opposition on the part of the people to the taking of the Census. 
The various indigenous races comprising the population are described in the Upper 

Burma Gazetteer. 



From Captain G. Drage, Assistant Political Officer, Kengtung, to the Superintendent and Political Officer, 
Southern Shan States, — No. 71, dated Camp, the 30th April 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit my report on the Census of the Kengtung State, together 
with the charge summary. 

The schedule books, together with the circle summaries attached to the respective 
circles, were despatched from Kengtung on the 20th April by the Head Clerk. Before 
my departure on the 9th March from the civil post at Kengtung, I had personally checked 
all the Shan paper Census schedules on which the Census was first entered. 

I checked all the village abstracts which were entered on the last page of the Shan paper 
schedules of each village. 

These village abstracts I myself entered in the office copies of the circle summaries 
and circle totals in the charge summary now attached. 

On the 6th March I wired the Census provisional totals as follows : " Houses 37,171, total 
"persons 190,169, males 96,461, females 93,708, monasteries being reckoned as two 
" nouses." 

* * * * * 

From after the 25th March, when the Enumerators began to come in with their Shan 
paper schedules, the Burman Supervisor, assisted by nine Shan clerks and 57 Enumerators, 
was busy, occupied in copying from the Shan paper schedules on to the printed schedules 
as well as writing out the village names on the printed circle summaries and entering the 
village and circle figures from my manuscript lists taken as described above from the Shan 
paper schedules. 

* * * * * ^ 

Census in the Kengtung State. 

I. — Preparatory -work. 

* * * * # 1 

In October the Sawbwa's revenue-collecting officials went out from Kengtung, and 
were ordered by the Sawbwa, after being instructed by me, to give house numbers to 
every house in the villages, village numbers and circle numbers. By the middle of January 
these officials returned stating they had done as directed and they gave a total of 35,490 
houses in the State as the result of their revenue and enumeration visit. 



lxxii 



APPENDICES. 



In October I got the Sawb-wa to have numbers similar to the above distributed in the 
town, home circle, and ho-hois or neighbouring circles, and I spent the whole of Novem- 
ber checking these numbers and enumerating the houses and monasteries. I was accom- 
panied by four of the Sawbwa's Shan clerks to learn from me how the enumeration should 
be carried out, and 1 enumerated 6,746 houses with 34,516 people, including the inmates of 
monasteries. I also made a house-to-house revenue survey of the whole of the Kengtung 
town and home circle. 

***** 

From the 1st January one of the Sawbwa's ministers with six Shan clerks, and from the 
1st February, in addition to them, a Burman Supervisor assisted by three Shan clerks, was 
engaged in preparing preliminary circle lists and filling up as many headings as possible on 
the printed schedules when they were received. 

II. — The census itself. 

Previous to the Enumerators starting out, copies of lists of villages with the number 
of houses in them which each Enumerator was to enumerate were given to each Enumera- 
tor ; careful provision was made to ensure that a man who had a distant circle or difficult 
hill villages was compensated by having fewer villages given him so that he might complete 
within the same time as Enumerators with easy Shan villages. On the 25th February 190 1, 
57 of the Sawbwa's Shan clerks were sent out to nominally help the circle headmen, but 
practically to do the enumeration themselves assisted by the circle headmen in case the 
Enumerator-; should be pressed for time 

An average of 100 houses to be enumerated in each week was allotted to the Enumer- 
ators who were directed to be back by the 25th March. 

By the 5th March all but one Enumerator was present. I rode and met him with his 
schedules on the 5th, returning to Kengtung in time to wire the provisional totals on the 
6th. 

The man had been delayed by trying to find some hill villages, the inmates of which had 
dispersed on account of small-pox. 

***** 

(g) Rupees 600 was sanctioned for extra establishment for help with the Census clerical 
work and the whole of this amount was spent. 

(/z) The inhabitants of the two military posts at Kengtung were enumerated and the 
return submitted by the Officer Commanding Kengtung separately from the State of 
Kengtung. 

ijC -jC 2jC ^c *J* 



From W. G. Wooster, Esq., Assistant Political Officer, Karenni, to the Superintendent and Political 
Officer, Southern Shan States, — No. 665-23M., dated the 3rd April 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit herewith the Census figures for Karenni with the follow- 
ing remarks on the manner the figures have been obtained by me and as to their relia- 
bility:— 

1. On receipt of your letter No. 162-4C. — 1, dated the 24th January 1900, steps were 
taken by me to commence making a preliminary enumeration of the States in Eastern and 
Western Karenni through their Chiefs, and the Chiefs were first addressed by me on the 
subject and then, as opportunity offered, I personally explained to them that Government 
every ten years counted the population of the whole of Burma, in order to allay suspicion. 
The Chiefs showed some interest and readily offered to render me every assistance in their 
power. 

The Chiefs in Karenni are illiterate and their clerks and courtiers as a rule are poorly 
educated, and it behoved me to do the best I could under the circumstances. 

2. All the Chiefs, I am glad to say, displayed considerable energy in making as com- 
plete a list as possible of the number of houses and inhabitants in their charges, and they 
have all furnished me with very nice and neat lists of the number of villages, houses, with 
the population given as male, female, boys, and girls. " 

In Karenni proper I felt assured of obtaining a pretty reliable return and my personal 
attention was therefore given to the Bre-Padaung Tracts. I am glad to be able to note that, 
thanks to the energy and interest displayed by the Chief of Kyebogyi, who personally con- 
ducted me through the Bre country within his charge and assisted me in enumerating vil- 
alges, I am able to say that, in my opinion, the return of figures showing the Bre population 
is very fairly represented. I personally counted and enumerated 146 Bre houses. In some 
instances the Chief's list showed one or two houses too many and in some too little, but 
the population was fairly correctly recorded. Personal enumeration was always a tedious 
task, as there was always half an hour or more lost in discussing with the headmen as to 
whether he would tell how many people were in the village or not. In the Kyebogyi State 
proper I personally counted and enumerated 132 Red Karen houses and 130 Mano houses. 
The Chief and his clerk always accompanied me and, when necessary, their list was corrected. 



APPENDICES. 



lxxiii 



I found the population in the Bre Hinterland a purely agricultural people, just growing suf- 
ficient paddy and vegetables and chillies for their own consumption with of course the small 
crop of millet seed for their liquor, and they were all very poor. 

In the Bawlake State I was accompanied by the Myoza's clerk and cne or two petty 
officials and personally inspected their'work. 1 visited and counted 416 houses in 12 Yinbaw 
villages besides 16 Bre, 46 Padaung, and 30 Shan houses within the State. I also raceived 
some assistance from the Rev. Dr. Bunker, of the American Baptist Mission at Daw-che-i, 
in testing the density of Padaung houses near the Mission, so that on the whole the figures 
for Bawlake are fairly reliable. 

With^ regard to the Kantarawadi State the Chief, Sawlawi, took considerable pains 
in furnishing me with the figures for the State. I had personally taught his clerks what 
they should do, and the clerks and the officials appear to me to have done their duty very 
well, judging from the personal check exercised by me on their figures. 

The small States of Naungpale and Nammek6n have also supplied me with reliable 
figures to work upon. Two days ago the Rev. Dr. Johnson, of the American Baptist 
Mission, came to see me in Loikaw and we roughly went into the figures, and the 
Rev. Missionary agreed with me that the Chiefs undoubtedly had a very good idea of 
what was in their States and be considered my figures as a very fair representation of the 
population in Karenni. 

I am of opinion that the Census figures now submitted are as accurate as can be esti- 
mated under the circumstances, and that they represent very fairly the population of Karen- 
ni I am assured. 

From all that I could gather during my tour there is very little doubt that the Red Karen 
population has dwindled away of late years and that immigration is the principal cause. 
During last year there appear to have been a number of deaths from fever and small-pox, 
and I always found a superabundance of females. This may also be said of the Padaungs 
and in some -villages in the Bre country. 

The difference between the figures submitted by wire is due partly to a clerical error 
and partly to the omission in the list of the Kantarawadi State of a whole circle. 





Number 










Name of State. 


of 
houses. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Kantarawadi 


7.797 


8,204. 


7.397 


5.4i8 


5.314 


Bawlake 


1,819 


2,071 


i.9°3 


954 


713 


Kvebogvi 


2,761 


2,612 


3,266 


2,075 


I,9i4 


Nammek6n 


763 


696 


923 


5" 


499 


Naungpale 


432 


431 


488 


176 


170 


Total 


>3.S72 


14,014 


14,037 


9,134 

1 


8,610 



Kantarawadi State. 



Name 


Number 
















of 


of 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Race. 


Religion. 


Occupation. 


State. 

* 


houses. 
















f 


11 


33 


10 


11 


1 


Chinese 


Buddhist ... 


Traders. 


150 


217 


176 


136 


124 


White Karen 


do 


Cultivators. 




2 


2 


4 


1 


1 


Talaing 


do 


Traders. 


. 


IoS 


161 


143 


81 


68 


Intha 


do 


do. 




3 


3 


3 


... 




Danu 


do 


Carpenters. 


.- 


16 


24 


18 


7 


14 


Siamese 


do 


Coolies. 


s 


314 


383 


425 


206 


211 


Taungthu ... 


do 


Traders. 


«, 


1,862 


2,315 


2,314 


i,235 


1,162 


Shan 


do 


do. 


a< 


87 


146 


122 


72 


59 


Burmese 


do 


do. 


c 


2 


2 








European ... 


Christian ... 


Officers. 


a 


6 


11 


5 




... 


Punjabi 


Hindu ... 


Milkmen. 






in 


22 


16 


13 


Gurkhas 


do 


Military Police. 




2 


4 


1 


... 




Natives of India 


Mussulman 


Government 


j 


6 


6 












servants. 








8 


5 


5 


Padaung 


Nat 


Cultivators. 


I 


5,228 


4.786 


4,146 


3,648 


3,665 


Karenni 


do 


do. 


Total ... 


7.797 


8,204 


7,397 


5,4i8 


5,314 





lxxiv 



APPENDICES. 

Bawlake State. 



Name of 
State. 


Number 

of 
houses. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Race. 


Religion. 


Occupation. 


Remarks. 


r 


146 


150 


160 


38 


40 


Karenni 


Nat ... 


Cultivators. 




1 


83 


60 


77 


36 


40 


Yintale 


do 


do. 




1 


>3 2 


15° 


>°5 


28 


3« 


Mano 


do 


do. 






38 


58 


55 


7 


6 


White Karen 


do 


do ... 


Part work 
tin. 




480 


,S«6 


470 


267 


178 


Padaung 


do ... 


do. 




Bawlake 


660 
56 


742 
57 


726 
59 


468 
3° 


3'8 
14 


Yinbaw 
Bre 


do 
do 


do. 
do. 






203 


306 


230 


75 


71 


Shan 


Buddhist 


Cultivators 


And trad- 
ers. 




6 


11 


5 


2 


3 


Burmese 


do ... 


Traders. 








6 


7 


1 


1 


Siamese 


do ... 


Coolies. 








7 


6 


1 


3 


Intha 


do ... 


do. 




I 


5 


8 


3 


1 


1 


Taungthu ... 


do ... 


Cultivators. 




Total ... 


1,819 


2,071 


1.963 


954 


713 





Kyebogyi State. 



Name of 
State. 


Number 

of 
houses. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Race. 


Religion. 


Occupation. 


r 


1,280 


1,158 


1,625 


1,003 


775 


Karenni 


Nat 


Cultivators. 


Kyebogvi \ 


257 


237 


290 


200 


198 


Mano 


do 


do. 


9S1 


974 


1,110 


575 


681 


Bre 


do 


do. 


1 


242 


242 


241 


297 


260 


White Karen ... 


do 


do. 


I 


1 


1 






European 


Christian 


R. C. Priest. 


Total ... 


2,761 


2,612 


3,266 


2,075 


i,9I4 





Nammekon State. 



Name of 
State. 


Number 

of 
houses. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Race. 


Religion. 


Occupation. 


Namme- J 
kon. 1 


48 

59 
629 

27 


70 

68 

526 

32 


65 
82 

744 
32 


39 

56 

403 

13 


45 

50 

385 

19 


Intha 
Shan 
Karenni 
Padaung 


Buddhist 
do 
Nat 
do 


Cultivators, 
do. 
do. 
do. 


Total 


763 


696 


923 


5" 


499 


ie 











Naungpale State. 






Name of 
State. 


Number 

of 
houses. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Race. 


Religion. 


Occupation. 


*- 


283 


283 


341 


86 


81 


Karenni 


Nat 


Cultivators. 




3* 


36 


40 


22 


25 


Shan 


Buddhist 


do. 


Naung- 


6 


8 


7 


5 


5 


Taungthu 


do 


da 


pale. ■{ 


112 


100 


100 


63 


59 


Padaung 


Nat 


do. 




1 


2 


... 


... 


... 


European 


Christian 


A. B. Mis- 
sionaries. 


.. 


1 


2 






... 


Natives of India ... 


Hindu 


Servants. 


Total - - ... 


4^2 


431 


488 


176 


170 





APPENDICES. lXXV 

From E. O. Fowler, Esq., Officiating Superintendent, Chin Hills, to the Superintendent, Census Opera- 
tions, Burma,— No. 49-18C., dated Camp Champhai, the 20th March 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit herewith a report on the Census operations in the Chin 
Hills as directed in your Circular Mo, 24 of 1901. 

The operations were confined to the area defined in Political Department Notification 
No. 10, dated the 1st May 1897. 

With the exception of the stations and outposts, the Census of the district was non- 
synchronous. All arrangements for carrying out the work were completed during the rains 
of 1900. 

The work was commenced on the 23rd November 1900 and completed on the 25th 
March 1901. 

The district was divided into three subdivisions, and for Census purposes each sub- 
division was treated as a Census charge, and the Assistant "Superintendents in charge of the 
subdivisions as' Charge Superintendents. Each charge was divided into circles. 

Five special clerks were entertained and distributed as follows, one to the Tiddim sub- 
division, two to Falam, and two to Haka. Of these clerks, one, Maung Shwe Zin U, proved 
useless, as owing to extremely bad health he was unable to undertake any work whatever. 
His services were dispensed with and the staff reduced to four. These clerks, with the ex- 
ception of one, were furnished by the Census Superintendent. The period for which they 
were sanctioned was four months only and their rate of pay was Rs. 50 per mensem. 

The staff of Enumerators consisted of Chins, half-bred Chins, Political interpreters (Bur- 
mans), and sepoys. 

In the Tiddim subdivision none but Chins were employed as Enumerators. Curiously 
enough these men, eight in number, belonged to the Siyin tribe, the members of which are 
undoubtedly the most savage and lawless in the hills. These Enumerators had a knowledge 
of Burmese, and during the rains of igoo were taught to read and write. They proved a 
great success. 

***** 

In the Falam subdivision the Enumerators were comprised of Shunshi Chins. These 
men had a good knowledge of Burmese and were able to read and write well. 

***** 

In the Haka subdivision four Chin-speaking sepoys, two Political interpreters, and two 
Chin-speaking Burmans were employed as Enumerators. 

The Enumerators were paid at the rate of Re. 1 for every forty houses correctly enumer- 
ated. 

The work of enumeration commenced almost simultaneously in all three charges and 
was carried out circle by circle. Political interpreters and, in some cases, clerks were placed 
in charge of a certain number of Enumerators and made responsible that they performed 
their work correctly. The Enumerators visited every house in the charge and entered the 
name of the ordinary inhabitants of the house and not the number actually found present. 
Their work was then carefully checked by the interpreter in charge. The Charge Super- 
intendent (Assistant Superintendent) in turn checked personally as many villages as pos- 
sible in each circle. Any strangers who were found present at the time of enumeration and 
who were not likely to have been enumerated elsewhere, were duly entered in the schedules, 
and slips of paper bearing the word ''enumerated'' were furnished them. These slips they 
were told to produce in case it was desired to enumerate them again. The Enumerators 
were furnished with white flags fastened on sticks. A flag was placed on each house as it 
was enumerated, and so a glance at the village from some spot above it disclosed at once 
whether any houses had been omitted. A good check was by this means kept over the work. 
Another good means of checking was also employed. Each interpreter would collect the 
Chiefs and headmen of the villages enumerated by the Enumerators in his charge, and by 
causing each headman to produce a stick or a stone for each inhabitant of his village, was 
able to check the returns shown in the schedules. A headman is supposed to know the 
name of each man, woman and child in his village, and curiously enough with a little help 
from an elder or two of the village, he generally does, his memory but seldom failing him. ' 

A little difficulty was experienced in the Falam subdivision. Mr. Street, en first check- 
ing the Falam group of villages, found that many names had been omitted to be given in, and 
that in consequence the average number of inhabitants per house was absurdly small. The 
Falam Chiefs were called into Falam and warned by me that any more such tactics would 
be met with exemplary punishment. The villages, five in number, which included the 
head village of Falam, were re-enumerated and a great increase in the number of names ob- 
tained. The average per bouse as compared with other villages showed that the correct 
number had now been given in. All five villages were fined in small sums. 

***** 

Prosecution and attitude of people. — There were no prosecutions under the Census Act. 
Five villages were prosecuted under the Chin Hills Regulation for disobeying orders in fail- 
ing to give up names to Enumerators. In each case the entire village was fined, and the 
aggregate fines amounted to Rs. 95. 



1XXV1 APPENDICES. 

The attitude of the people on the whole was satisfactory. 

***** 
Synchronous Census.— On the completion of the village Census, Enumerators were 
placed in each station and outpost. A preliminary Census was taken in each post before the 
ist March, and on the night of that day (i st March) the final enumeration took place. Every 
care was taken to include in the schedules people moving between posts on the night of the 
final enumeration, and the work appears to have been carried out most satisfactorily and with 
accuracy. 

***** 

Total cost of operations.— The total cost of the operations, including pay of clerks, was 
Rs. 1,552-5-11. * * * The amount sanctioned was Rs. 2,000, so that a saving of 
Rs. 447-10-1 has been effected. 

***** 

In Tiddim and Falain the entries in the schedules were all done in pencil, whilst in Haka 
they were done in ink. In the two former subdivisions attempts were made to have the 
work done in ink, but this was found to be beyond the capability of the Enumerators, all of 
whom were Chins or half-breeds. The results were not such as to encourage any further 
attempts being made, and lead-pencils were resorted to. 

In the Haka subdivision the Enumerators were better educated men and able to use 
pen and ink. 

Considering the class of men who had to be employed as Enumerators, it speaks well 
for the training given them by Messrs. Bateman, Street, and Clarke that the schedules were 
written up as neatly as they have been. 

***** 

Emigration and immigration. — There is no general tendency on the part of Chins to 
move out of the hills. In the Haka subdivision, amongst the Haka, Yokwa and Klang 
Klangs some 60 people have removed to the plains in the last three months. These people, 
however, have, without exception, been released slaves, who either fear further slavery or 
else are unable to obtain fields to cultivate and move down in the hopes of being able to pick 
up a livelihood in the plains. 

In the Falam subdivision there appears to be a tendency on the part of the Yahow and 
Whenoh tribes to move turther north. The movement, so far as at present can be judged, 
is confined to these tuo tribes only and is due, 1 think, to one of two facts, or perhaps to both. 
Either the population of the tribes is on the increase and in consequence their requirements 
demand more land, or else their lands are being worked out and fresh fields are required. It 
will be interesting to note in future years how far this movement will be continued and 
whether it will spread to other tribes in the Central Hills. 

* * * In the Gazetteer oj Upper Burma compiled by Mr. Scott, C.I.E., the point as 
to whether the Chin race was at one time more united and civilized than we found it is raised. 
It is stated in the Gazetteer that ttie Chin laws collected and codified by Maung Tet Pyo 
would make it appear certain that it was so. in many cases the primitive law of the Chins 
stamps it as original, but how far these laws would tend to prove the higher degree of 
civilization of the Chin in years past is a suoject which I would not, with the information we 
have at present, venture to oiscuss. It is certainly a subject on which more light might be 
thrown, and further enquiries will be made on the point. 

***** 

In conclusion I would beg to bring the names of the three Assistant Superintendents, 
Messrs. Bateman, Street, and Clarke, to notice. All three throughout worked with zeal and 
energy, and the success ol the operations is due to their efforts and tactful handling of the 
various tribes. 

Days in succession were spent by all three in hard marching over extremely difficult 
country, and, in addition, after many a hard day's march, the work of checking a village had 
to be undertaken. Hundreds of miles were covered by each officer during the operations 
and the success they achieved shows how well they carried out the work entrusted to them. 

Maung San Pu, Maung Lu Din, Maung Ba Pe, Census clerks, Maung Ba Shin, Politi- 
cal clerk, and Maung Ra lin, Political interpreter, also did good work. They all underwent 
hard marching ancj, deserve every credit for the way they performed their work under trying 
circumstances. Mr. Pereira, Head Clerk in my office, also performed very good work in 
helping to check, sort, and arrange the schedules on arrival in my office. 



From W. B. Tydd, Esq., Assistant Superintendent, Pakokku Chin Hills, to the Superintender", Census 
Operations, Burma,— No. 126-19, dated the 25th April 1901. 

I HAVE the honour to submit my report on the enumeration of the population of the 
Pakokku Chin Hills for the Census of 1901. 



APPENDICES. 



Ixxvii 



2 

speak 



The statements attached show — 
(a) Enumeration by villages. 
(6) Summary for the whole tract. 
(c) Expenditure incurred. 

The tract is inhabited by wild Chins, who have no written language, very few can 
Burmese and none possess a literary knowledge of this language. The following 
expedient was therefore employed to enumerate the people. A triangular piece was cut 
out of one end of a bit of bamboo and a line was cut across the bamboo marking it off into 
two equal parts. Each householder was directed to hold a bamboo prepared in this way so 
that the line faced him and the indented end was upwards. On the right side of the bam- 
boo he had to make a notch above the line for each adult male in his house and below the 
line for each male child. Similarly he was to make notches for females on the left side. 
Thus— 

n Which reads- 
two adult males, 
three adult females. 



u 



three male children, 
two female children. 



Selected headmen were sent round to check what each householder had done and to col- 
lect the sticks and tie them into bundles by villages. I checked the work in several villages 
in 6 out of the n groups into which the tract was divided. 

3. On the 1st March the enumeration of only four groups had been reported to me, so 
that the provisional total of population to be telegraphed on that date had to be estimated. 
This total was estimated at 12,287. The delay in getting figures from the remaining groups 
was owing to the absence of myself and several collectors of statistics on a punitive expedi- 
tion bevond the border. The completed revised enumeration of the whole tract shows the 
population to be 13,116. I am confident that a fairly accurate Census of this tract has been 
obtained. 





Appendix A 














Census by villages. 












Adults. 


Minors. 


















Name of villages. 


of 
houses. 










Total. 


Widows. 




Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 








1. — Sali 


1 Chaung Group. 






1. Long-im-nu 


57 6 1 


78 


58 


63 


260 


5 


2. Pro-im-nu 


26 


2« 


35 


31 


21 


i IS 


4 


3. Khat-pan-nam 

4. Chaung 


9 


10 


11 


15 


7 


43 


1 


IS 


*5 


16 


11 


17 


69 


... 


5. Khaung-nam Hla 

6. Hla-im-nu 


4 
35 


3 
37 


3 

42 


5 
42 


46 


11 
167 


1 
3 


7. Seingnam 

8. Khaungnam 

9. M'Khomdwi 

10. Khangnam 

11. Segwi 

12. Khaunglwe 


22 


29 


3 1 


2 7 


54 


141 


2 


27 

7 


27 
7 


31 
8 


49 
20 


32 
12 


139 
47 


4 

1 


6 

13 
13 


7 
14 
11 


7 

H 
20 


14 
20 

23 
8 
2 

49 
26 

27 
14 


r 3 

23 

19 

5 

6 

5* 
20 

IS 
21 


4i 
71 
73 


2 


13. Leingnam Khomdwi ... 

14. Voklu-nam 

15. Khaung-yern 

16. Khwako-ktu 

17. Sakkhr6t 

18. 'Msangnam 


4 

4 

38 

19 

13 

8 


4 

5 

32 

17 

11 

8 


4 

4 

39 

29 

13 

8 


17 
174 
92 
66 
5i 


7 
5 
2 


Total, 18 villages 


320 


336 


393 


441 


428 


1.598 


37 



xxvm 



I. 

2. 

3- 

4- 
5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 

10. 

Ii. 

12. 

'3- 

14. 

15- 
16. 

17- 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23- 

24. 

25- 

26. 
27. 

28 
29. 

30- 
3i- 
3 2 - 
33- 
34- 
35- 
36- 
37- 
38. 
39- 
40. 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix A — continued. 



Name of villages. 


i 
(Number 

1 houses. 


Adults. 


Minors. 


Total. 


Widows. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 




1 















2.— Tilin Group. 



M'Shein 

M'Barang 

Immhun 

Teing-kaw 

Taptha 

Sirrpan 

Bukkok 

M'Rukkhai 

Tapnu 

Twikyinko 

Rolong 

Thwipan 

M'Htailong 

Sanglong 

M'Rupso 

Khaj-o 

Twi-ring 

M'Hte khai 

Imgotha 

Choraw 

Ramlong 

Hkukhtai 

Lunlong 

Choperk 

Monglong 

Simsang 

Rvvat 

Tolong 

M'Htaiva 

Hnunbon 

Shwebung 

Kywisang 

Hmawhpi 

Nwat 

Khonkhu 

M'Kreng 

Yetpa 

Shingnu 

M ' Kropai 

Na 



Total, 40 villages 



I. 


Seing-yern 


2. 


Bhong-im 


3- 


Nayunkokto 


4- 


M'Shwi 


S- 


M'Tiship 


6. 


Mirgakto 


7- 


Paunggwan 


8. 


Ambung 


9. 


M'Khokkhun 


10. 


M'Hkok-khun 


11. 


Pyinlong 


12. 


M'Chellongnam 


13- 


Lwedupnam 


14. 


Pawdu 


i5- 


Hpruptwi 



Total, 15 villages 



Kwe-lung 

Kha-khen 

M'Giki 

Lok-she 

M'Songban 



<3 

8 

5 

'3 

3 

6 

6 

4 

12 

6 

10 

4 

12 

10 

11 

12 

5 

5 

5 

4 

9 

4 

6 

11 

S 

7 

.7 

3 

6 

6 



7 
H 

5 
8 

9 
5 

J 9 
12 
10 
5 
M 
12 

13 
'3 
7 
13 
5 
5 
9 
3 
7 

'3 
4 
7 
8 
1 
6 
5 
13 



6 


8 


6 


4 


12 


16 


12 


16 


4 


6 


9 


13 


3 


5 


8 


7 


2 


4 



356 



13 

10 

7 

20 

8 

9 
10 

7 
13 
10 
10 




9 
9 
4 

*3 
5 
7 

11 
6 

7 

12 

4 
10 

6 
14 

5 

6 

24 

'9 

6 



10 
4 



392 



16 

7 

7 

31 

5 
8 

4 
6 

12 
7 

17 
5 
4 

12 

14 

8 

5 
9 
4 
2 

9 

2 

16 
16 

3 

9 

8 

3 
6 

10 

5 
10 

7 
12 



343 



17 
10 

3 
IS 

5 

3 

6 

11 

4 
10 

3 

13 
10 

17 
7 
5 
9 
8 
1 

S 
2 



9 
6 

2 
6 

5 
10 

6 
16 

14 
8 



40 
26 
12 
36 
12 
38 
48 

2 4 
3i 
37 
H 
24 
27 
37 
33 
23 
6S 

58 
25 
53 
10 

33 
H 



302 



1.393 



3 — Paukadu-Pyedaw Group. 



4- — Yaw Chaung Group. 



30 


20 


37 


36 


33 


126 


12 


10 


8 


13 


8 


13 


42 


3 


II 


10 


11 


10 


8 


39 


1 


13 


11 


20 


26 


20 


77 


2 


4 


4 


♦ 


4 


4 


16 


2 



66 
35 




24 


1 


77 


1 


18 


2 


3° 


... 


26 


1 


24 


... 


55 




33 




47 


... 


18 


1 


46 




49 




59 


... 


41 




22 


2 



2S 



31 


31 


o 2 


44 


41 


148 


1 


14 


12 


H 


12 


11 


49 


2 


5 


5 





7 


8 


26 




12 


11 


'4 


2 3 


>7 


65 


1 


1 7 


7 


7 


18 


20 


52 




8 


8 




18 


J 7 


51 




i J 4 


13 


'4 


'4 


29 


70 


1 


3 


2 





5 


4 


14 


1 


3 


3 





5 


4 


15 




4 


4 


;> 


8 


11 


28 




10 


8 


15 


24 


29 


76 


2 


13 


13 


15 


30 


48 


106 


1 


16 


'4 


22 


34 


37 


107 


2 


8 


7 


10 


12 


17 


46 


1 


3 


3 





6 


6 


18 


... 


'5- 1 


141 


.71 i 


260 


299 


8 7 t 


12 






i 











APPENDICES. 

Appendix A — continued. 



Ixxix 



6. 

7- 

8. 

9- 
io. 
II. 

12. 

>3- 
14. 
15- 

1 6. 

«7- 

1 8. 

19- 
20. 

21. 

22. 

23- 
24. 
25- 

26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 

3°- 
3i- 
32- 
33- 
34- 
35- 
3<3- 
37- 
38. 
39- 
40. 



3- 
4- 
5- 
6. 

7- 

8. 

9- 
10. 
11. 
12. 

13- 
14- 

IS- 
16. 

17- 
18. 
19. 
20. 

21. 
22. 

23- 

24. 

25- 

26. 

27. 
28. 
29. 
3°- 



Name of villages. 



Suct-mhwe 

Shinnhwoi 

M'Hto 

Imkrai 

Prang 

M'Kringlaw 

Hkaw-k6k 

M'Pein 

Pai-im 

Khung 

M'Tangkaw 

Hpro-it 

Khwi-ging 

Hpruk-khowe 

Geitlong 

Vage 

M'Thu 

Khat 

M'Keng 

Khrumtha 

Vomtho 

M'Hailong 

M'Thwe 

Me Wi 

M'Paidaw 

Lunglai 

M'Pawtha 

Po 

Kyot-kywe 

M'Gang-ging 

Hprung-ging 

Htawkhrum 

Wet-k6k 

Tung-lai 

Khura-khwe 



Total, 40 villages 



Khage 

Bai-a-hpya 

Mankwi 

Teinlong 

Hambdn 

M'Eik-hang 

Hambon Imgotha 

M'Nambo 

M'Kran-im 

M'Kwi 

Tet Kaw 

Htum-im 

Shet 

Men 

Kwitha 

M'Pawtha 

Chidup 

Nga-n6n 

Tsekong 

Lilong 

Maka 

Tdktwe 

Whiyaw 

Khonglaw 

Tsaiyom 

M'Banlong 

M'Wiyaw 

M'Htaw 

Choklong 

Chittha 



Number 

of 
houses. 



20 

18 

5 

7 

6 

7 
8 

7 
10 

9 



9 

24 
28 

25 
42 

19 

9 

17 

5 
4 
6 

S 
2 

3 
4 
5 
5 
5 
12 

5 
7 
6 



43° 



Adults. 



Males. 



Females. 



Minors. 



Males. 



Females 



Total. 



Widows. 



4. — Yaw Chaung Group — concluded. 



13 

r 7 

4 

5 

4 
3 



7 

4 

4 

11 

6 

5 

34 

28 

35 
S3 
'4 
6 
11 

3 

2 

4 
7 
1 

3 
3 
3 
6 

4 
10 

3 



398 



20 

'9 
6 

7 
7 
6 

9 

5 

13 

5 
8 

9 

7 

10 

39 
39 
38 
61 

19 
8 

22 
5 
3 
8 

5 
2 

4 

5 

6 

11 

4 
10 
6 
9 
9 



529 



18 
16 
9 
7 
4 
8 

4 

11 

6 

8 
12 
6 
9 
9 
12 

3? 
3-t 
65 
37 
12 

2S 

6 

7 
11 

8 

3 
4 
5 
2 

9 
5 

12 

4 

9 

11 



527 



28 

16 

6 

15 
6 

5 
11 

7 

24 
H 

7 

!S 

3 
10 

13 
30 
36 

Si 

36 

5 

25 



3 
2 

3 
9 
8 

24 
4 

26 
6 

7 
11 



561 



79 
68 

25 
34 
21 
22 
28 
3° 
5° 
3i 
3i 
4i 
25 
34 
98 
129 

143 
235 
106 

3i 
86 
22 
'3 
3i 
23 
8 

14 
22 

l 9 
5o 
17 
58 
19 
33 
39 



2,015 



5. — Maung Chaung Group. 



9 

4 
12 

13 
18 

'7 
7 

11 
8 

21 
6 

5 
18 

'5 
21 

5 
u 

5 

6 

10 

3 
10 
8 
13 
9 
7 
7 

14 
5 
5 



9 


10 


11 


13 


43 


4 


4 


3 


2 


13 


13 


14 


9 


14 


50 


6 


13 


22 


13 


54 


17 


22 


20 


17 


76 


11 


18 


26 


15 


7o 


5 


7 


9 


5 


26 


9 


14 


19 


7 


49 


3 


14 


7 


13 


37 


22 


9 


3 


6 


42 


7 


'3 


8 


9 


37 


3 


7 


4 


6 


20 


19 


24 


28 


27 


98 


12 


16 


21 


17 


66 


17 


'5 


36 


35 


103 


5 


7 


8 


12 


3 2 


S 


14 


17 


16 


52 


2 


5 


2 


2 


11 


5 


9 


23 


35 


72 


9 


8 


14 


11 


42 


3 


3 


4 


2 


12 


8 


11 


8 


9 


36 


6 


8 


8 


6 


28 


5 


16 


17 


18 


56 


4 


18 


10 


2 


34 


4 


7 


8 


8 


27 


5 


5 


8 


8 


26 


11 


13 


12 


16 


52 


2 


S 


6 


6 


19 


1 


5 


13 


11 


30 



7 
2 
1 
2 
2 
4 
4 
2 

5 
2 

4 
3 

4 
2 

7 

2 

4 
3 
6 

3 

3 
4 



3 

2 

9 
5 

3 

4 

3 
3 



I XXX 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix A — continued. 



Name of villages. 



Number 

of 
houses. 



Adults. 



Males. Females. 



Minors. 



Males 



Females, 



Total. 



31. Chickhaw 

32. Aiman 

33. M'Bhanba 

34. Vokchup 

35. Wanba 

36. Tum-im 

37. M'Khrong 

38. Wetkaw 

39. La Long Hhtwi-im 

40. Hti-shin 

41. Twi Kalong 

42. Imkawtha 

43. Twing K6k 

44. Ham-im 

45. M'Honlakoke 

46. Nga Ha Ge 

Total, 46 villages 



5.— Maung Chaung Group— concluded. 



6 

4 

9 

5 

21 

38 
17 
9 
9 
4 
1 
2 
2 
5 
7 
6 



4 

3 

5 

4 

15 

28 

10 

6 

4 

2 

I 

3 
2 

4 
3 
4 



330 



6 

4 

9 

5 

19 

33 

17 

8 

10 

5 

1 

3 
2 

3 
7 
6 



7 
3 

8 
5 
3' 
43 
14 
5 
12 

5 
1 

2 

4 
11 

9 



472 



546 



6 

15 
6 

46 

53 
11 

8 

7 
2 

1 

4 
1 

3 



544 



25 
16 

37 

20 

in 

157 
52 
27 
33 
14 
4 
12 

5 

14 
29 
23 



6. — Che Chaung Group. 



Widows. 



123 



1. Twi-im 


23 


■5 


22 


21 


24 


82 


7 


2. Krang-im 


12 


10 


13 


16 


16 


55 


2 


3. Pe 


9 


8 


9 


8 


5 


3° 


1 


4. Yomtha 


16 


17 


15 


5 




37 


8 


5- Ti 


14 


11 


16 


16 


12 


55 


3 


6. Lumpa 


10 


7 


10 


10 


9 


36 


3 


7. Imgotha 


6 


5 


7 


6 


5 


23 


1 


8. M'Bingyaw 


19 


'3 


24 


16 


17 


70 


8 


9. Twi-li 


10 


8 


14 


12 


6 


40 


2 


10. M'Dap 


21 


16 


18 


10 


7 


5i 


5 


11. Lukpe 


8 


11 


16 


12 


16 


55 




12. M'Kraidaw 


24 


16 


24 


27 


25 


92 


" - 8 


13. Taw-im 


10 


8 


11 


9 


8 


36 


2 


14. Shak-am 


5 


5 


4 


6 


3 


18 


1 


15. Am-long 


10 


11 


17 


24 


26 


78 


1 


16. Pan-aw 


5 


3 


7 


3 


3 


16 


2 


17. Mgrikum 


8 


6 


8 


14 


11 


39 


3 


18. Tai-bong 


8 


4 


8 


6 


9 


27 


4 


19. M'Shu-yaw 


7 


5 


7 


4 


5 


21 


2 


20. Hti-num 


5 


3 


5 


7 


7 


22 


2 


21. Khomthern 


5 


6 


9 


9 


8 


32 


... 


22. Shim 


20 


16 


20 


13 


10 


59 


4 


23. Vom 


5 


5 


3 


8 


10 


26 




24. Pwi-im 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


25 




25. Thun-twi 


6 


6 


6 


6 


3 


21 


... 


26. Shikhruit 


6 


4 


6 


3 


8 


21 


2 


27. M'Leng 


6 


5 


11 


3 


3 


22 


I 


28. M'Shin-im 


12 


7 


12 


9 


12 


40 


6 


29. Hkliyaw 


6 


4 


6 


9 


14 


33 


2 


30. Htet-ban 


11 


11 


13 


19 


15 


58 


... 


31. Htwi-im 


7 


5 


6 


1 


2 


14 


2 


32. Hpwi-im 


3i 


29 


41 


35 


36 


141 


10 


33. Hkr6t-im 


29 


18 


30 


35 


34 


117 


11 


34. Khom-im 


43 


43 


53 


23 


34 


153 


8 


35. Hilong 


42 


31 


43 


36 


27 


137 


11 


36. Leng 


8 


6 


9 


8 


4 


27 


2 


37. Tangbeng 


8 


6 


8 


6 


5 


25 


2 


38. Imbern 


S 


3 


7 


11 


7 


28 


2 


39. Chaung 


5 


4 


5 


6 


10 


25 


1 


Total, 39 villages 


49i 


397 


549 


478 


463 


1,887 


129 








7.— Te 


Chaung 


Group. 






1. Pangbai 


11 


10 


15 


29 


21 


75 


, 


2. Kyinyun 


11 


8 


10 


26 


26 


70 


3 


3. Twi-rung 


9 


8 


1 1 


17 


15 


5i 


1 


4. Oi-ge 


5 


4 


5 


12 


6 


27 


1 


5. Lukpe 


5 


5 


3 


iS 


17 


43 





APPENDICES. 

Appendix A. — continued. 



lxxxi 



Name of villages. 



6. 


Shanutlong 


7- 


Khwelung 


8. 


Immhun' 


q- 


Bawn-im 


IO. 


M'Htailong 


1 1. 


M'Eik Khrang 


12. 


Imgotha 


1.3- 


Kha Long 


14. 


Te-long 


IS- 


Twibalan 



Total, 15 villages 



1. Kanlong 

2. Seingnam 

3. Khaungnam 

4. Sawlongnam 



Total, 4 villages 



I. 

2. 
3- 
4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 
10. 
11. 
12. 

13- 
14. 

IS- 
16. 

17. 
18. 



M'Blendo-atct 

M'Blendo-auk 

M'Hmawkun 

Thwido 

Shang 

Samtha 

Ambon 

Swi-tu-nam 

Vumlong 

M'Thai-tha 

Htam Om 

Loktet-htezon 

M'Krai 

Lungshrang 

Khaban 

Hingnbon 

M'Shi-twi 

Mwe-twi 



r. 
2. 
3- 
4- 
5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 
9- 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13- 

14- 

15 

16. 

17- 



Total, 18 villages 



Kyatwi 
Kyaing-zaung 
Arapu Kunzaw 
Yaung-twi 
Purzaw 
Adaungyan 
M'Pam-nam 
-Kherng-tu 
Saungza 
Laikperntu 
M'Hmaung-nam 
Namlaung 
Yanz6nnam 
Khaw-byi'-hpum 
Loho-hpum 
M'Zuzum 
Tsar-long-nam 

Total , 1 7 villages 



Number 

of 
houses. 



4 
4 
3 
3 
2 

5 
5 
2 

10 
2 



81 



7 

9 

6 

11 



3.3 



iS9 



Adults. 



Males. Females. 



Minors. 



Males. Females. 



Total. 



Widows. 



7. — Tb Chaung Group — concluded. 



67 



84 



8 

7 
6 

4 
S 
6 

7 

2 

15 

2 



164 



3 
9 
7 
5 
3 
1 

7 
6 

17 
5 



148 



17 
22 
20 

14 
12 

19 
21 
12 

49 
11 



403 



8. — Khadin Chaung Group. 



7 

9 

8 

10 



34 



16 



44 



17 

14 

7 

15 



53 



37 
39 
27 
50 



153 



9. — Kyauksit Chaung Group. 



»4 


14 


5 


6 


14 


12 


7 


12 


15 


11 


12 


9 


11 


7 


6 


7 


7 


3 


10 


11 


1 > 


11 


4 


4 


10 


10 


12 


12 


11 


11 


6 


6 


3 


2 


2 


2 



150 



18 

6 
12 
11 
21 
14 
11 

8 

8 
12 
14 

4 

12. 
16 

'4 
6 

3 
2 



192 



26 

5 

15 

11 

23 

17 

19 

5 

7 

14 
16 

4 
17 
16 

17 
6 

3 



18 



9 
18 

14 
9 
9 
8 
12 
16 
8 

20 
21 
20 

7 
6 



76 
25 
47 
43 
73 
54 
46 
29 
26 
49 
57 
20 

59 
65 
62 

'25 

H 
4 



774 



10. — Mon Chaung Group. 



16 



28 


46 


39 


19 


27 


131 


4 


IS 


27 


21 


20 


4 


72 


1 


19 


36 


"37 


17 


18 


108 


... 


14 


21 


21 


6 


19 


67 


... 


13 


13 


15 


6 


6 


40 


3 


16 


23 


26 


13 


7 


69 


I 


5 


6 


10 


6 


5 


27 


1 


10 


14 


14 


9 


8 


45 


... 


11 


12 


11 


6 


5 


34 




14 


18 


18 


11 


3 


50 


... 


14 


19 


22 


22 


12 


75 


1 


18 


33 


27 


23 


18 


101 




8 


11 


11 


11 


7 


40 




10 


16 


16 


7 


10 


49 


I 


13 


15 


15 


10 


16 


56 


I 


6 


9 


6 


5 . 


5 


25 


1 


8 


10 


11 


5 


11 


37 


... 


222 


329' 


' '3 2 ° 


196 


181 


1,026 


13 



1XXX11 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix A— concluded. 









Adults. 


Minors. 








Name of villages. 


Number 
of 








Total. 




















houses. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 














ii.— Kyi Chaung Group 






I. 


Tukhtu ... 


6 


7 


9 


10 


5 


31 


... 


2. 


M'HnawIong 






5 


5 


5 


6 


ii 


27 


i 


3. 


M'Hainu ... 






9 


5 


9 


17 


17 


48 


4 


4- 


Zakkok 






8 


6 


9 


18 


ii 


44 


2 


5- 


M'Berng-twi 






5 


5 


6 


8 


IO 


29 


... 


6. 


M'Thung-nu 






6 


6 


7 


16 


IO 


39 


1 


7- 


Khwelung ... 






5 


5 


6 


7 


5 


23 




8. 


Sirrhpun ... 






6 


5 


7 


8 


S 


25 


1 


q. 


Natgyigya ... 






4 


4 


6 


10 


5 


2S 




;o. 


M'HnawIong 






6 


5 


8 


8 


19 


40 


1 


ii. 


Dandi 






6 


6 


7 


ii 


9 


33 




12. 


Aukdandilong 






3 


3 


2 


2 


4 


11 


... 




Total, 12 village; 






69 


62 


8i 


121 


in 


375 


10 



Appendix B. 
Summary of Pakokku Chin Hills. 









Adults. 


Minors. 








Number 


Number 














of 


of 








Total. 


Widows. 


Name of group. 










villages. 


houses. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 














(a) Chins. 








1. Salin Chaung 


18 


320 


336 


393 


44 1 


428 


1.598 


37 


2. Tilin 


40 


288 


356 


392 


343 


302 


1.393 


28 


3. Paukadu Pyedaw 


15 


151 


141 


171 


260 


299 


871 


12 


4. Yaw Chaung 


40 


436 


398 


529 


527 


561 


2,015 


in 


5. Maung Chaung 


46 


448 


33° 


472 


546 


544 


1,892 


123 


6. Che Chaung 


39 


491 


397 


549 


478 


463 


1,887 


129 


7. Te Chaung 


15 


8t 


67 


84 


164 


148 


463 


16 


8. Kaclin Chaung 


4 


33 


22 


34 


44 


53 


•53 


12 


9. Kyauksit Chaung 


18 


•59 


«5° 


192 


221 


211 


774 


22 


10. M6n Chaung 


17 


222 


329 


320 


196 


181 


1,026 


13 


11. Kyi Chaung 


12 


69 


62 


81 


121 


in 


375 


10 


Total 


264 


2,698 


2,588 


3.217 


3.34" 


3.3oi 


12,447 


5'3 






{b) Temporae 


IY RESIDI 


NTS. 






12. On punitive column ... 


... 




45° 


Nil. 


Nil. 


Nil. 


45° 


Nil 


13. Garrison of Mindat — 


















(a) Chin Police 


... 


17 


17 


22 


14 


8 


61 


Nil. 


(b) Military Police ... 




17 


130 


'5 


9 


4 


158 


Nil. 


Total 




34 


597 


37 


23 


12 


669 




Grand Total 


264 


1 
1 

1 2,732 

1 


3.185 


3.254 


3.364 


3-3'3 


«3.i»6 


522 



APPENDICES. 

Appendix C. 
Expenditure. 



Ixxxiil 



Villages. 


Number. 


Rate paid to 
Supervisors. 


Amount. 


10 houses and under 

1 1 houses to 20 houses 
21 houses to 30 houses 
31 houses to 40 houses 
Over 40 houses 


Total 


177 

63 

15 

5 

4 


Rs. A. P. 

8 u 

1 
1 8 
200 
280 


Rs. A. P. 

88 8 
63 
22 8 
10 
10 




264 




194 



G. B. C. P. O., No. 6, Supdt., C. O., 24-10-1901—910. 



INDEX. 

Note. — The Arabic numbers quoted' are the numbers of the paragraphs of the Report The Roman numbers are the 
numbers of the pages of the Appendix* 



Abbey, Captain, on Marus 

Abstract, Enumerator's ... ... 

Abstraction. Work of — 

Administrative volume 

Age, mean 

Age. Method of recording — 

Age periods. Education by — 

Age-returns. Adjustment of — 

Agereturns. Want of accuracy in — 

Agglutinative characteristics in Burmese 

Agricultural occupations ... 

Ahom language 

Akha language 

Akha tribes 

Ako language 

Ako tribes 

Akyab District Report 

Akyab district. Non-synchronous areas in — 

Akyab district. Musalmans in the — 

Baines, Mr. J. A., on deficiency of females 

Banyang Karens 

Bapaws or Talakus 

Baptists ... 

Bassein District Report ... 

Bassein district. Falling off of immigration into — 

Bassein Municipal Report 

Bateman, Mr. A. C, on Siyins 

Baungshe or Lai form of Chin 

Bawlake State. Figures for — 

Bengali language 

Bghai dialect of Karen ... ... 

Bhamo district. Non-synchronous areas in — 
Bhamo district. Report on operations 
Bhamo town. Increase of population in — 
Binding of Schedules 
Birth-rate in Burma 



1 13 

17 

18 

8 

70 
66 
89 
69 

67 

100 
208 
127 
116 
190 
116 
190 

iii 
7 

53 



74 
178 

52 

5°. 
xviii 

37 
xx 

180 

121 

lxxiv 

141 

133 

7 
xlv 

39 
•3 
33 



B 



Akyab town. Decrease in population of — 
Amherst District Report ... 
Amherst district. Non-synchronous areas in— 
Amherst district. Urban population in — 
Ancestor worship ... ... ... 

Anglican communion 

Animism in Burma ... ... ,. 

Animism among Karens, &c. ... ... 

Anthropometrical data. Collection of— ... 

Anu language 

Arakan Hill Tracts. Non-synchronous census in- 
Arakan Hill Tracts. Excess of males in — 
Arakan Hill Tracts. Infirmities in — 

Arakan Hill Tracts. District Report 

Arakanese race 

Arakanese dialect ... ... 

Armenians 

Attitude of the people ... ... 

Birth registration. Defects in — 

Blagden, Mr., on Malay Muhammadanism 

Blake, Mr., on Kadus 

Blindness. Causes of — ... 

Blindness. Prevalence of — , in dry areas 

Blindness by age-periods ... 

Block. Definition of — ... 

Block list ... 

Boat population ... 

Bres, the 

Buddhism, Burmese 

Building rules in Rangoon 

Burma. Density of population in — 

Burmese language. Tones in — 

Burmese language. Characteristics of— 

Burmese race. Characteristics of— ... 

Burmese. Literacy in — ... 



38 

XXXIV 

7 

23 

49 

57 

5o 

52 

167 

124 

7 

73 
147. 149. 
I5i 
v 
171 
103 

60 
14. 16 



32 
47 
185 
'5' 
151 
152 
10 
11 

3° 

178 

44 

27 

22 

97 

102 
170 

94 



Definition of — 
Manual for — 



Cantonments. Census in — 
Caste in Burma 
Castes. Principal Indian- 
Catholics, Roman 

Census. Preliminary arrangements for — 
Census Procedure. Code of — 
Census holidays 

Census. Final enumeration or— 
Census. Preliminary enumeration — 
Census maps 
Census. Cost of— 
Charge. Definition of — 
Charge Superintendent. 
Charge Superintendents. 
Charge Summary 
Chaungtha race 

Chaungtha language ... , ••■ 

Checking Department in Abstraction omce 
Chin tribes ... ■•• - ••• 

Chin language forms 
Chin. Yoma form 
Chin. Origin of word — 
Chin Hills. Non-synchronous census in — 
Chin Hills. Report on operations in— 
Chinbok language 
Chinbon language 
Chinese language 
Chinese race 

Daingnet language 

Danaw language 

Danaw race 

Danu language 

Danu race 

Deaf-mutism, by age periods 

Deaf-mutism. Distribution of— 

Deaf-mutism in Chin Hills 

Death-rate in Burma 

Death registration 



11 

i55 

159 

58 

1 

9 

15 

16 

14 
3. " 

19 

10 

10 

11 

17 

171 

107 

18 

179 

118 

124 

181 

6 

lxxv 

123 
123 

125 

195 



124 
138 
182 
138 
182 

15° 
149 
149 

34 

32 



Chinese Shans. 

Chinese Shan language ... 

Chinme language 

Cholmeley, Mr. N. G., on southward movement 

of Kachins. 
Christianity 

Circle. Definition of — ... 
Circle list 
Circle summary 
Circle maps ... ... 

Cities. Treatment of — ... 

City. Definition of — ... ... .„ 

Civil condition by age of indigenous races 

Classification of non-synchronous areas 

Clerks 

Cloney, Mr. E. P., on Manipuris ... 

Code of Census Procedure 

Colloquial expressions in return of ages 

Colours of Abstraction slips 

Compilation Department in Abstraction office ... 

Conrad, Professor, on excess of male over female 

births 
Coolies ... . •.. 

Cooly barracks. Overcrowding in — 
Cost of operations 
Cotton weavers 
Cretinism in Chin Hills ... 
', Cushing, Dr. J. N., on Shan 

Delta. Migration to— ... 

Density of population by districts ... „, 

Density of population, Provincial ... ... 

Distribution of population ... ... 

District summary 
Divisions, natural 
Divorced persons, classification of— ... ... 

Domestic service occupations 

Druggists 

Dry division, Upper Burma 



176 
130 
123 

173 

55 
10 
11 

17 
11 
10 
10 
83 
5 
228 

197 
9 

68 
18 
18 
77 

232 
29 

19 
218 

147 
129 



37 
21 

22 
20 

«7 
20 
78 
212 
222 
20 



INDEX. 



Eales, Mr. H. L., on tones 

Eales, Mr. H. L. Definition of Burmese Buddhism 

Education. Revised classification of — 

Education. Comparison with 1891 figures 

Education by religions 

Education among females ... 

Emigration 

Endogamy among hill tribes 

England and Wales. Density of population in — 

English. Literacy in— ... 

Enumeration, preliminary 

Enumeration, final 



99 
47 
84 
85 
92 

9i 
42 

83 
22 

94 
14 
16 



Enumeration, experimental 
Enumeration book 
Enumerator. Definition of — 
Enumerator. Duties of — 
Enumerator. Instructions for — 
Enumerator's abstract 
Estimated areas 
Ethnographical survey ... 
Europeans 

Exogamy among Hill Tribes 
Experimental enumeration 



12 

'3 
10 
10 

'3 

17 

5 

167 

198 

83. 199 
12 



Factors, natural, in increase of population 
Females. Preponderance of — 
Females. Deaths among — 
Females. Education of— 
Females. Wilful concealment of 
Forchhammer, Professor, on Tavoyan 



32 
72 

77 

9i 

74 

10S 



Forchhammer, Professor, on Mon Kol theory 
Forchhammer, Professor, on tones ... 
Forchhammer, Professor, on Taungthas 
Foreign born population ... 
Forms. Supply and distribution of — 
France. Birth-rate in — 



134 
98 

123 
35 

13 
33 



Gamier, M., on Lissus 

Gamier, M., on Mossos 

Geden, Mr. A. S., on Burmese Buddhism 

Goitre, connection of, with insanity 

Grant Allen, Mr., on Ancestor worship 

Grant Allen, Mr., on Head-hunting ... 

Greek Church .,, ,„ 



Hamlet preferable to village as initial unit 
Hanthawaddy District Report 
Hanthawaddy. Fluctuation of sexes in — 
Hanthawaddy. Density of population in — • 
Hanthawaddy. Entirely rural population in— 
Head-hunting. Animistic basis of — 
Henzada District Report ... 
Henzada Municipal Report 
Henzada. Density of population in — 
Henzada. Excess of females in — 
Hindi language. 
Hinduism in Burma ... .... 

Hindustani language 
Hkamuk language 
Hkamuk tribes ,„ 



Immigration 

Increase. Natural rate of— 

India. Density of population in — ... 

Indian immigrants 

Indian immigrants, effect of on literacy figures ... 

Indian languages 

Indian castes 

Indigenous races. Civil condition by age for — ... 

Indigenous races. Relative strength of the sexes 

among. 
Indo-Chinese language family 



188 
189 

44 
147 

49 
Si 
60 



10 
xi 
76 
21 

23 
51. 

XXV! 

xxvii 

21 

73 
141 

54 
141 
137 
191 

35 

35 
22 

35 
90 

141 

159 

83 
75 

101 



Grierson, Dr., on Indo-Chinese languages 
Grierson, Dr., on Kuki-Chin languages 
Grierson, Dr., on'Mon Annam sub-family 
Grierson, Dr., on Mro 
Grouping of languages ... 
Gurdon, Captain„on Tairongs 
Gyobi'ngauk Municipal Report ... 



H 



I 



Hkiin Shan 

Holidays, Census ... ... 

Houghton, Mr. B., on tones 
Houghton, Mr. B., on Tibetan 
Houghton, Mr. B., on Kadus 
Houghton, Mr. B., on Kami ... 

Houghton, Mr. B., on Yoma Chin 
House. Definition of — ... 
House. Average number of residents in- 
Household schedule 
House list 
House numbering ... ... 

Hpon language 

Hpon race 

Hukong Valley Kachin ... 

Infant marriage 

Infirmities. General decrease in — ... 

Ink. Supply of — 

Ink, black, for preliminary enumeration 

Ink, red, for final enumeration ... 

Insanity by age-periods ... 

Insanity. Prevalence of — in Chin Hills 

Intha dialect 

Intha race 

Isolating characteristics in Burmese ... 

Italy. Mean-age of population in — ... 



101 
118 
134 

112 
101 

"5 
xvi 



126 
15 
99 

102 

185 

124. 

124 

10 

26 

r 3 
11 

11 

114 

193 
117 

82,83 

146 

13 

14 

16 

148 

147 

109 

171 

100 

70 



Jains 
Jews 

Kachins. Divisions of — 

Kachins. Excess of females among — 

Kachins. Nat-worship among — 

Kachins. Southward movement of — 

Kachin language 

Kachin areas, estimated ... 

Kadu language 

Kadu race 

Kamsa Kachins 

Kanhow Chins 

Kantarawadi State. Figures for — ... 

Kapu or Reddi caste 

Karen language and dialects 

Karen . Literacy in — 

Karen ni tribes 

Karenni languages 

Karenni. Report on operations in — 

Karenni. Proportion of males to females in- 

Karens. Animism among the — 

Katha. Non-synchronous areas in— 



64 
62 



173 

74 

50 
173 
117 
6 
in 
185 
173 
180 
Ixxiii 
162 
132 

94 
178 

133. 
lxxii 

74 

52 

7 



Judaism 



K 



Katha District Report ... .„ 

Kathes. The — 

Kauri dialect ... ... ... 

Kaws or Akhas 

Keane, Professor, on origin of tones ... 

Kengtung. Report on operations in — 

Kengtung Schedules. Translation of — 

Khaku Kachins 

Kuhn. Professor on origin of Indo-Chinese 

Kuki-Chin languages 

Kumlao Kachins 

Kyangin. Decrease of population in — 

Kyaukpyu district. Non-synchronous areas in- 

Kyaukpyu district. Report on operations in — 

Kyaukpyu district. Low rate of increase in — . 

Kyaukse Dh'.rict Report ... 

Kyaukse town. Decrease of population in — . 

Kyaw language 

Kyebogyi State, Figures for — ... 



62 



xlviii 
197 
117 
190 

,99. 
lxxi 

18 

«73 
168 
11S 
"73 

38 
7 

vi 

37 
lv 

39 
122 
lxxiv 



INDEX. 



111. 



La Couperie, Professor, on Shans 

Lacquer-workers 

Lahtawng Kachins 

Lahu language ... ... 

Lahu tribes 

Lai language ^ 

Languages. Grouping of — 

Lashi language 

Lashi race 

Learners. Abandonment of classification as — 

Leather workers 

Lemet language 

Lepai Kachins 

Leprosy. Diminution in — 

Leprosy. Distribution of — 



Macnamara, Dr. His theory regarding connec- 
tion between Irish and Burmese ... ... 

Magwe district Report on operations — 

Maingtha language 

Maingtha race ... 

Mala caste ... ... ... 

Malay language family 

Malay language 

Males. Preponderance of — 

Males, deaths among ... 

Mandalay District Report 

Mandalay. Decrease of population in — 

Manglon, west. Omission of — from operations ... 

Manipuris, the 

Mans. Burmese Buddhist sect 

Manuals. Charge Superintendents' and Supervi- 
sors' — 

Maps, census 

Maps, circle ... 

Maran Kachins ... ... ... 

Marip Kachins 

Marriage, secular nature of — in Burma ,., 

Marriage. Rise in age of — 

Marriage custom's among hill tribes ... 

Maru language 

Maru tribes ... ... ... 

Mat weavers 

Ma-ubin Municipal Report 

Mayr. Professor von, On position of woman 

Mayr. Professor von, on recording of ages 

Mean-age of population ... 

Meiktila district. Report on operations — 

Meiktila Town. Increase of population in — 

Meithei of Manipur 

Mendicants ... ... ... ... 

Mergui District Report 

Mergui District. Non-synchronous areas in — .. 

Nammekon State. Figures for— ... 
Natural factors in movement of population 
Natural divisions of the province 
Nat- worship 

Naungpale State. Figures for— 
Ngathainggyaung Municipality. Report on oper- 
ations in — 
Nkhum Kachins 



>75 
217 

173 
116 

189 
121 
101 
113 
173 
84 
223 
137 
173 
153 
153 

169 



Leprosy. Prevalance of — by age-periods 

Lisaw language 

Lisaw race 

Lissus. The— 

Literacy. Definition of — 

Littoral division of Lower Burma 

Logan, Mr., on tones 

Logan, Mr., on Mon affinities. ... . 

Logan, Mr., on Selon or Selung 

Lolo, connection of — with Burmese ... 

Lower Burma. Natural divisions of — 

Lower Chindwin District Report 

Lower Chindwin. High proportion of females in- 

Lu Shan ... 

Lutherans 



M 



xli 
"5 
174 
161 
140 
142 
72 

77 

xliii 

37 
6 

197 

45 
11 

3 
11 

11 

173 

173 

79 

80 

83 
113 
173 
221 

XXV 

72 

66 
70 
lvi 

39 
119 

2 33 .. 
xxxvii 

7 

lxxiv 

32 
20 
48 
lxxiv 
xxi 

173 



Methodists 

Midwifery 

Minbu district. Report on operations — 

Minhu district. Yoma Chin of — 

Minbu district! Literacy in the — 

M6n Annam sub-family ... 

M6n Kol theory 

Moneylenders 

Mongmit. Non-synchronous enumeration in — . 

Monotonic languages. Mr. Eales' — 

M6nywa Municipal Report 

Mortality among males ... 

Mossos. Connection of— with Muhsos 

Moulmein Town Report 

Moulmein Port Report 

Moulmein. Regular growth of population in — ... 

Movement of population ... 

Mro language 

Mros. The — 

M uhammada nism 

Muhso language 

Muhso tribes ,„ 

Munda. Dr. Grierson on — 

Municipal areas. Movement outside of — 

Musalman religion 

Musalman tribes 

Myanaung Municipality. Report on operations 

in — 
Myaungmya district. Report on operations in — 
Myaungmya district. High rate of increase in — 
Myaungmya Municipality. Report on operations 

in — 
Myingyan district. Report on operations in — ... 
Myingyan district. Small increase in population 
in 



Myitkyina district. 
Myitkyina district. 



Report on operations in — . 
Non-synchronous areas in - 



N 



Non-synchronous areas. Classification of — „. 
Northern Shan States. Report on operations in — 
Northern Shan States. Non-svnchronous areas 



Estimated areas in — 
Omitted areas in — 



Northern Shan States. 

Northern Shan States. 

Norway. Density of population in — 

Norway. Death rate in — 

Nottingham. Comparison of — with Rangoon. 



iS4 
116 
188 
188 

84 
20 

99 

•34 

140 

116 

20 

liii 

76 

126 

60 



60 

229 

xl 
124 

90 
134 
134 
225 

7 

96 
liii 

77 
189 
xxxiii 
xxxvi 

38 

31 
112 
181 

53 
116 
189 
134 

39 

53 
16S 
xxviii 

xxi 

37 
xxiii 

lxi 
37 

xlvi 
7 



5 

lxii 

6 

6 
6 

22 
34 
27 



Occupations, agricultural ... 

Occupations. Entry of— on slips ... . 

Omission of females, infirm, &c, from schedules , 



208 
18 
74 



Omitted areas 
Overcrowding in Rangoon 



5 
27 



Padaungs. The 

Pagoda festivals — «• . 

Pakdkku district. Report on operations in— . 

Pakdkku Chin Hills. Report on operations m- 

Palaung tribes 

Palaung language 

Palaung character 

Palaung Nat-worship ... . *" . 

Pantanaw town. Report on operations in— 

Pantanaw town. Decrease of population in— . 

Panthays. The— 

Panthays, origin of their name 



178 
16 
xxxix 
Ixxvi 
183 
137 
183 

5° 
xxiii 

38 
194 
194 



Paraiyan caste ... ... , 

Parsi religion 

Partially agricultural population ... 

Paungde Municipality. Report on operations in — 

Pegu district. Report on operations in — 

Pegu district. High rate of increase in — 

Pegu district. Non-synchronous area in — 

Pegu Municipality. Report on operations in — ... 

Polygamy. Effect of -on returns of civil condition 

Polytonic languages. Mr. Eales' — 

Ponnas 

Population. Density of — 



160 

63 
211 
xviii 

xii 

37 
7. 

xiii 

83 

96 

197 

22 



IV. 



INDEX. 



Population. Distribution of— 

Population. Movement of— 

Population. Relation of — to rainfall 

Porta. Census in — 

Posting Department in Abstraction office 

Potters 

Preliminary enumeration ... 

Preliminary enumeration. Test of — 

Priesthood. Power of — in Burma 

Prisoners 

Private schedules 



3» 

20 
11 

18 

220 

14 

IS 

46 

233 
13 



Prome district. Report on operations in — 
Prome district. Emigration from — 
Prome district. Decline of population in— 
Prome Town. Report on operations in — 
Provisional totals ... ... 

Publications. Vernacular — 

Punjabi language 

Pwo dialect of Karen 

Pwo tribe of Karens ... ... ... 

Pyinmana Municipality. Report on operations in — 



xv» 

37 

37. 
xvu 

17 

143 
141 
132 

•77 

Ix 



Railway. Census on— .... ... . 

Rainfall and population. Connection between—. 

Rangoon city. Report on operations in — 

Rangoon city. Overcrowding in — 

Rangoon city. Density of population in — 

Rangoon city. Low proportion of females in — .. 

Rangoon city. Literacy in — 

Red ink for final enumeration 

Red Karens 

Reddi, caste 

Register. General village — ... 

Register. General town — 

Registered buildings in Rangoon 

Religion. Education by — 



11 

20 
viii 
27 
27 

73 

90,91 

16 

178 
162 

3 
ro 

29 
92 



Re-marriage of widows ... 
Riang tribes 
Riang language forms 

Ruby Mines district. Report on operations in — 
Non-synchronous areaslin — 
High proportion of males 



Ruby Mines district. 
Ruby Mines district. 



Rumai or Palaungs 

Rural areas. Movement into and from — 

Rural population. Distribution of — 

Russia. Density of population in — 

Russia. Birth-rate in — ... 

Russia. Death-rate in — 



8r 
192 

137 

xlix 

7 

74 

183 
41 
23 

22 

33 

34 



Sagaing district. Report on operations in — 

Sak. Connection of — with Kadu 

Salaries. Debit of — 

Salin. Decrease of population in — 

Salween district. Report on operations in — 

Salween district. Excess of males in — 

Sandoway district. Report on operations in — • .., 

Sandoway district. Yoma Chin of — 

Sassans. The — 

Sawngtiing Karens. The — 

Schedules, general 

Schedules, household 

Schedules, private 

Schedules. Binding of — ... 

Schedules, despatch of, to Abstraction office 

Scott, Sir George, on Hpon 

Scott, Sir George, on Kadus 

Scott, Sir George, on Shans 

Scott, Sir George, on Shan and Chinese languages 

Sects, Burmese Buddhist ... 

Sects, Christian — „. 

Selungs, the 

Selung or Sel&n language ... 

Sergi, Pofessor, on methods of study ... 

Sexes. Proportion of — 

Sgaw dialect of Karen 

Sgaw tribe of Karens 

Shan, origin of name 

Shan. Forms of — 

Shan race. Cradle of— ... 

Shan States. Non-synchronous areas in — 

Shan States. Estimated areas in — ... 

Shan States. Omitted areas in — 

Shans. The— 

Shendus, same as " Yindus " 

Shoe-makers 

Shop-keepers 

Shvvebo district. Report on operations in— 

Shwegyin Municipality. Report on operations in — 



lii 

124 

19 

39 

xxxi 

73 
vii 

124 

173 

178 

13 

13 

13 

13 

18 
114 
185 
175 
>3i 

45 

56 
196 
140 
166 

72 
132 

177 

176 
127 

175 
6 
6 
6 

175 
123 
223 
225 
li 



Shwegyin Municipality. Decrease of population 

in — 
Siamese. The — 
Siamese-Chinese sub-family 
Sikhism ... ... 

Silk weavers, &c 

Singphos or Kachins 

Siyin language 

Siyin tribe 

Siyin legend 

Slavery among Kachins and Chins ... 

Slip system of abstraction 

Smeaton, Mr. D. M., on Karens 

Social factors in movement of population 

Sokte language 

Sokte tribe 

Sorting Department in Abstraction office 

Southern Shan States. Report on operations in — 

Southern Shan States. Non-synchronous areas in — 

Southern Shan States. Estimated areas in — ... 

Specimen schedule 

Spirit worship in Burma ... 

Staff. Strength of — Abstraction 

Stationery. Supply and distribution of — 

Stirling, Mr. G. C. B., on proportion of females 

among Kachins. 
Stirling, Mr. G. C. B., on Southward movement 

of Kachins. 
Sub-deltaic natural division 
Summary. Circle ... „. 

Summary. Charge ,,. ... 

Summary. District 

Supervisor. Definition of — ... ... 

Supervisor. Duties of — .,. ... 

Supervisors' Manual ... ... ... 

Sweden. Density of population in — ... 

Synchronous areas. Extension of — 

Szi tribes 

Szi language ... ... ... 



33 

176 

125 

61 

218 

173 
120 
180 
180 
180, 173 

18 

47 

35 
120 
180 

18 

Ixvi 
6 
6 

13 

5° 

18 

13 

74 

173 

20 

17 

17 

17 

10 

10 

11 

22 

7 

»73 

"3 



Tabulating Department in Abstraction office 

Tabulation sheet 

Tai language group 

Talakus or Bapaws 

Talaing language 

Talaing race 

Talaing, origin of name ... 

Talaing, connection with Palaung 

Talaing. Literacy in — ... 

Tamans, the 

Tamil language 



18 
18 
126 
52 
136 
172 
172 
101 

94 
187 
141 



Tarengs or Maingtha 

Tashon tribe 

Tashon language 

Tattooing 

Tau ngtha language 

Taungth a tribes 

Taungthu|race 

Taungthu language 

Taungthus. Nat-worship among — 

Taungya-cutters .,, 



174 
180 
121 
231 

123 
181 
182 
132 

50 
209. 



INDEX. 



Taungyo language 

Taungyo tribes 

Tavoy District. Report on operations in — 

Tavoy district. Non-synchronous areas in — 

Tavoy town. Influx of population into — 

Tavoyan dialect 

Taw Sein Kho, Mr., on Burmese Buddhism 

Taw Sein Kho, Mr., on Panthays 

Taw Sein Kho, Mr., on Burmese sects 

Taws. The — 

Telegrams communicating provisional totals 

Tel ugu language 

Thado language 

Thado tribe. ... 

Tharrawaddy district Report on operations in — 

That6n district. Report on operations in — 

That6n district. Non-synchronous areas in— ... 

That6n Municipality. Report on operations in — 

Thayetmyo district. Report on operations in — 

Thayetmyo district Decline in population in — ... 



no 

182 
xxxvi 
7 

3S 
i°5 

44 
"94 

45 
1 86 

17 
141 
1 20 
1 So 

xiii 
xxxii 

7 
xxxiii 
xxxviii 

37 



Thayetmyo district. Emigration from — 

Thets, connection with Kadus 

ThAngwa district. Report on operations in — . 

Thong wa district. High rate of increase in — . 

Thonze Municipality. Report on operations in- 

Thugaungs in Minbu district 

Tibetan. Connection of— with Burmese 

Tibeto-Burman sub-family 

Tones in language 

Tones. Origin cf — 

Totals, Provisional 

Totemism 

Toungoo district Report on operations in — 

Toungoo town. Decrease of population in — 

Towns. Population of— 

Towns. Definition of — ... 

Towns. Growth of foreign element in — 

Training of Census officers 

Translation of forms, &c. 



37 
18S 
xxiv 

37 

XV 

153 

I(i2 

I 01 

96 

99 
17 
200 
xxix 
38 
23 
10 

4i 
12 
11 



u 



Unadjusted age returns. Smoothing of — 
Unmarried. Increase in the total of — 
Upper Burma natural divisions 
Upper Burma wet division 
Upper Burma dry division 
Upper Chindwin district. Report on operations in — 
Upper Chindwin district. Non-synchronous areas 
in — 



69 
80 
20 
20 
20 
liv 
7 



Upper Chindwin district. Literacy in the — 
Urban areas. Movement to and from — 
Urban areas on the Continent 
Urban population. General decrease of — in Up- 
per Burma 
Urban population. Distribution of — 



90 
41 

25 

39 
2 3 



Village. Average number of inhabitants in e